Name: 

 

Another Taxonomy Quiz


Modified True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.  If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true.
 

 1. 

Scientists use taxonomy to determine the evolutionary history of organisms. _________________________

 

 2. 

Taxonomy provides consistent ways to name organisms. _________________________

 

 3. 

Scientific names of organisms consist of two English terms. _________________________

 

 4. 

Two different organisms cannot have the same scientific name. _________________________

 

 5. 

Genus is the basic biological unit in the Linnaean system of classification. _________________________

 

 6. 

A genus is a taxonomic category that contains several families. _________________________

 

 7. 

Under the Linnaean system of classification, organisms are grouped on the basis of similarities in structure. _________________________

 

 8. 

Linnaeus devised eight levels of classification categories for living things. _________________________

 

 9. 

The least inclusive group to which an organism can be assigned is its kingdom. _________________________

 

 10. 

Kingdoms are subgroups of phyla. _________________________

 

 11. 

A species is a larger taxonomic group than a genus. _________________________

 

 12. 

Bird wings and insect wings are examples of analogous structures. _________________________

 

 13. 

Organisms that have similar traits but evolved independently are the result of convergent evolution. _________________________

 

 14. 

Cladistics is used to determine the sequence in which different groups of organisms evolved. _________________________

 

 15. 

In modern systematics, studies of the changes in the skeletons of vertebrates have helped researchers to estimate the time at which each species began to evolve. _________________________

 

 16. 

Comparing the sequence of DNA bases in the genes of several organisms is used to determine the order in which the organisms evolved. _________________________

 

 17. 

All organisms in the kingdom Animalia are multicellular heterotrophs whose cells lack cell walls. _________________________

 

 18. 

Archaea are eukaryotes that are characterized by several unique biochemical characteristics. _________________________

 

 19. 

Traditionally, bacteria have been classified on the basis of their shape, cell wall composition, and metabolism. _________________________

 

 20. 

Most organisms in the kingdoms Plantae and Animalia are multicellular. _________________________

 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 21. 

Taxonomy is
a.
the study of life.
b.
the science of naming and classifying organisms.
c.
the evolutionary history of a species.
d.
the sequence in which different groups evolved.
 

 22. 

An advantage of our scientific naming system is that
a.
common names mean the same in all countries.
b.
Latin names are easy to pronounce.
c.
biologists can communicate regardless of their native languages.
d.
organisms all have the same scientific name.
 

 23. 

All scientific names of organisms must be
a.
unique and have two Latin words.
b.
general and use the species name.
c.
different and repeat the phylum name.
d.
similar and include the common name.
 

 24. 

Linnaeus’s two-word system for naming organisms is called
a.
taxonomic evolution.
c.
Greek polynomials.
b.
Genus species.
d.
binomial nomenclature.
 

 25. 

In the Linnaean system of classification, the level that identifies one unique organism is the
a.
kingdom.
c.
genus.
b.
family.
d.
species.
 

 26. 

Under the Linnaean system of classification, plants and animals are sorted into groups based on
a.
number and size.
c.
form and size.
b.
form and structure.
d.
number and structure.
 

 27. 

The largest division that a group of organisms can belong to is a
a.
domain.
c.
genus.
b.
class.
d.
kingdom.
 

 28. 

Placement in each level of classification is based on
a.
specific characteristics.
c.
shared characteristics.
b.
general characteristics.
d.
different characteristics.
 

 29. 

Similar genera are grouped into a(n)
a.
phylum.
c.
family.
b.
class.
d.
order.
 

 30. 

Analogous structures
a.
have a common size in organisms.
b.
perform the same function in organisms.
c.
have the same structure in organisms.
d.
evolve from a common ancestor.
 

 31. 

Traditional systematics emphasizes the importance of
a.
derived characteristics.
c.
similar characteristics.
b.
unique characteristics.
d.
compared characteristics.
 

 32. 

Similar features that evolve through convergent evolution are called
a.
analogous characters.
c.
environmental characters.
b.
homologous characters.
d.
genetic characters.
 

 33. 

Convergent evolution produces analogous characters in different species as the result of
a.
similar environments.
c.
sharing a common ancestor.
b.
different environments.
d.
shared derived characters.
 

 34. 

A phylogenetic tree differs from a cladogram in that a phylogenetic tree
a.
hypothesizes the time at which each group of organisms evolved.
b.
also indicates the new characteristics that evolved with each group of organisms
c.
only illustrates hypothesized relationships among groups of organisms.
d.
predicts the next group of organisms that is expected to evolve.
 

 35. 

Studies of fossils of dinosaurs and birds show that
a.
feathers may not be an important difference between dinosaurs and birds.
b.
dinosaurs can be considered to be modern descendents of birds.
c.
the anatomies of the dinosaurs and birds are unrelated.
d.
dinosaurs and birds share many analogous characters.
 

 36. 

A model used by biologists to represent evolutionary history among species is called a
a.
phylogram.
c.
histogram.
b.
cladogram.
d.
parallelogram.
 

 37. 

Derived characters are traits
a.
that are shared by all species.
b.
that originated in a common ancestor.
c.
found in closely related species.
d.
found in distantly related species.
 

 38. 

During Linnaeus’ time, scientists divided all living organisms into
a.
five phyla.
c.
three domains.
b.
four families.
d.
two kingdoms.
 

 39. 

Which of the following terms is no longer used to describe a group of organisms in the modern classification system?
a.
Archaea
c.
Monera
b.
Eubacteria
d.
Protista
 

 40. 

Sponges are animals that were once classified as
a.
bacteria.
c.
plants.
b.
fungi.
d.
protists.
 

 41. 

Which of the following characteristics was used to reclassify sponges?
a.
body type
c.
cell walls
b.
cell type
d.
nutrition
 

 42. 

The kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaebacteria were once grouped in a kingdom called
a.
Protista.
c.
Monera.
b.
Animalia.
d.
Plantae.
 

 43. 

Four of the kingdoms include eukaryotes and the other two include
a.
plants.
c.
animals.
b.
fungi.
d.
prokaryotes.
 

 44. 

Which of the following is not a characteristic used to differentiate kingdoms?
a.
cell type
c.
nutrition
b.
root system
d.
body type
 

 45. 

Protista is an example of a
a.
kingdom.
c.
genus.
b.
class.
d.
species.
 

 46. 

Which two kingdoms contain both unicellular and multicellular organisms?
a.
Archaea and Animalia
c.
Animalia and Fungi
b.
Protists and Bacteria
d.
Protista and Fungi
 

 47. 

Bacteria : prokaryotes ::
a.
Fungi : prokaryotes
c.
Protista : eukaryotes
b.
Animalia : prokaryotes
d.
Archaea : eukaryotes
 

 48. 

One difference between plants and animals is that plants are
a.
prokaryotic and animals are eukaryotic.
b.
eukaryotic and animals are prokaryotic.
c.
autotrophs and animals are heterotrophs.
d.
heterotrophs and animals are autotrophs.
 

 49. 

The science of classifying living things is called
a.
identification.
c.
taxonomy.
b.
classification.
d.
speciation.
 

 50. 

Taxonomy is defined as the science of
a.
classifying plants according to their uses in agricultural experiments.
b.
studying ribosomal RNA sequencing techniques.
c.
grouping organisms according to their characteristics and evolutionary history.
d.
studying reproductive mechanisms and gene flow.
 

 51. 

As we move through the biological hierarchy from the kingdom to species level, organisms
a.
vary more and more.
b.
are less and less related to each other.
c.
become more similar in appearance.
d.
always are members of the same order.
 

 52. 

A mushroom is difficult to classify in Linnaeus’s two-kingdom classification system because
a.
it has another common name, the toadstool.
b.
it doesn’t seem to fit into either kingdom.
c.
mushrooms had not yet evolved in Linnaeus’s time.
d.
All of the above
 

 53. 

Which of the following was not a consideration for Carolus Linnaeus when he developed his system of nomenclature of organisms?
a.
It should include detailed descriptions of an organism in its name.
b.
It should assign each organism a unique name.
c.
It should assign names using a language that can be recognized worldwide.
d.
It should enable scientists to classify organisms according to their presumed evolutionary relationships to other organisms.
 

 54. 

Which of the following scientists developed the system of classifying organisms by assigning them a genus and species name?
a.
Leakey
c.
Darwin
b.
Aristotle
d.
Linnaeus
 

 55. 

mc055-1.jpg

Refer to the illustration above. A shark’s skeleton is made of cartilage while a dolphin’s skeleton is made of bone. This is one reason the two organisms are placed in different
a.
kingdoms.
c.
subspecies.
b.
domains.
d.
classes.
 

 56. 

The organism Quercus phellos is a member of the genus
a.
Plantae.
c.
Quercus.
b.
phellos.
d.
Protista.
 

 57. 

Poison ivy is also known as Rhus toxicodendron. Its species identifier is
a.
poison.
c.
ivy.
b.
Rhus.
d.
toxicodendron.
 

 58. 

The red maple is also known as Acer rubrum. Its scientific name is
a.
red maple.
c.
rubrum.
b.
Acer.
d.
Acer rubrum.
 

 59. 

The scientific name of an organism
a.
varies according to the native language of scientists.
b.
is the same for scientists all over the world.
c.
may refer to more than one species.
d.
may have more than one genus name.
 

 60. 

Scientists don’t use the common names of organisms because
a.
an organism may have more than one common name.
b.
common names are too ambiguous.
c.
an organism rarely has the same name in different languages.
d.
All of the above
 

 61. 

An organism can have
a.
one genus name and one species identifier.
b.
one genus name and two species identifiers.
c.
two scientific names if it is found on different continents.
d.
two genus names but only one species identifier.
 

 62. 

In which language are scientific names written?
a.
English
c.
Arabic
b.
Greek
d.
Latin
 

 63. 

Two organisms in the same class but different orders
a.
are in different kingdoms.
b.
have the same genus name.
c.
are in the same phylum.
d.
are members of the same species.
 

 64. 

Organisms in different genera
a.
may share the second word of their scientific names.
b.
may be in the same family.
c.
may be in different orders.
d.
All of the above
 

 65. 

Two organisms in the same order but different families may
a.
be more similar than two organisms in different classes.
b.
be in the same class.
c.
have the same species identifier.
d.
All of the above
 

 66. 

Kingdoms are divided into phyla, and each phylum is divided into
a.
families.
c.
orders.
b.
classes.
d.
genera.
 

 67. 

The correct order of the biological hierarchy from kingdom to species is
a.
kingdom, class, family, order, phylum, genus, species.
b.
kingdom, phylum, order, family, class, genus, species.
c.
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.
d.
kingdom, class, order, phylum, family, genus, species.
 

 68. 

The lowest hierarchy level in biological classification is the
a.
genus.
c.
family.
b.
species.
d.
order.
 

 69. 

Which of the following is the least inclusive classification group?
a.
class
c.
phylum
b.
genus
d.
species
 

 70. 

Quercus rubra : Quercus phellos ::
a.
Anolis carolinensis : Parus carolinensis
b.
Erithacus rubicula : Turdus migratoria
c.
Aphis pomi : Aphis gossypii
d.
carp : goldfish
 

 71. 

class : family ::
a.
order : phylum
c.
species : genus
b.
genus : class
d.
phylum : order
 

 72. 

Today, biologists classify organisms by their
a.
physical similarities.
c.
behavioral similarities.
b.
chemical similarities.
d.
All of the above
 

 73. 

Phylogenetic trees depict
a.
known evolutionary relationships between organisms.
b.
presumed evolutionary relationships based on physical features only.
c.
only living organisms.
d.
presumed evolutionary relationships based on a variety of types of evidence.
 

 74. 

The DNA sequences of two species of sharks would
a.
be more similar than the DNA sequences of a shark and a dolphin.
b.
show no discernible differences.
c.
be very close to the DNA sequences of a dolphin.
d.
indicate how the sharks evolved.
 

 75. 

Which of the following is (are) used in systematic taxonomy to classify organisms?
a.
patterns of embryological development
b.
homologous features
c.
amino acid sequences of proteins
d.
All of the above
 

 76. 

analogous features : convergent evolution ::
a.
two members of the same genus : same species
b.
cladogram : evolutionary relationships
c.
common names : universal identification
d.
cladograms : exact, direct information
 
 
nar001-1.jpg
 

 77. 

Refer to the illustration above. A branching diagram like the one shown is called a
a.
phenetic tree.
c.
family tree.
b.
cladogram.
d.
homology.
 

 78. 

Refer to the illustration above. Each particular feature, such as dry skin, that is used to assign an organism to a group is called a(n)
a.
special character.
b.
analogous character.
c.
derived character.
d.
homologous character.
 

 79. 

Nearly all single-celled eukaryotes that are either heterotrophic or photosynthetic belong to the kingdom
a.
Animalia.
c.
Plantae.
b.
Fungi.
d.
Protista.
 

 80. 

Most multicellular, nucleated autotrophs that carry on photosynthesis belong to the kingdom
a.
Animalia.
c.
Fungi.
b.
Eubacteria.
d.
Plantae.
 

 81. 

Multicellular, nucleated heterotrophs that always obtain food by absorbing nutrients from the environment belong to the kingdom
a.
Animalia.
c.
Fungi.
b.
Eubacteria.
d.
Plantae.
 

 82. 

An organism that breaks down organic matter, which it then absorbs, is in the kingdom
a.
Fungi.
c.
Animalia.
b.
Plantae.
d.
Protista.
 

 83. 

Simple, non-nucleated organisms that use hydrogen to produce methane are in the domain
a.
Archaea.
c.
Eukarya.
b.
Bacteria.
d.
None of the above
 

 84. 

The kingdom defined as including any eukaryotes that are not plants, animals, or fungi is the kingdom
a.
Protista.
c.
Animalia.
b.
Plantae.
d.
Fungi.
 

 85. 

Carl Woese proposed the three-domain system of classification based on the examination of
a.
embryos.
c.
ribosomal RNA.
b.
fossils.
d.
organisms’ physical features.
 

 86. 

The three domain system of classification is based on similarities and differences in ____, while the six-kingdom system is based on similarities and differences in ____.
a.
DNA; DNA, fossils, embryological development, and physical features
b.
DNA; embryological development, fossils, physical features, and RNA
c.
ribosomal RNA; embryological development, fossils, physical features, and various molecular structures
d.
physical features; embryological development, fossils, physical features, and various molecular structures
 

 87. 

Which of the following groups are placed together by cladistics but are placed in separate groups by classical taxonomy?
a.
birds and crocodiles
c.
turtles and birds
b.
birds and mammals
d.
snakes and mammals
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 88. 

The current system used for naming organisms was developed by ____________________.
 

 

 89. 

The two-word system for naming organisms is called _________________________.
 

 

 90. 

The scientific name of an organism gives biologists a common way of ____________________ regardless of their native languages.
 

 

 91. 

All names assigned to organisms under the Linnaean system are in the ____________________ language.
 

 

 92. 

The unique two-word name for a species is its ____________________ name.
 

 

 93. 

All living things are grouped into one of three ____________________.
 

 

 94. 

There are ____________________ levels of classification in the modern classification system.
 

 

 95. 

A kingdom contains many ____________________.
 

 

 96. 

Classes with similar characteristics are assigned to a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 97. 

Each level of classification is based on ____________________ shared by all the organisms it contains.
 

 

 98. 

Homo habilis, Homo erectus, and Homo sapiens all belong to the same ____________________.
 

 

 99. 

Traditionally, scientists have used differences in appearance and ____________________ to classify organisms.
 

 

 100. 

Unlike cladistics, traditional systematics places more ____________________ on some traits than on others.
 

 

 101. 

Analogous structures are found in ____________________ taxa as a result of similar environmental conditions.
 

 

 102. 

The type of evolution that results in similar characteristics found in different organisms as the result of selection within similar environments is called ____________________ evolution.
 

 

 103. 

The evolutionary history of a species is called its ____________________.
 

 

 104. 

Shared derived characters are found in organisms that once shared a(n) ____________________ ancestor.
 

 

 105. 

A method of analysis that reconstructs phylogenies by inferring relationships based on shared characteristics is called ____________________.
 

 

 106. 

A model developed by systematists that uses shared derived characters to show the evolutionary history of different organisms is called a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 107. 

Cladistics is used to determine the ____________________ in which different groups of organisms evolved.
 

 

 108. 

Animals that appear early on a cladogram do not share as many of the same ____________________ traits as the animals that appear later on the cladogram.
 

 

 109. 

Modern systematic biologists use the ____________________ rate of DNA mutations like a “molecular clock.”
 

 

 110. 

Two kingdoms include prokaryotes, while four kingdoms include ____________________.
 

 

 111. 

Bacteria have strong exterior cell walls made of ____________________.
 

 

 112. 

An organism made of many cells that are permanently associated and that coordinate their activities is called a(n) ____________________ organism.
 

 

 113. 

Eukaryotes that are not fungi, plants, or animals are called ____________________.
 

 

 114. 

Aristotle classified plants on the basis of differences in their ____________________.
 

 

 115. 

The science of naming and classifying organisms is called ____________________.
 

 

 116. 

____________________ devised the two-name system of naming organisms.
 

 

 117. 

Biologists of Linnaeus’s time classified every living thing as either plant or ____________________.
 

 

 118. 

A genus is subdivided into smaller groups called ____________________.
 

 

 119. 

Each kind of organism on Earth is assigned a unique two-word ____________________.
 

 

 120. 

All scientific names are made up of two words that are often derived from the ____________________ language.
 

 

 121. 

The first word of a scientific name indicates the ____________________ to which the organism belongs.
 

 

 122. 

A kingdom is divided into phyla when animals are being classified or into ____________________ when plants are being classified.
 

 

 123. 

The evolutionary history of a species is called its ____________________.
 

 

 124. 

co124-1.jpg

Refer to the illustration above. Organism 4 belongs to the kingdom ____________________.
 

 

 125. 

Eukaryotic organisms that lack specialized tissue systems are members of the kingdom ____________________.
 

 

 126. 

Corals, spiders, and rodents all belong to the kingdom ____________________.
 

 

 127. 

The domains of the three-domain system of classification are Archaea, Bacteria, and ____________________.
 

 

 128. 

The variety of organisms at all taxonomic levels is called ____________________.
 

 

 129. 

Cladistics uses shared and ____________________ characters to group taxa.
 

 

 130. 

The Greek philosopher ____________________ classified organisms as either plants or animals.
 

 

Problem
 

 131. 

The following table presents data on some characteristics found in vertebrates. A “+” indicates that an organism has a particular characteristic and a “–” indicates that an organism does not have a particular characteristic.
 
Characteristics
Organism
Jaws
Limbs
Hair
Lungs
Tail
Lamprey
+
Turtle
+
+
+
+
Cat
+
+
+
+
+
Gorilla
+
+
+
+
+
Lungfish
+
+
+
Trout
+
+
Human
+
+
+
+

Using these data, construct a cladogram illustrating the evolutionary relationships among these organisms. Each branch point should indicate a common ancestor. Write the name of the shared character that is common to all organisms above each branching point. A shared character can be the absence of a structure common to organisms below that point on the tree. Write your answer in the space below.
 

Essay
 

 132. 

Why might the use of common names to describe organisms sometimes cause confusion? Give several examples to support your answer. Write your answer in the space below.
 

 133. 

While on a biological expedition to a tropical rain forest, you discover a previously unidentified animal. Explain the guidelines you would follow to choose a genus and species name for the animal. Write your answer in the space below.
 

 134. 

The red fox (Vulpes vulpes), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the dog (Canis familiaris) are all members of the family Canidae. The mountain lion (Felis concolor) is a member of the family Felidae. Describe the relationships among these animals. Write your answer in the space below.
 

 135. 

A species is defined as a group of organisms that are similar and can interbreed and produce fertile offspring in nature. Horses and donkeys can interbreed and produce mules, which cannot produce offspring. Is it possible that horses and donkeys belong to the same species? Explain. Write your answer in the space below.
 

 136. 

What are the main criteria currently used to classify organisms? Write your answer in the space below.
 



 
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