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Chapter 4 Cell Structure Study Guide



Modified True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.  If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true.
 

 1. 

Robert Hooke first observed cells by looking at a thin slice of cork under a microscope. _________________________

 

 2. 

Mathias Schleiden concluded that cells make up every part of a plant. _________________________

 

 3. 

Differences in the colors of cells enable different cells to perform different functions. _________________________

 

 4. 

All cells have a cell wall that surrounds them. _________________________

 

 5. 

All multicellular organisms are made up of prokaryotic cells. _________________________

 

 6. 

The cells of animals are prokaryotic. _________________________

 

 7. 

The cytoskeleton is a web of protein fibers in eukaryotic cells. _________________________

 

 8. 

Substances made in the nucleus, such as RNA messages, move into the nucleolus by passing through nuclear pores. _________________________

 

 9. 

Flattened, membrane-bound sacs that package and distribute proteins are called the Golgi apparatus. _________________________

 

 10. 

Ribosomes attached to the smooth ER make proteins. _________________________

 

 11. 

Lysosomes contain specific enzymes that break down large molecules, such as food particles. _________________________

 

 12. 

Ribosomes are the sites of ATP production in animals. _________________________

 

 13. 

Most of a cell’s ATP is produced in the cell’s mitochondria. _________________________

 

 14. 

A typical animal cell contains one or more chloroplasts. _________________________

 

 15. 

A chloroplast is an organelle that uses light energy to make sugar from carbon dioxide and water. _________________________

 

 16. 

Prokaryotes are always multicellular organisms. _________________________

 

 17. 

Many prokaryotes have flagella that allow them to attach to surfaces. _________________________

 

 18. 

A tissue is a distinct group of cells that have similar structures and functions. _________________________

 

 19. 

A leaf is made up of different tissues that work together. _________________________

 

 20. 

In multicellular organisms, a single cell must carry out all of the organism’s activities. _________________________

 

 21. 

A unicellular organism is composed of many individual, permanently associated cells that coordinate their activities. _________________________

 

 22. 

Colonial organisms are unicellular organisms that can live as a connected group or survive when separated. _________________________

 

 23. 

Some protists and most fungi have a multicellular body. _________________________

 

 24. 

Most multicellular organisms begin as a single cell. _________________________

 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 25. 

Which of the following led to the discovery of cells?
a.
electricity
c.
microscopes
b.
computers
d.
calculators
 

 26. 

Which of the following is part of the cell theory?
a.
All living things are made of one cell.
b.
Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms.
c.
Most cells arise from existing cells.
d.
Cells are nonliving units that make up organisms.
 

 27. 

When the volume of a cell increases, its surface area
a.
increases at the same rate.
c.
increases at a faster rate.
b.
remains the same.
d.
increases at a slower rate.
 

 28. 

Surface area is an important factor in limiting cell growth because
a.
the cell can burst if the membrane becomes too large.
b.
materials cannot enter the cell if it is too large.
c.
the cell may become too large to take in enough food and to remove enough wastes.
d.
waste products cannot leave the cell if it is too small.
 

 29. 

The size to which cells can grow is limited by their
a.
location.
c.
function.
b.
structure.
d.
surface area-to-volume ratio.
 

 30. 

As cell size increases, the surface area-to-volume ratio
a.
decreases.
c.
increases then decreases.
b.
increases.
d.
remains the same.
 

 31. 

To function most efficiently, a cell’s size must be
a.
large.
c.
small.
b.
medium.
d.
any size.
 

 32. 

Which of the following shapes would allow a cell to have the greatest surface area-to-volume ratio?
a.
sphere
c.
egg-shaped
b.
cube
d.
broad and flat
 

 33. 

A cube with a side length of 6 mm has a surface area-to-volume ratio of
a.
1:1.
c.
3:1.
b.
2:1.
d.
6:1.
 

 34. 

One difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is that prokaryotes do not have
a.
DNA.
c.
cytoplasm.
b.
a cell membrane.
d.
a nucleus.
 

 35. 

Which cells have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, and DNA?
a.
only animal cells
c.
only eukaryotic cells
b.
only prokaryotic cells
d.
all cells
 

 36. 

The genetic material that provides instructions for making proteins is
a.
DNA.
c.
cytoplasm.
b.
cytosol.
d.
a ribosome.
 

 37. 

A structure within a eukaryotic cell that carries out specific activities inside the cell is called a(n)
a.
organelle.
c.
nucleus.
b.
cytoplasm.
d.
membrane.
 

 38. 

Which of the following statements about prokaryotes is correct?
a.
They have a nucleus.
b.
Their evolution preceded that of eukaryotes.
c.
The organelles in their cytoplasm are surrounded by membranes.
d.
They are multicellular organisms.
 

 39. 

Only eukaryotic cells have
a.
DNA.
c.
ribosomes.
b.
membrane-bound organelles.
d.
cytoplasm.
 
 
nar001-1.jpg
 

 40. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which structure acts as a boundary between the outside environment and the inside of the cell?
a.
structure 1
c.
structure 3
b.
structure 2
d.
structure 4
 

 41. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which structure immediately identifies this cell as a eukaryote?
a.
structure 1
c.
structure 3
b.
structure 2
d.
structure 4
 

 42. 

Refer to the illustration above. In eukaryotic cells, DNA is found in
a.
structure 1.
c.
structure 3.
b.
structure 2.
d.
structure 5.
 

 43. 

Refer to the illustration above. Structure 2 is
a.
rough endoplasmic reticulum.
c.
a mitochondrion.
b.
a Golgi apparatus.
d.
the nucleus.
 

 44. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which structure produces vesicles filled with proteins?
a.
structure 1
c.
structure 4
b.
structure 2
d.
structure 5
 

 45. 

Refer to the illustration above. Structure 5 is
a.
part of the endoplasmic reticulum.
c.
a mitochondrion.
b.
a Golgi apparatus.
d.
the nucleus.
 

 46. 

Refer to the illustration above. The cell uses structure 3 to
a.
transport material from one part of the cell to another.
b.
package proteins so they can be stored by the cell.
c.
use light energy to make sugar.
d.
use energy from organic compounds to make ATP.
 

 47. 

Refer to the illustration above. The cell shown is probably an animal cell because it
a.
has mitochondria.
c.
has a cell membrane.
b.
does not have a cell wall.
d.
does not have a nucleus.
 

 48. 

Microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate fibers are three kinds of cytoskeleton
a.
protein fibers.
c.
organelles.
b.
membranes.
d.
DNA.
 

 49. 

What kind of cytoskeleton fibers could help a cell change shape to fit into a space?
a.
microfilaments
c.
intermediate fibers
b.
microtubules
d.
tubulin fibers
 

 50. 

Which of the following is true of both DNA and some proteins?
a.
made in nucleus
b.
made in ribosomes
c.
must be kept separate from cytoplasm
d.
must be kept separate from nucleus
 

 51. 

cell : cell membrane ::
a.
nucleus : DNA
c.
organelle : cell
b.
nucleus : nuclear envelope
d.
cell : DNA
 

 52. 

The double membrane surrounding the nucleus is called the
a.
nucleolus.
c.
ribosome.
b.
nuclear wall.
d.
nuclear envelope.
 

 53. 

In a cell, proteins are made on the
a.
mitochondria.
c.
nucleus.
b.
ribosomes.
d.
cell membrane.
 

 54. 

Where are bound ribosomes located?
a.
suspended in the cytosol
b.
inside the nucleus
c.
attached to membranes of another organelle
d.
outside the cell membrane
 

 55. 

The organelle that moves proteins and other substances through the cell is the
a.
endoplasmic reticulum.
c.
Golgi apparatus.
b.
mitochondrion.
d.
cytoplasm.
 

 56. 

The organelle that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins is the
a.
endoplasmic reticulum.
c.
lysosome.
b.
ribosome.
d.
Golgi apparatus.
 
 
nar002-1.jpg
 

 57. 

Refer to the illustration above. The structures labeled 4 are
a.
vesicles.
c.
ribosomes.
b.
lysosomes.
d.
chloroplasts.
 

 58. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which structure packages proteins for distribution?
a.
structure 1
c.
structure 3
b.
structure 2
d.
structure 4
 

 59. 

Refer to the illustration above. Structure 3 is a(n)
a.
mitochondrion.
c.
ribosome.
b.
endoplasmic reticulum.
d.
vesicle.
 

 60. 

Plant cells have a large membrane-bound compartment in which water, waste products, and nutrients can be stored. This compartment is called the
a.
mitochondrion.
c.
Golgi apparatus.
b.
chloroplast.
d.
central vacuole.
 

 61. 

A cell that requires a lot of energy might contain large numbers of
a.
chromosomes.
c.
mitochondria.
b.
vacuoles.
d.
lysosomes.
 

 62. 

The organelles associated with plant photosynthesis are the
a.
mitochondria.
c.
Golgi apparatus.
b.
chloroplasts.
d.
vacuoles.
 

 63. 

sunlight : chloroplasts ::
a.
chloroplasts : lysosomes
c.
organic compounds : ribosomes
b.
organic compounds : mitochondria
d.
ATP : vesicles
 

 64. 

What do chloroplasts and mitochondria have in common?
a.
absorption of light energy
c.
production of ATP
b.
presence in all cells
d.
digestion of cell wastes
 

 65. 

All the following are found in both plant and animal cells, except
a.
a cell wall.
c.
mitochondria.
b.
a cell membrane.
d.
endoplasmic reticulum.
 

 66. 

Short, thick outgrowths that allow prokaryotes to attach to surfaces or each other are called
a.
flagella.
c.
microfilaments.
b.
microtubules.
d.
pili.
 

 67. 

Which of the following is an example of a prokaryotic cell?
a.
chloroplast
c.
bacterium
b.
fungus
d.
muscle cell
 

 68. 

Which of the following pairs contains unrelated items?
a.
eukaryote-plant
c.
cell wall-animal cell
b.
ribosome-protein
d.
mitochondria-ATP
 

 69. 

What level of organization is the small intestine?
a.
cell
c.
organ
b.
tissue
d.
organ system
 

 70. 

Which of the following statements about colonial organisms is correct?
a.
They are multicellular.
b.
Their cell activities are integrated.
c.
They are a collection of different kinds of cells.
d.
They can survive when separated.
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 71. 

All cells arise from ____________________.
 

 

 72. 

The basic unit of structure and function in an organism is the ____________________.
 

 

 73. 

The statement that “cells arise only from existing cells” is part of the ____________________.
 

 

 74. 

As a cell’s size decreases, its surface area-to-volume ratio ____________________.
 

 

 75. 

The surface area-to-volume ratio limits a cell’s ____________________.
 

 

 76. 

Eukaryotic cells contain specialized structures called ____________________.
 

 

 77. 

A cell with a nucleus is a(n) ____________________ cell.
 

 

 78. 

Scientists think that ____________________ cells evolved about 1.5 billion years ago.
 

 

 79. 

All substances that enter or leave a cell must cross the cell ____________________.
 

 

 80. 

The ____________________ houses a cell’s DNA, which contains genetic material.
 

 

 81. 

The organelles where protein synthesis occurs in a cell are called ____________________.
 

 

 82. 

Prokaryotic cells have a cell ____________________ that surrounds the cell membrane.
 

 

 83. 

Some prokaryotic cells have a ____________________ that surrounds the cell wall.
 

 

 84. 

____________________ cells have a system of internal membranes that divides the cytoplasm into compartments.
 

 

 85. 

The web of protein fibers that supports the shape of the cell is called the ____________________.
 

 

 86. 

The cytoskeleton’s network of ____________________ fibers anchors cell organelles.
 

 

 87. 

A ribosome is made of ____________________ and many proteins.
 

 

 88. 

DNA instructions are copied as ____________________ messages.
 

 

 89. 

Ribosomes use RNA messages to assemble ____________________.
 

 

 90. 

The ____________________ is a structure that makes ribosome parts in the nucleus.
 

 

 91. 

Rough endoplasmic reticulum has ____________________ attached to its surface.
 

 

 92. 

____________________ endoplasmic reticulum has no attached ribosomes.
 

 

 93. 

Vesicles that contain newly made proteins move through the ____________________ from the ER to the Golgi apparatus.
 

 

 94. 

Vesicles help maintain ____________________ by storing and releasing various substances as the cell needs them.
 

 

 95. 

Lysosomes work by fusing with other ____________________.
 

 

 96. 

Photosynthesis takes place in the ____________________ of plant cells.
 

 

 97. 

Both plant cells and animal cells have cell membranes. In addition, plant cells are surrounded by a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 98. 

In multicellular organisms, similar cells group together to make ____________________.
 

 

 99. 

A group of identical cells that can survive alone if separated are called ____________________ organisms.
 

 

Short Answer
 

 100. 

Why did it take more than 150 years for scientists to appreciate the discoveries of Hook and Leeuwenhoek?
 

 101. 

What are the three parts of the cell theory?
 

 102. 

What happens to a cell’s surface area-to-volume ratio as the cell gets larger?
 

 103. 

How can a large cell have a large surface area-to-volume ratio?
 

 104. 

What is the difference in the location of DNA in a prokaryotic cell and in a eukaryotic cell?
 

 105. 

What is the function of organelles in eukaryotic cells?
 

 106. 

Describe the characteristics of DNA in a prokaryotic cell.
 

 107. 

What are three kinds of cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells?
 

 108. 

What are three functions of the cytoskeleton?
 

 109. 

Where are ribosome parts made and assembled?
 

 110. 

What kind of ribosomes makes proteins that remain inside the cell?
 

 111. 

How does the appearance of the two kinds of endoplasmic reticulum differ? What causes the difference?
 

 112. 

What happens to the vesicle membrane of a vesicle that migrates to the cell membrane and releases proteins to the outside of the cell?
 

 113. 

What is the function of a contractile vacuole in a protist?
 

 114. 

Describe what happens in a protist after the cell membrane surrounds food outside the cell.
 

 115. 

What is the difference between the energy source of chloroplasts and mitochondria? What do the two organelles have in common?
 

 116. 

Compare the functions of flagella and pili in prokaryotes.
 

 117. 

What are three structures present in plant cells but not in animal cells?
 

 118. 

What are the levels of organization of cells in a multicellular organism?
 

 119. 

How does a multicellular organism develop from a single cell?
 

Essay
 

 120. 

Small cells function more efficiently than large cells do. Briefly explain why this is true, using the concept of surface area-to-volume ratio.
 

 121. 

Describe the making of a ribosome. Include the difference between the two kinds of ribosomes.
 

 122. 

Describe the movement of proteins through the internal membrane system of a cell.
 



 
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