Introduction to Animals Study Guide

How are most animals classified?
What are the main characteristics of chordates?
How are vertebrates classified?
What are heterotrophs & give some examples.
In what ways do animals differ from plants?
What are tissues?
What determines an animal's body plan?
In what habitat do you find most species of animals?
What is bilateral symmetry?
What does bipedal mean?
Where are the dorsal & ventral surfaces on a bipedal organism?
What is radial symmetry?
Name invertebrates that are asymmetrical, radial symmetry, & bilateral symmetry.
What does cephalization mean?
What invertebrate group was first to show cephalization?
Describe the "surfaces" of animals with radial symmetry.
Why is cephalization an advantage for animals?
What is a postanal tail & give examples of adult chordates with this characteristic?
Describe the "skeletal" support found in roundworms.
What is segmentation, & what animals exhibit this characteristic?
What is the function of kidneys, and what organisms have these organs?
How do closed & open circulatory systems differ?
How are terrestrial animals protected against water loss?
What structures show segmentation in vertebrates?
What is the advantage of having a long intestinal tract?
How are nutrients moved through a cnidarian's body?
Describe how spiral cleavage occurs.
Describe the embryo at the start of gastrulation.
What forms from endoderm in cnidarians.