Cell Division

Section 8-1 Chromosomes

1. What molecule in cells stores the genetic information?

2. DNA is built of billions of subunits called __________________________.

3. What are chromosomes, & when can they be seen?

4. What is the shape of chromosomes, & what 2 things are they made of?

5. Each chromosome is a single ________________ molecule with ____________________.

6. What is the purpose of histones?

7. What is the purpose of nonhistone proteins?

8. Chromosomes consist of two identical _____________________ called _________________.

9. What is a centromere?

10. Draw and label the parts of a chromosome.

11. Chromatids _______________________ during cell division so the two new cells will each
        receive _________________ chromatid.

12. How does DNA appear in a cell between cell divisions?

13. What is chromatin & when does it exist in cells?

14. How many chromosomes do prokaryotes have?

15. How many chromosomes do each of these organisms have:
        a. humans?
        b. dog?
        c. fruit fly?

16. What are the two categories of chromosomes?

17. Give 2 functions of the sex chromosomes.

18. Name the 2 sex chromosomes & tell what combination determines a male and a female organism.

19. What are autosomes & how many autosomes are in human cells?

20. What are homologous chromosomes & how do they compare to each other?

21. What is a karyotype?

22. In a human karyotype, where would each of these be found:
       a. sex chromosomes?
       b. longest homologs?
       c. autosomes?

23. What is the main difference between diploid & haploid cells?

24. What type of cells in human would be diploid? Haploid?

25. How are diploid cells abbreviated? Haploid cells?

26. When a haploid (1n) ______________________ cell combines with a haploid
       _______________________ cell, the new cell will be ______________________
      or ____________________________.

Section 8-2 Cell Division

27. All cells are derived from ___________________________________.

28. What is cell division?

29. Define binary fission.

30. Describe the stages in binary fission of a prokaryote.

31. How do the two new cells compare to each other after binary fission? How do they compare to the original cell?

32. What two main cellular parts must be divided in eukaryotic cell division?

33. Name the 2 types of cell division in eukaryotes.

34. Define mitosis.

35. What type of cell uses mitosis?

36. What effect does meiosis have on the chromosome number of a cell?

37. How do the cells produced by meiosis reestablish a complete set of chromosomes?

38. What is the cell cycle?

39. Draw & label all parts of the cell cycle. (Figure 8-5, page 149)

40. What is the time between divisions in the life of a cell called?

41. How many phases is interphase divided into? Cell division?

42. Name the 2 parts of cell division.

43. What happens to the cell in each of these two parts of cell division?

44. In what stage do cells spend most of their time?

45. What is the size of cells immediately following cell division?

46. Name the 1st stage of interphase & tell what happens to the cell.

47. What stage of interphase do cells enter once they become mature?

48. What happens to a cell during the S phase of interphase?

49. What is the last stage of interphase called & what is happening to the cell?

50. What is the Go phase and what type of human cells are in this phase?

51. Name the 4 stages of mitosis in order.

52. What cellular part actually divides during mitosis?

53. Describe everything that happens to a cell during prophase.

54. Sketch and label a picture of a cell in prophase.

55. What are centrosomes & when do they appear?

56. What type of cell has centrosomes?

57. What is found inside centrosomes?

58. Are centrioles found in both plant & animal cells? Explain.

59. What forms from centrioles & what is their function?

60. Name the 2 types of fibers that make up the mitotic spindle & describe each one.

61. Describe everything that happens to a cell during metaphase.

62. Sketch & label a cell during metaphase.

63. Describe everything that happens to a cell during anaphase.

64. Sketch and label a cell during anaphase.

65. Describe everything that happens to a cell during telophase.

66. Sketch & label an animal cell during telophase.

67. Mitosis is division of the _______________________, while ________________________
       is the division of the cytoplasm.

68. Define cytokinesis.

69. Describe how cytokinesis occurs in animal cells & include a drawing (figure 8-7, page 151)

70. The ____________________ pinches a dividing animal cell into two new cells by the action
       of ______________________________.

71. How does the cell plate from during cytokinesis of a plant cell?

72. Sketch and label a plant cell during cytokinesis (figure 8-8, page 151)

73. How do the new cells formed after mitosis & cytokinesis compare in size & chromosome number to each other and the original cell that divided?

74. The original cell that divides is called the _______________________ cell, while the
       two new cells are called ____________________ cells. (from lecture)

Section 8-3 Meiosis

75. What is meiosis?

76. What type of cell undergoes meiosis?

77. Meiosis produces ___________________ reproductive cells called ____________________.

78. Name the 2 human gametes & tell their chromosome number.

79. What is the chromosome number for humans?

80. The fusion of a _________________ and an _____________ produces a
       ________________ with 46 (2n) chromosome number.

81. Cells starting mitosis & meiosis begin with a ____________________ set of chromosomes.

82. How many times do cells divide during meiosis?

83. What are the stages of meiosis called?

84. Explain what happens during Meiosis I to each of these structures:
       a. chromosomes?
       b. spindle?
       c. nucleus?
       d. nucleolus?

85. What is synapsis & when does it occur?

86. What is a tetrad?

87. How are genes aligned on homologous chromosomes?

88. Explain what happens during crossing-over?

89. Sketch and color a picture of chromosomes during crossing-over. (Figure 8-10, page 154)

90. What type of material is exchanged during crossing-over?

91. Crossing over results in genetic _______________________________.

92. Draw a cell during anaphase I and explain what is occurring.

93. What is independent assortment & what result does it produce?

94. Name 2 things that occur during telophase I.

95. How many cells are formed at the end of Meiosis I & how many copies of chromosomes does each cell have?

96. Is DNA copied before Meiosis II?

97. How many cells form at the end of Meiosis II and how many chromosomes do they contain?

98. In humans, meiosis occurs in the ___________________ and in the __________________
       producing cells called ________________________.

99. Define spermatogenesis & tell where it occurs.

100. Sketch spermatogenesis (Figure 8-12a, page 155).

101. What are spermatids & how many form from meiosis?

102. Define oogenesis & tell where it occurs.

103. Sketch oogenesis (Figure 8-12B, Page 155).

104. Mature egg cells are called ___________________.

105. Explain how only one egg cell is formed instead of four from meiosis.

106. What are the 3 other products of meiosis called?

107. Define asexual reproduction.

108. Name 2 types of asexual reproduction.

109. Name a type of asexual reproduction in unicellular organisms.

110. How do the offspring of asexual reproduction compare to their parents?

111. Define sexual reproduction.

112. How do offspring from sexual reproduction compare to their parents?

113. Is there ever a case in sexual reproduction where offspring can be genetically alike? Explain.

114. What is the evolutionary advantage of sexual reproduction?