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Chapter 1 Introduction Study Guide



Modified True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.  If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true.
 

 1. 

Accepting ideas is the cornerstone of scientific thought. _________________________

 

 2. 

Skepticism is a habit of mind in which a person accepts the validity of accepted ideas. _________________________

 

 3. 

The law of gravity and the law of conservation of energy are national laws. _________________________

 

 4. 

Scientific investigations require ethical behavior. _________________________

 

 5. 

Most scientific investigations begin with observations that lead to universal laws. _________________________

 

 6. 

A hypothesis is a possible explanation that can be tested by observation or experimentation. _________________________

 

 7. 

The control group and the experimental group are identical except for one variable. _________________________

 

 8. 

A hypothesis is a general explanation for a broad range of data. _________________________

 

 9. 

International System of Units (SI) is the official name of the metric system. _________________________

 

 10. 

A centimeter is equal to 10 millimeters. _________________________

 

 11. 

Light and electron autoclaves help magnify objects. _________________________

 

 12. 

A technique is a way of doing something. _________________________

 

 13. 

In the event of a lab accident, one thing you should always do is remain calm. _________________________

 

 14. 

Biology is the study of nonliving things. _________________________

 

 15. 

A student who wants to study bacteria would take microbiology classes. _________________________

 

 16. 

Reproduction insures ongoing generations of both one-celled organisms and frogs. _________________________

 

 17. 

Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal environment in spite of changes in the external environment. _________________________

 

 18. 

The bacterium that causes cholera is an example of a pathogen. _________________________

 

 19. 

Scientists discovered that predicting the spread of cholera involves understanding reproductive behavior of plankton. _________________________

 

 20. 

The study of all the factors in the spread of cholera in human populations is an example of ecology. _________________________

 

 21. 

Scientists in the 21st century are better able to prevent disease because of their improved understanding of biology. _________________________

 

 22. 

The completion of the Human Genome Project was one minor contribution to the ability to cure disease. _________________________

 

 23. 

Scientists expect people to live longer lives because of advances in the science of biology. _________________________

 

 24. 

The application of technology to medicine has greatly increased the ability of people to live healthy lives. _________________________

 

 25. 

Genetic engineering is the only practical application of biotechnology. _________________________

 

 26. 

Genetic engineering is widely used in agriculture to produce crops that are pest-resistant. _________________________

 

 27. 

Surrounding a drug compound with a layer of atoms that allows for the slow release of the drug is an example of genetic engineering. _________________________

 

 28. 

Making a new kind of fastener modeled on the way an aquatic animal fastens onto rocks on the ocean floor is an example of nanotechnology. _________________________

 

 29. 

Biometrics involves analyzing large amounts of data on biological characteristics. _________________________

 

 30. 

Unique genetic traits, such as hair color, are the most important source of data for biometrics. _________________________

 

 31. 

Advances in biotechnology have been slowed by ethical concerns. _________________________

 

 32. 

The ethics of different kinds of biotechnology will be decided by individuals and scientists. _________________________

 

 33. 

One good way to protect the environment is to learn more about it. _________________________

 

 34. 

Environmental science involves neither the study of organisms nor their physical surroundings. _________________________

 

 35. 

One reason that wildlife biologists collect DNA samples from endangered species is the hope that these species can be cloned if they become extinct. _________________________

 

 36. 

Genetic engineering is used to track the movements of animals in the wild. _________________________

 

 37. 

Community environmental groups make problems for environmental research. _________________________

 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 38. 

Which of the following do scientists not use to support ideas?
a.
opinions
c.
experiments
b.
evidence
d.
investigations
 

 39. 

Which of the following applies to all branches of science?
a.
cell organization
c.
gravity
b.
earthquakes
d.
reproduction
 

 40. 

Which of the following is unethical behavior in scientific investigations?
a.
allowing peers to review investigations
b.
following guidelines for medical experiments
c.
reporting inaccurate data
d.
basing investigations on someone else’s work
 

 41. 

Scientific thinking can be used
a.
only by scientists.
c.
by all living things.
b.
only in experiments.
d.
by everyone in daily life.
 

 42. 

A scientist noticed that the number of salamanders in ponds in the Rocky Mountains was declining. This was a(n)
a.
hypothesis.
c.
observation.
b.
theory.
d.
control.
 

 43. 

A hypothesis is a
a.
definite answer to a given problem.
b.
testable possible explanation of an observation.
c.
proven statement.
d.
concluding statement.
 

 44. 

observation : hypothesis ::
a.
theory : observation
c.
certainty : prediction
b.
guess : hypothesis
d.
hypothesis : investigation
 

 45. 

Most typically, the order in which the steps of scientific investigations are applied is
a.
controlled experiment, hypothesis, analysis of results, observations, questions, conclusions.
b.
observations, controlled experiment, hypothesis, analysis of results, conclusions, questions.
c.
observations, questions, hypothesis, controlled experiment, analysis of results, conclusions.
d.
questions, observations, analysis of results, controlled experiment, conclusions, hypothesis.
 

 46. 

If experiments are not possible or ethical, scientists
a.
cannot test a hypothesis.
b.
test more than one variable at a time.
c.
do not use a control group.
d.
look for connections in data gathered.
 

 47. 

Scientific hypotheses are most often tested by the process of
a.
communicating.
c.
experimenting.
b.
inferring.
d.
analyzing data.
 

 48. 

A planned procedure to test a hypothesis is called a(n)
a.
prediction.
c.
control.
b.
experiment.
d.
variable.
 

 49. 

The variable that is measured in an experiment is the _____ variable.
a.
dependent
c.
control
b.
independent
d.
experimental
 

 50. 

A general explanation for a broad range of data is called a
a.
hypothesis.
c.
prediction.
b.
theory.
d.
controlled experiment.
 

 51. 

A scientific theory is
a.
absolutely certain and never questioned.
b.
unchangeable.
c.
revised as new evidence is presented.
d.
a controlled experiment.
 

 52. 

Scientists build theories from many
a.
experiments that support hypotheses.
b.
hypotheses that are rejected.
c.
experiments with different variables.
d.
untested ideas.
 

 53. 

The metric system of measurement is based on powers of
a.
1.
c.
100.
b.
10.
d.
1000.
 

 54. 

A specialized tool used to magnify organisms so that they can be observed is a
a.
pipet.
c.
satellite.
b.
microscope.
d.
laminar-flow hood.
 

 55. 

Which of the following would scientists use to prevent contamination in an experiment?
a.
electron microscope
c.
remote collection of data
b.
light microscope
d.
sterile technique
 

 56. 

Which of the following is the most recent tool available to scientists?
a.
remote tracking devices
c.
autoclaves
b.
microscopes
d.
sterilized pipets
 

 57. 

You can work safely in the science lab by
a.
taking shortcuts in procedures.
b.
waiting until the end of experiments to clean area.
c.
estimating measurements of chemicals.
d.
following all instructions.
 

 58. 

All of the following are important for working safely in a science laboratory except
a.
tasting chemicals.
c.
working cautiously.
b.
measuring chemicals precisely.
d.
wearing safety goggles.
 

 59. 

Biology is the study of
a.
life.
c.
weather.
b.
minerals.
d.
energy.
 

 60. 

The branch of biology that is the study of the human body is
a.
ecology.
c.
cell biology.
b.
evolutionary theory.
d.
physiology.
 

 61. 

Which of the following is not one of the seven properties of life?
a.
metabolism
c.
responsiveness
b.
homeostasis
d.
photosynthesis
 

 62. 

As a characteristic of all living things, homeostasis relates most directly to which of the following biological themes?
a.
interacting systems
c.
stability
b.
scale and structure
d.
evolution
 

 63. 

chemical reactions : metabolism ::
a.
cells : an organism
c.
reproduction : living
b.
heredity : homeostasis
d.
experimentation : observation
 

 64. 

All living things maintain a balance within their cells and with the environment through the process of
a.
growth.
c.
homeostasis.
b.
development.
d.
evolution.
 

 65. 

The energy that drives metabolism in animals comes from
a.
homeostasis.
c.
water.
b.
food.
d.
heredity.
 

 66. 

Children tend to resemble their parents due to
a.
heredity.
c.
metabolism.
b.
responsiveness.
d.
homeostasis.
 

 67. 

A field of sunflowers facing the sun is an example of
a.
metabolism.
c.
responsiveness.
b.
growth.
d.
heredity.
 

 68. 

The changes in human babies during their first year of life is an example of
a.
heredity.
c.
evolution.
b.
responsiveness.
d.
development.
 

 69. 

Filtering contaminated water through a sari is
a.
an ineffective way to reduce cases of cholera.
b.
the best way to prevent the spread of cholera.
c.
a low-tech solution to reducing cases of cholera.
d.
another factor that causes cholera to spread rapidly.
 

 70. 

All of the following should be researched in studying the epidemiology of waterborne diseases except the
a.
genomes of the pathogens.
b.
habitat of pathogens.
c.
food chain of the pathogens.
d.
environmental factors that affect pathogens.
 

 71. 

One of the most important tools in preventing the spread of disease is
a.
computer modeling.
c.
genetic engineering.
b.
DNA fingerprinting.
d.
giving vaccinations.
 

 72. 

computer modeling : epidemiology ::
a.
genetics : DNA fingerprinting
b.
cloning : biotechnology
c.
genome : vaccination
d.
human health : disease prevention
 

 73. 

Which of the following terms is used to refer to a piece of equipment made for a specific use?
a.
process
c.
device
b.
cure
d.
treatment
 

 74. 

Which of the following is least likely to help humans live longer?
a.
epidemiology
c.
genetics
b.
medicine
d.
DNA fingerprinting
 

 75. 

knowledge of biology : human potential ::
a.
assistive technologies : everyday lives
b.
human potential : epidemiology
c.
populations : disease outbreaks
d.
genomes : genetics
 

 76. 

The technology of changing the genetic material of a living cell is called
a.
biometrics.
c.
genetics.
b.
genetic engineering.
d.
DNA fingerprinting.
 

 77. 

Planting Bt corn helps farmers decrease the use of
a.
fertilizers.
c.
pesticides.
b.
herbicides.
d.
cultivators.
 

 78. 

All of the following are known advantages of planting Bt corn except it
a.
adds some bacterial genes to food supplies.
b.
lowers a farmer’s cost of production.
c.
improves a farmer’s crop yield.
d.
reduces chemical contaminants in the environment.
 

 79. 

The application of a biological structure or process to solve design problems is called
a.
adaptation.
c.
cloning.
b.
biomimetics.
d.
decoding.
 

 80. 

Which of these biotechnologies has the potential to repair tissues inside the body?
a.
biometrics
c.
epidemiology
b.
biomimetics
d.
nanotechnology
 

 81. 

clam shell formation : ceramics ::
a.
CAT scanning : modeling fossils
b.
strong fabrics : spider silk
c.
spider silk : strong fabrics
d.
modeling fossils : CAT scanning
 

 82. 

The analysis of biological traits to identify people is called
a.
arithmetics.
c.
genetics.
b.
biometrics.
d.
statistics.
 

 83. 

Which of the following traits of an individual would be most useful for identifying a victim in a forensic investigation?
a.
eye color
c.
blood type
b.
hair color
d.
DNA fingerprint
 

 84. 

The ethical concerns about biotechnology must be addressed by
a.
scientists only.
c.
both individuals and scientists.
b.
societies only.
d.
both individuals and societies.
 

 85. 

All of the following biotechnologies are considered by some to be unethical except
a.
biomimetic products.
c.
human stem cell research.
b.
biometrics data bases.
d.
genetically modified foods.
 

 86. 

Which of the following would be an unethical use of biometric data and methods?
a.
linking criminals to crime scenes
b.
eliminating innocent people from a list of criminal suspects
c.
excluding people with certain genes from getting jobs
d.
protecting citizens from bioterrorism
 

 87. 

Which of the following is considered to be one of the most important applications of biology?
a.
biometrics
c.
environmental science
b.
genetic engineering
d.
assistive technologies
 

 88. 

In order to make wise decisions about the use of natural resources, citizens will need to have a better understanding of
a.
biomimetics.
c.
environmental science.
b.
genetics.
d.
genetic engineering.
 

 89. 

ecology : environmental science ::
a.
biomolecules : strong glues
c.
forensics : biometrics
b.
genetics : genetic engineering
d.
spider silk : clam shells
 

 90. 

What do the initials GIS stand for?
a.
geological inference standard
c.
geographic information system
b.
genetic improvement survey
d.
global investigation society
 

 91. 

Satellite tagging is a technology that is most likely to be used in
a.
assisting the disabled.
c.
developing maps of the world.
b.
conservation of wildlife.
d.
tracking the spread of disease.
 

 92. 

Each of the following is a part of a GIS program except
a.
access to data from different sources.
b.
computer mapping.
c.
environmental databases.
d.
genetic analysis tools.
 

 93. 

Which of the following must be done before an environmental study is begun locally?
a.
contact several scientists
c.
identify a problem
b.
buy a GIS program
d.
gather up volunteers
 

 94. 

At the Raptor Rehabilitation Center, students in an environmental club help take care of injured and orphaned birds of prey. Based on this information, what does the term raptor refer to?
a.
a bird of prey
c.
orphaned wildlife
b.
the environment
d.
debilitating injury
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 95. 

The medical treatment for ulcers changed after scientists discovered that ____________________ cause stomach ulcers.
 

 

 96. 

The questioning and often doubtful attitude required for scientific thought is called ____________________.
 

 

 97. 

The truths that govern science and are valid everywhere in the universe are universal ____________________.
 

 

 98. 

____________________ are a system of moral principles and values.
 

 

 99. 

Most scientific investigations begin with ____________________ that lead to questions.
 

 

 100. 

A reason to set up an experiment is to test a ____________________.
 

 

 101. 

A(n) ____________________ experiment is a procedure that tests one factor at a time and that uses a(n) ____________________ group and an experimental group.
 

 

 102. 

In a controlled experiment, the ____________________ group is the group that has one variable changed.
 

 

 103. 

In an experiment, the ____________________ group receives no experimental treatment.
 

 

 104. 

Factors that may change as a result of experimental treatment are ____________________ variables.
 

 

 105. 

A(n) ____________________ is a specific, testable prediction for a limited set of conditions, and a(n) ____________________ is a general explanation for a broad range of data.
 

 

 106. 

Scientists use the ______________________________ system to make measurements.
 

 

 107. 

SI is the abbreviation for the ____________________ System of Units.
 

 

 108. 

The SI base unit for length is the ____________________.
 

 

 109. 

A kilogram is equal to ____________________ grams.
 

 

 110. 

In a light microscope, light passes through one or more ____________________ to produce an enlarged image of an object.
 

 

 111. 

Scientists use ____________________ techniques to minimize the risk of contamination.
 

 

 112. 

The study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the nonliving part of their environment is called ____________________.
 

 

 113. 

The branch of biology that studies the changes in types of organisms over time is called ___________________ theory.
 

 

 114. 

Scientists who study whales, bats, or bears in their natural habitat are called ____________________ biologists.
 

 

 115. 

The process of _________________ traits changing over time is called evolution.
 

 

 116. 

Every living organism is composed of one or more ____________________.
 

 

 117. 

All cells have the same basic ____________________.
 

 

 118. 

The sum of all chemical reactions carried out in an organism is ____________________.
 

 

 119. 

The energy used by living organisms originates from the ____________________.
 

 

 120. 

The study of ____________________ involves finding out how diseases are spread.
 

 

 121. 

Cholera bacteria can cause the disease only when ____________________ increases.
 

 

 122. 

A ____________________ is a medical procedure that allows a person to resist infection by a certain disease.
 

 

 123. 

Many new tools for studying and treating diseases caused by problems in genes have come from the study of ____________________.
 

 

 124. 

In developed countries, the length of human lives has nearly ____________________ in the past century.
 

 

 125. 

One example of an assistive technology that helps people in everyday life is ____________________.
 

 

 126. 

The gene that was added to Bt corn came from a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 127. 

Bt corn contains a gene that produces a ____________________ that kills the European core borer.
 

 

 128. 

The robotic items produced through nanotechnology often resemble tiny ____________________.
 

 

 129. 

Imitating biological structures, processes, and systems to solve engineering problems is called ____________________.
 

 

 130. 

Because of ____________________, dissection is no longer needed to determine the shapes and locations of internal organs.
 

 

 131. 

Fingerprints and iris patterns are useful in identification because they are ____________________ to individuals.
 

 

 132. 

Material used in ____________________ is obtained from hair and skin cells.
 

 

 133. 

Research that involves human stem cells is limited because many people think that such research is ____________________.
 

 

 134. 

The study of living organisms and their environments is called _________________________.
 

 

 135. 

The existence of undiscovered resources is an important reason to study and ____________________ natural environments.
 

 

 136. 

The movements of wildlife can be studied through the technology of ____________________.
 

 

 137. 

Wildlife agents use the technology of ____________________ to identify the remains of endangered animals and to identify who killed them.
 

 

 138. 

The people in communities who make contributions to environmental research are called ____________________.
 

 

 139. 

Students make contributions to environmental conservation by helping to care for ____________________ or ____________________ wildlife.
 

 

Short Answer
 

 140. 

What universal law applies in a study of the flight of birds? How does it apply?
 

 141. 

How could you use scientific thought to investigate a claim about a product?
 

 142. 

Write a hypothesis to explain why the water level in an aquarium is going down.
 

 143. 

What two groups are part of a controlled experiment?
 

 144. 

What is the difference between an independent variable and dependent variables in a controlled experiment?
 

 145. 

How does a scientist verify the conclusions of an experiment?
 

 146. 

What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?
 

 147. 

What makes SI easy to use?
 

 148. 

What are the base SI units for volume, length, and mass?
 

 149. 

What are two common kinds of microscopes. How do they differ?
 

 150. 

What is sterile technique? What are four tools of sterile technique?
 

 151. 

Suppose you are a scientist who studies sharks in their natural habitat. What are two names that describe the kind of biologist you are?
 

 152. 

What is heredity?
 

 153. 

Name the seven properties of life.
 

 154. 

How are data from weather and climate satellites used in epidemiology?
 

 155. 

How does a vaccination help people and animals resist disease?
 

 156. 

How will the completion of the Human Genome Project contribute to biological research in the 21st Century?
 

 157. 

List two examples of assistive technologies that will improve the lives of people with injuries and diseases.
 

 158. 

How does genetic engineering that produced Bt corn help to increase the yield in a farmer’s corn field?
 

 159. 

List two practical applications of biotechnology other than genetic engineering.
 

 160. 

How has genetic engineering improved the treatment of people who have diabetes?
 

 161. 

From what biological structure did engineers get the idea for a submarine?
 

 162. 

What makes iris scans an effective technology for identifying people?
 

 163. 

List two biological characteristics of individuals, besides fingerprints and iris patterns, that can be analyzed by computers to identify people.
 

 164. 

List two concerns that people have expressed about the ethics of biotechnology.
 

 165. 

List three important resources that all living things get from the environment.
 

 166. 

What do the initials GIS stand for?
 

 167. 

What is satellite tagging?
 

 168. 

List three steps that students could take to get involved in environmental research.
 

Essay
 

 169. 

Explain why accurate data and peer review are important in science.
 

 170. 

The results of an experiment do not support the hypothesis that the experiment was designed to test. Was the experiment a waste of time? Explain your answer.
 

 171. 

Explain the difference between an independent variable and a dependent variable in a controlled experiment. Also indicate whether or not each kind of variable would be found in a control group and an experimental group.
 

 172. 

Summarize the steps in the development of a theory.
 

 173. 

Before doing experiments, what should you know about lab safety? What procedure should you follow if an accident occurs during an experiment in your class?
 

 174. 

List and describe the seven properties of life shared by all living organisms.
 

 175. 

Toads that live in hot, dry regions bury themselves in the soil during the day. How might this be important to toads?
 
 
nar001-1.jpg
 

 176. 

Refer to the map above. West Nile Virus is a virus that attacks the nervous system of birds, humans, and many other mammals. The virus first appeared in the United States in 1999, when an outbreak was reported in the New York City area. Based on this background and the information shown in the map, write a paragraph that summarizes the state of West Nile Virus incidence in the United States as of 2006.
 

 177. 

Explain how increased understanding of biology and science in general should enable humans to live longer and healthier lives.
 

 178. 

Compare and contrast fingerprints and DNA fingerprints as a means of identifying individuals.
 

 179. 

Ethics is the study of whether human actions are moral (right or wrong, acceptable or unacceptable). Summarize the role of ethics in guiding the future of biotechnology.
 

 180. 

What important lesson can be learned from the recent discovery of new kinds of organisms in a remote area of New Guinea?
 



 
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