History of Evolutionary Thought
1. What were Aristotle's early ideas about life on Earth?
2. How long did these ideas last?
3. What was Linnaeus first to do?
4. What language is used for scientific naming?
5. What are the two words called in a scientific name?
6. This naming system is known as ____________ ______________.
7. Name the contribution that each of these men made to Darwin's ideas on evolution:
a. Charles Lyell
b. George Cuvier
c. Thomas Malthus
d. James Hutton
8. Which was published first - the Origin 0f Species by Darwin or Gregor Mendel's papers on inheritance?
9. What was the name of George Cuvier's theory on evolution?
10. What did Cuvier study in Paris and what did he find?
11. What did Cuvier decide was responsible for the disappearance of some species?
12. James ___________ was a Scottish _________ who studied fossils of _____________ in the Paris Museum.
13. Hutton's ideas were known as _____________.
14. Briefly state Hutton's idea on geological change.
15. Lyell proposed the theory of _________________.
16. Describe uniformitarianism.
17. How old did Lyell propose that the Earth was? How old did most people at this time believe the Earth was?
18. How did reading Lyell's book help darwin on his voyage on the Beagle?
19. Lamarck was one of the first scientists to understand that change occurs over ___________.
20. Lamarck believed that changes were adaptations to the ____________ that organisms _____________ in their lifetime and that he thought could be passed on to _______________.
21. Explain Lamarck's idea of the Law of Use and Disuse.
22. Lamarck's theory of acquiring or losing traits by using or not using them led to his theory of evolution called the _____________ of ______________ _____________.
23. According to this theory new ___________ could arise over time.
24. According to Lamarck, if a blacksmith built up his muscles then he would have what type of sons?
25. According to Lamarck, if a giraffe stretched its neck reaching for leaves, what would its offspring look like?
26. What did Lamarck NOT know that made his theory incorrect?
27. Are genes changed by life activities?
Darwin the Naturalist
28. In what year and at what age did Darwin become the naturalist for the ship the HMS Beagle?
29. How long was the Beagle voyage around the world?
30. As Darwin sailed around the coast of __________ __________, he collected many different types of plants and animals on the mainland and on the islands.
31. Where are the Galapagos Islands and how were they formed?
32. What did Darwin discover about the animals on each type of island
33. How did the island species of finches and tortoises compare with those on the islands?
34. How did the necks of the tortoises compare with each other?
35. The island finches resembled a finch on the ___________.
36. Was the available food and habitat the same on all the islands? Explain.
37. What was different about the finches and why?
Darwin's Observations & Conclusions
38. List three observations Darwin made on his travels that led him to propose his revolutionary idea about the way life changes over time.
39. Give an example of the uneven distribution of species noted by darwin.
40. Darwin collected both ___________ organisms and ____________ of organisms.
41. Give 2 examples of fossils collected by Darwin in which the species were no longer in existence.
42. Give a definition for evolution.
43. Left unchecked, what did Darwin predict would happen to the number od individuals in a population?
44. In nature, what tends to happen to the size of populations over time?
45. Competition among members of a population occur due to a limited number of ____________ _______________.
46. Only a ___________ of the offspring produced survive to the next generation.
47. The struggle for environmental resources is commonly called _____________ of the ____________.
48. How do individuals in population compare with each other?
49. Variation in a population is ______________.
50. Which organisms in a population are most likely to live offspring to pass on their traits?
51. This process is known as _____________ ___________ and was proposed by Charles ___________.
52. State Darwin's theory of natural selection.
53. New ____________ evolve according to natural selection.
Ideas that Shaped Darwin's Thinking
54. _____________ was an economist in 1798 that influenced Darwin's thinking.
55. Malthus observed what about the birth rate of babies?
56. Malthus knew population size was limited by what?
57. According to Malthus, a high birth rate and limited resources caused what to happen?
58. List several things that organisms struggle for in the environment.
59. What did Malthus say would happen if the population size continued to groww unchecked?
60. The __________ rate should increase to balance the __________ of a population and the limited _____________ in the environment.
61. Did Darwin see this occurring in nature?
62. Most organisms produce ____________ offspring than can survive causing many to ________.
Darwin's Theory of Evolution
63. Darwin proposed that organisms descended from what?
64. Over time, according to Darwin organisms __________ their form causing evolution of new ____________.
65. ___________ __________ is the driving force for evolution.
66. During the struggle for survival, which organisms survive to pass on their traits?
Origin of Species
67.How long after he returned to England did Darwin publish his book about evolution?
68. Why did Darwin wait so long to publish his ideas?
69. Darwin's theory of evolution challenged both the ____________ and _____________ ideas at that time.
70. What made Darwin publish his book?
71. _______________ independently developed the same theory as Darwin.
72. Both Darwin and Wallace believed that __________ changed over time due to a _____________ for existence.
73. Both Darwin's and Wallace's papers were presented to the ____________ ______________ in July of __________.
74. How long after this did it take Darwin to finish writing his book?
75. Before Darwin, it was thought that species were perfectly made and _______________.
76. What group of people had been observing and using variations in organisms for a long time?
77. How were farmers using variation?
78. This process is called _____________ ______________ instead of natural selection that occurs in nature.
79. Artificial selection involves ____________ desired traits in stock or crops and __________ them to pass on the trait.
80. Define these terms:
a. struggle for existence
b. survival of the fittest
c. descent with modification
81.What are the two types of adaptations?
82. Give some examples of physical adaptations.
83. Give some examples of behavioral adaptations.
84. What happens to organisms with LOW fitness?
85. How did changes in the Galapagos finches make them more FIT to survive?
86. Natural selection takes place over a _________ period of time.
87. Natural selection can be observed as changes in _______ structure, ecological _________, and ____________.
88. Do species today look them same as their ancestors?
89. Living species descended with changes from other __________ over periods of time.
90. What was a major problem in Darwin's Theory?
91. The work of what scientists solved the problem of how variations were passed to offspring?
92. What is the complete title of Darwin's book?
Theory of Evolution Today
93. List three main things used today to show how organisms are related.
94. Give two examples of evolution that has occurred today in a much shorter period of time.
95. Define macroevolution.
96. Define microevolution.
97. Darwin argued that Earth was ____________ of years old instead of thousands of years old.
98. One of the main pieces of evidence to support this ancient age of the Earth came from ___________ collected by Darwin.
99. Fossils are found in what type of rock layers?
100. Animals on different continents living in similar habitats show similar _______________.
101. All ____________ have similar bon structures known as ______________ structures.
102. Homologous structures have the same structure but different ______________.
103. Give 3 examples of homologous structures in vertebrates.
104. __________ structures seem to have no important function.
105. Give an example of a vestigial structure in humans.
106. What is an embryo?
107. How does the embryonic development of different vertebrates compare to each other?