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Bacteria Study Guide



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The earliest known group of living organisms on Earth was
a.
viruses.
c.
bacteria.
b.
fungi.
d.
protists.
 

 2. 

Bacteria and archaea are the only organisms characterized as
a.
unicellular.
c.
eukaryotic.
b.
prokaryotic.
d.
photosynthetic.
 

 3. 

Bacteria can be classified according to their
a.
type of cell walls.
b.
methods of obtaining energy.
c.
Gram-staining characteristics.
d.
All of the above
 
 
nar001-1.jpg
 

 4. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which of the organisms shown has the shape called bacillus?
a.
organism 1
c.
organism 3
b.
organism 2
d.
None of the above
 

 5. 

Refer to the illustration above. The shape represented by organism 3 is called
a.
coccus.
c.
bacillus.
b.
spirillum.
d.
filamentous.
 

 6. 

When tested with a Gram stain, Gram-positive bacteria are stained
a.
green.
c.
pink.
b.
yellow.
d.
purple.
 

 7. 

Bacteria lack a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles; therefore, they are classified as
a.
prokaryotes.
c.
anaerobes.
b.
aerobes.
d.
eukaryotes.
 

 8. 

The cytoplasm of bacteria
a.
contains numerous types of organelles.
b.
is divided into compartments.
c.
has varying numbers of chromosomes, depending on the species of bacteria.
d.
contains a single chromosome.
 

 9. 

Which of the following comparisons is incorrect?

 PROKARYOTES      EUKARYOTES
a.
smaller      larger
b.
circular chromosomes      linear chromosomes
c.
binary fission      mitosis
d.
chloroplasts      mitochondria
 

 10. 

One difference between human body cells and bacterial cells is that bacterial cells have
a.
an outer cell wall made up of phosphates.
b.
a cell wall made up of peptidoglycan.
c.
no DNA.
d.
no ribosomes.
 

 11. 

Structures found in a eukaryotic cell but not in a bacterial cell are
a.
cell nuclei.
b.
multiple chromosomes.
c.
membrane-bound organelles.
d.
All of the above
 

 12. 

Which of the following might be found in the cytoplasm of a bacterial cell?
a.
chloroplasts
c.
mitochondria
b.
Golgi apparatus
d.
None of the above
 

 13. 

Bacterial cells
a.
have a cell wall only.
b.
have a cell membrane only.
c.
have both a cell membrane and cell wall.
d.
have a cell wall inside their cell membrane.
 

 14. 

One thing that E. coli and other bacteria have in common with eukaryotes is the presence of
a.
chloroplasts.
c.
nuclei.
b.
mitochondria.
d.
DNA.
 

 15. 

Bacterial endospores
a.
occur where there is plenty of available food.
b.
allow certain species to survive harsh environmental conditions.
c.
are similar to human tumors.
d.
can cause growth abnormalities in plants.
 

 16. 

Which of the following are used by at least some bacteria for movement?
a.
pili
b.
flagella
c.
cytoplasmic projections
d.
All of the above
 

 17. 

phototrophic bacteria : sunlight ::
a.
chemotrophic bacteria : dead organisms
b.
chemoautotrophic bacteria : inorganic molecules
c.
photosynthesis : nitrification
d.
heterotrophic bacteria : inorganic molecules
 

 18. 

Which of the following conditions would be unsuitable for any kind of bacteria to grow?
a.
temperature of 110ºC (230ºF)
b.
absence of oxygen
c.
pH of 5
d.
None of the above
 

 19. 

Prokaryotes can transfer pieces of genetic material in a process called
a.
binary fission.
c.
conjugation.
b.
mitosis.
d.
sexual reproduction.
 

 20. 

During the process of transduction
a.
a virus obtains DNA from a host bacterium.
b.
a bacterial cell takes in DNA from the external environment.
c.
one bacterium transfers DNA to another.
d.
two bacteria exchange DNA.
 

 21. 

A pathogen is an agent that is
a.
beneficial to humans.
b.
harmful only to plants.
c.
harmful to living organisms.
d.
nearly extinct.
 

 22. 

Which of the following foods is not a fermentation product of bacteria?
a.
sour cream
c.
milk
b.
a pickle
d.
yogurt
 

 23. 

Antibiotics
a.
include penicillin and tetracycline.
b.
may prevent bacteria from making new cell walls.
c.
can be effective treatments for bacterial diseases.
d.
All of the above
 

 24. 

All of the following are habitats of archaea except
a.
volcanic vents.
b.
intestinal tract of cows.
c.
salt lakes.
d.
human skin.
 

 25. 

Which of the following is not a way of preventing a foodborne illness at home?
a.
washing kitchen utensils thoroughly in cold water
b.
keeping cooked and raw foods separate during storage
c.
washing fresh fruits and vegetables before eating them
d.
refrigerating leftovers promptly
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 26. 

A spiral bacterium is called a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 27. 

Spherical bacteria are called ____________________.
 

 

 28. 

Rod-shaped bacteria are called ____________________.
 

 

 29. 

The procedure used to distinguish between two types of bacterial cell wall composition is called ____________________.
 

 

 30. 

Protective structures that some bacteria may form under harsh conditions are ____________________.
 

 

 31. 

The cell walls of bacteria are composed of a combination of polysaccharide and polypeptide called ____________________.
 

 

 32. 

Bacteria that obtain their energy from inorganic molecules, rather than from the sun, are called ____________________ bacteria.
 

 

 33. 

In general, organisms that obtain their energy from sunlight are called ____________________.
 

 

 34. 

Bacteria that get carbon from other organisms are called ____________________.
 

 

 35. 

A(n) ____________________ is a substance that can be obtained from bacteria or fungi and can be used as a drug to fight pathogenic bacteria.
 

 

 36. 

Many bacteria are ____________________ and must have oxygen to live, whereas other bacteria are ____________________ and cannot live where oxygen is present.
 

 

 37. 

Bacteria that can survive either with or without oxygen are called _________________________.
 

 

 38. 

Archaea are more closely related to ____________________ than they are to ____________________.
 

 

 39. 

____________________ are poisons that can cause disease when bacteria secrete them into their environment.
 

 

 40. 

The evolution of populations of pathogenic bacteria that antibiotics cannot kill is called _________________________.
 

 



 
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