Cellular Respiration

Section 7-1 Glycolysis & Fermentation

1. What organisms trap sunlight & store it in carbohydrates?

2. What 2 organisms break down carbohydrates to release energy from cells?

3. What is the main energy currency of a cell?

4. Define cellular respiration.

5. What process begins cellular respiration & does it produce much ATP?

6. If there is no oxygen in cells, the products of glycolysis enter ________________________
     pathways that yield no additional ______________________.

7. Fermentation is __________________________ because no oxygen is used.

8. If oxygen is present in cells, the glycolysis products enter the ______________________
     respiration pathway.

9. Does aerobic respiration produce much ATP?

10. What simple sugar starts glycolysis?

11. In glycolysis, glucose is broken into 2 molecules of _______________________ acid
       in the ______________________ of the cell.

12. In which part of the cell does fermentation occur? Is oxygen involved?

13. Name the 2 types of fermentation.

14. __________________________ acid fermentation helps make cheese & yogurt and also
       occurs in _______________________ cells during heavy exercise.

15. What effect does lactic acid have on muscle cells?

16. Yeasts carry on what type of fermentation?

17. What alcohol is made in alcoholic fermentation?

18. Table _____________________________ and ____________________ are made by yeasts
       during alcoholic fermentation.

19. One molecule of sugar produces _________________ kilocalories of energy.

20. _______________________________ respiration, like glycolysis, produces less energy than
       ____________________________ respiration of pyruvic acid.

Section 7-2 Aerobic Respiration

21. Aerobic respiration requires what gas?

22. How much more ATP does aerobic respiration produce than glycolysis alone?

23. Name the 2 major stages of aerobic respiration.

24. What is completed in the Krebs cycle?

25. The energy carrier NAD+ is reduced to what substance?

26. Which part of aerobic respiration makes most of the ATP (cellís energy)?

27. Where does aerobic respiration take place in prokaryotes?

28. Where do these reactions take place in eukaryotes?

29. What is the mitochondrial matrix & what product of glycolysis diffuses into this matrix?

30. What is found inside the mitochondrial matrix to help catalyze the reactions of the Krebs cycle?

31. What is acetyl CoA & to what does it combine?

32. Define Krebs cycle.

33. The first acid produced in the Krebs cycle is _________________ acid. (Diagram p. 135)

34. Two energy carriers are reduced in the Krebs cycle; ________________becomes NADH
       and _________________ becomes FADH.

35. Is any ATP made in the Krebs cycle?

36. What gas is a waste product produced in the Krebs cycle?

37. The _________________________________ is the second part of aerobic respiration.

38. Where does the ETS take place in eukaryotic cells?

39. _________________________ is made in the ETS when NADH and FADH2 release
       ______________________ ions.

40. What gas serves as the final acceptor of electrons in the ETS (electron transport system)?

41. Write the equation for this gas accepting electrons at the end of the ETS (see page 137).

42. What is the final product of the ETS?

43. How many ATPís of energy are made during glycolysis?

44. How many ATPís of energy are made during the Krebs cycle?

45. Each FADH can generate how many ATPís of energy?

46. Each NADH can generate how many ATPís of energy?

47. _______________________ NADH molecules & ______________________ FADH
       molecules are made by aerobic respiration.

48. How many ATP molecules are made by the electron transport system?

49. What is the maximum number of ATP molecules that can be produced from each glucose molecule?

50. Write the summary equation for cellular respiration.