Biology - Science of Life

Section 1-1            Themes of Biology 

1. How many species of organisms are estimated to inhabit the Earth? 

2. About how many species have actually been identified? 

3. When did the first life forms probably arise on Earth? 

4. What was the first organism like? 

5.  What is an organism? 

6. Most unicellular organisms can only be seen with a __________________________.

7. Where did these first cells live? 

8. Over time, organisms _____________ and new kinds of _______________ arose from ___________ of organisms and came to inhabit every _______________ of the Earth. 

9. Define biology. 

10. Name several things that the study of biology would include. 

11. The study of biology is unified by ___________________________. 

12. Name 6 unifying themes of biology. 

13. What is a cell? Where are they found? 

14. What is the difference between a unicellular & a multicellular organism? 

15. Cells are ___________________ but highly _______________________.

16. Are all cells alike? Explain. 

17. All cells are surrounded by a ____________ & contain _____________  instructions. 

18. Genetic instructions are used by cells to make new __________ and new cell ________________. 

19. How do new cells produced by unicellular organisms compare to the parent unicellular organism? 

20. How do mature multicellular organisms begin their life? 

21. If multicellular organisms begin their life as one cell, how do they have so many cells? Explain. 

22. Give an example of an organism maintaining a stable internal environment. 

23. Define homeostasis and tell whether it occurs in unicellular&/or multicellular organisms. 

24. Genetic information is passed to offspring during _______________________.

25. What molecule contains the cellís hereditary information?

26.  How does DNA exist in multicellular organisms? In unicellular organisms? 

27. What is a gene?

28. In multicellular organisms, each body cell has an _____________ copy of its DNA.

29. Does each cell in a multicellular organism use all the genes on its DNA? Explain. 

30. Explain sexual reproduction. 

31. When a sperm joins with an egg to make a fertilized cell, what happens next to this cell? 

32. New organisms from sexual reproduction have _______________ material from both parents.

33. Explain asexual reproduction. 

34. Name a unicellular organism that reproduces by asexual reproduction.

35. New cells or organisms from asexual reproduction have ____________ genetic information. 

36. What is evolution? 

37. Do individuals or populations evolve? 

38. What is the driving force for evolution? 

39. Explain natural selection and give an example. 

40. Competition for what types of resources drives natural selection? 

41. Why is it so important to a species for members to survive? 

42. Organisms that survive and reproduce are ones with ________________ traits.

43. Define ecology. 

44. What are ecosystems and give an example? 

45. Name 3 things organisms must get from the environment to survive. 

46. What has been the effect of manís activities on many ecosystems? 

47. Living things are _______________ and need a constant supply of _________________.

48. What process supplies energy for organisms on Earth? 

49. Define autotroph. 

50. Autotrophs trap _________ and use this energy to combine __________ and  _________ into__________ and starches. 

51. Define heterotrophs. 

52. Give an example of an autotroph.

53. Give several examples of heterotrophs. 

54. How do heterotrophs get their food? 

Section 1-2            World of Biology 

55. List 6 characteristics shared by all living things. 

56. All living things composed of  _________________.

57. Cells may be specialized in _________________ organisms. What does this mean?

58. What is always true about cell size?

59. Living things are organized at what 2 levels?

60. How are cells organized in multicellular organisms?

61. Define metabolism. 

62. The energy from metabolism is used for ___________, ___________, and _______________ of organisms. 

63. What is homeostasis and give an example? 

64. Is growth a characteristic of living and nonliving things? Explain.

65. What 2 things must occur for living things to grow?



66. Define cell division.




67. Define development.




68. Explain why development is necessary for multicellular organisms?




69. Is reproduction essential to the survival of a species? Explain.




70. Sexual reproduction produces offspring ______________________ to the parents.


71. Have all organisms been identified? Explain.



Section 1-3            Scientific Method


72. Scientists solve problems using the ___________________________.


73. The first step of the scientific method is when scientists make ___________________ of the natural world.

74. Define data.




75. What does a scientist usually employ in making their observations?



76. What is quantitative data?


77. What is sampling & why is it used by scientists?




78. What 2 things must be true for samples to be useful?



79. To be useful, data must be _____________________ into ____________________,


       ______________________, and _____________________, or maps.


80. Once an observation is made, the second thing a scientist must do is to develop a(n) ___________________________.


81. Define hypothesis.




82. All hypotheses must be __________________ to give supporting evidence.


83. What is a prediction & how are they usually written?




84. What is an experiment?




85. Name the 2 groups in a controlled experiment.



86. Both groups in an experiment are identical except for ___________ factor called the



87. Name the 2 types of variables in a controlled experiment.




88. After data is collected and organized, it must be __________________ to tell if it is reliable.


89. If experimental data does not support the hypothesis, what should be done?



90. What is a scientific model?



91. What is an inference?




92. How is a theory formed?



93. Define theory.



94. What is the difference between a field biologist and a laboratory biologist? Do they both use the scientific method?





95. What do scientists do with the results of their scientific studies?




Section 1-4            Microscopes & Measurement


96. What is a microscope?



97. What is the difference between resolution & magnification?





98. When would a microscope be used?



99. Do all microscopes have the same magnification & resolution?


100.  Draw and label the parts of a light (LM) microscope.










101. Tell the function of each of these parts of an LM --- stage, light source, objective lens, ocular lens, & nosepiece.







102. To view specimens with a light microscope, they must be placed on a _______________


         and be ________________ so light will pass through to the lenses & your eyes.


103. What is the power of magnification & explain how it is determined?




104. Light microscopes can only magnify up to ______________ before the image becomes blurry.

105. What type of scope is used to view viruses & cell parts?


106. What produces an image with the electron microscope?



107. Name the 2 main types of electron microscopes.


108. What is the highest magnification for the TEM? For the SEM?



109. Can electron microscopes be used to view living cells?


110. What type of scope gives a magnified view of an objectís surface?


111. What is the standard unit of measurement used by scientists?


112. Name the SI base units, what they measure, & give their abbreviations (table 1-1, page 23)







113. The SI system is based on units of __________ with designated _________________.


114. Give the SI prefix for these base units --- 1000, .01, .001, .000001, .000000001, & .000000000001.






115. Give the SI unit for area, volume, and time.