Biology - Science of Life
1. How many species of organisms are estimated to inhabit
2. About how many species have actually been identified?
3. When did the first life forms probably arise on Earth?
4. What was the first organism like?
5. What is an
6. Most unicellular organisms can only be seen with a __________________________.
7. Where did these first cells live?
8. Over time, organisms _____________ and new kinds of
_______________ arose from ___________ of
organisms and came to inhabit every _______________ of the Earth.
9. Define biology.
10. Name several things that the study of biology would
11. The study of biology is unified by
12. Name 6 unifying themes of biology.
13. What is a cell? Where are they found?
14. What is the difference between a unicellular & a
15. Cells are ___________________ but highly
16. Are all cells alike? Explain.
17. All cells are surrounded by a ____________ &
contain _____________ instructions.
18. Genetic instructions are used by cells to make new
__________ and new cell ________________.
19. How do new cells produced by unicellular organisms
compare to the parent unicellular organism?
20. How do mature multicellular organisms begin their life?
21. If multicellular organisms begin their life as one
cell, how do they have so many cells? Explain.
22. Give an example of an organism maintaining a stable
23. Define homeostasis and tell whether it occurs in
unicellular&/or multicellular organisms.
24. Genetic information is passed to offspring during
25. What molecule contains the cellís hereditary
26. How does
DNA exist in multicellular organisms? In unicellular organisms?
27. What is a gene?
28. In multicellular organisms, each body cell has an
_____________ copy of its DNA.
29. Does each cell in a multicellular organism use all the
genes on its DNA? Explain.
30. Explain sexual reproduction.
31. When a sperm joins with an egg to make a fertilized
cell, what happens next to this cell?
32. New organisms from sexual reproduction have _______________ material from both parents.
33. Explain asexual reproduction.
34. Name a unicellular organism that reproduces by asexual
35. New cells or organisms from asexual reproduction have
____________ genetic information.
36. What is evolution?
37. Do individuals or populations evolve?
38. What is the driving force for evolution?
39. Explain natural selection and give an example.
40. Competition for what types of resources drives natural
41. Why is it so important to a species for members to
42. Organisms that survive and reproduce are ones with
43. Define ecology.
44. What are ecosystems and give an example?
45. Name 3 things organisms must get from the environment
46. What has been the effect of manís activities on many
47. Living things are _______________ and need a constant
supply of _________________.
48. What process supplies energy for organisms on Earth?
49. Define autotroph.
50. Autotrophs trap _________ and use this energy to
combine __________ and _________
into__________ and starches.
51. Define heterotrophs.
52. Give an example of an autotroph.
53. Give several examples of heterotrophs.
54. How do heterotrophs get their food?
55. List 6 characteristics shared by all living things.
56. All living things composed of _________________.
57. Cells may be specialized in _________________
organisms. What does this mean?
58. What is always true about cell size?
59. Living things are organized at what 2 levels?
60. How are cells organized in multicellular organisms?
61. Define metabolism.
62. The energy from metabolism is used for ___________,
___________, and _______________ of organisms.
63. What is homeostasis and give an example?
64. Is growth a characteristic of living and nonliving
65. What 2 things must occur for living things to grow?
66. Define cell division.
67. Define development.
68. Explain why development is necessary for multicellular organisms?
69. Is reproduction essential to the survival of a species? Explain.
70. Sexual reproduction produces offspring ______________________ to the parents.
71. Have all organisms been identified? Explain.
72. Scientists solve problems using the ___________________________.
73. The first step of the scientific method is when scientists make ___________________ of the natural world.
74. Define data.
75. What does a scientist usually employ in making their observations?
76. What is quantitative data?
77. What is sampling & why is it used by scientists?
78. What 2 things must be true for samples to be useful?
79. To be useful, data must be _____________________ into ____________________,
______________________, and _____________________, or maps.
80. Once an observation is made, the second thing a scientist must do is to develop a(n) ___________________________.
81. Define hypothesis.
82. All hypotheses must be __________________ to give supporting evidence.
83. What is a prediction & how are they usually written?
84. What is an experiment?
85. Name the 2 groups in a controlled experiment.
86. Both groups in an experiment are identical except for ___________ factor called the
87. Name the 2 types of variables in a controlled experiment.
88. After data is collected and organized, it must be __________________ to tell if it is reliable.
89. If experimental data does not support the hypothesis, what should be done?
90. What is a scientific model?
91. What is an inference?
92. How is a theory formed?
93. Define theory.
94. What is the difference between a field biologist and a laboratory biologist? Do they both use the scientific method?
95. What do scientists do with the results of their scientific studies?
96. What is a microscope?
97. What is the difference between resolution & magnification?
98. When would a microscope be used?
99. Do all microscopes have the same magnification & resolution?
100. Draw and label the parts of a light (LM) microscope.
101. Tell the function of each of these parts of an LM --- stage, light source, objective lens, ocular lens, & nosepiece.
102. To view specimens with a light microscope, they must be placed on a _______________
and be ________________ so light will pass through to the lenses & your eyes.
103. What is the power of magnification & explain how it is determined?
104. Light microscopes can only magnify up to ______________ before the image becomes blurry.
105. What type of scope is used to view viruses & cell parts?
106. What produces an image with the electron microscope?
107. Name the 2 main types of electron microscopes.
108. What is the highest magnification for the TEM? For the SEM?
109. Can electron microscopes be used to view living cells?
110. What type of scope gives a magnified view of an objectís surface?
111. What is the standard unit of measurement used by scientists?
112. Name the SI base units, what they measure, & give their abbreviations (table 1-1, page 23)
113. The SI system is based on units of __________ with designated _________________.
114. Give the SI prefix for these base units --- 1000, .01, .001, .000001, .000000001, & .000000000001.
115. Give the SI unit for area, volume, and time.