are Based on Common Ancestries
phylogeny and systematics.
||Describe the process of
sedimentation and the formation of fossils. Explain which portions
of organisms are most likely to fossilize.
||Explain why it is crucial
to distinguish between homology and analogy before selecting
characters to use in the reconstruction of phylogeny.
||Explain why bird and bat
wings are homologous as vertebrate forelimbs but analogous as wings.
systematics. Explain some of the problems that systematists may
face in carrying out molecular comparisons of nucleic acids.
Systematics: Connecting Classification
with Evolutionary History
||Explain the following
characteristics of the Linnaean system of classification:
a. binomial nomenclature
b. hierarchical classification
||List the major taxonomic
categories from most to least inclusive.
||Define a clade.
Distinguish between a monophyletic clade and paraphyletic and
polyphyletic groupings of species.
||Distinguish between shared
primitive characters and shared derived characters.
||Explain how shared derived
characters can be used to construct a phylogenetic diagram.
||Explain how outgroup
comparison can be used to distinguish between shared primitive
characters and shared derived characters.
||Define an ingroup.
||Distinguish between a
phylogram and an ultrameric tree.
||Discuss how systematists
use the principles of maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood in
||Explain why any
phylogenetic diagram represents a hypothesis about evolutionary
relationships among organisms.
orthologous and paralogous genes. Explain how gene duplication has
led to families of paralogous genes.
||Explain how molecular
clocks are used to determine the approximate time of key
evolutionary events. Explain how molecular clocks are calibrated in
||Describe some of the
limitations of molecular clocks.
||Explain the neutral theory
of evolutionary change.
||Explain how scientists
determined the approximate time when HIV-1 M first infected humans.
||Describe the evidence that
suggests there is a universal tree of life.