1. When cells are treated with certain chemicals, it causes the plasma membrane to __________ or lyse.
2. DNA can be pulled out of cells because it is ________________ and can be ______________.
3. Describe the appearance of DNA spooled from cells.
4. What may be used to cut DNA into smaller pieces?
5. Do all restriction enzymes cut DNA at the same place?
6. What 2 properties can be used to separate DNA fragments?
7. Why does DNA have a negative charge?
8. To separate DNA fragments, it is placed in a ____________ with a current of _____________ running through it.
9. This process is called ____________________.
10. What determines the direction DNA will move in a gel?
11. Which fragments move further and faster?
12. DNA fragments are loaded into depression on the gel called _____________.
13. The DNA gel floats in a chamber covered with a ____________ solution.
14. DNA fragments closest to the wells are ___________ in size, while the __________ DNA fragments are further from the wells.
Steps in DNA Sequencing
15. Many copies of a ______________ of DNA are placed in a test tube and ________________ is added to begin the process.
16. What else must be added?
17. How are the different nucleotide bases marked or tagged?
18. Dyed and _____________ nucleotides are added, but the large __________ molecules stop the chain from growing producing DNA fragments of _______________ sizes.
19. The fragments make banding patterns on an electrophoresis gel of different _____________ that can be identified.
20. The separated fragments are then read by _____________ from the ________ of the gel to the top.
21. Define PCR and tell what it stands for.
22. To make many copies of DNA, DNA polymerase is added that can work at very high _______________.
23. DNA is _____________ to separate the two strands.
24. What is added next to the test tube of DNA and DNA polymerase?
25. What are primers?
26. When the tube is cooled, DNA polymerase adds new ___________ to the separated DNA strands.
27. Even though a small amount of DNA is used to start PCR, ___________ amounts of DNA can be copied.
28. What is a clone?
29. Clones may be produced by _____________ reproduction.
30. What two types of cells are combined in order to clone an organism?
31. Once a body cell fuses to an egg cell, the cell divides like a normal _____________.
32. What was the first successfully cloned organism?
Human Genome Project
33. When was the project started?
34. What is the goal of the project?
35. How many nucleotides approximately make up the human genome? How many chromosomes?
36. Who is mapping the genes on the human chromosomes?
37. From working on the Human Genome project, scientists have discovered that only about ________ actually codes for proteins; these genes are called _____________.
38. What is the other 98% or non-coding genes of DNA known as?
39. How many genes have been found on DNA? Is this more or less than the expected number?
40. What are SNP's that the scientists found?
41. Define proteome.
42. Human Genome researchers discovered transposons. What are these structures?
43. The Human Genome Project was produced an area of science known as bioinformatics. how is this helpful in sequencing DNA?
44. Define biotechnology.
45. Give an example of an agricultural crop grown in this area that has been improved by genetic engineering.
46. What product was 1st made in 1982 by genetic engineering to help diabetics?
47. Explain how biotechnology has improved each of these fruits or vegetables:
48. Give 4 ways biotechnology has helped the environment.