Name: 
 

Introduction to Plants Quiz



Modified True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.  If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true.
 

 1. 

Plants are multicellular prokaryotes. _________________________

 

 2. 

The plant life cycle includes a diploid gamete and a haploid spore. _________________________

 

 3. 

Mosses are most often found in dry environments. _________________________

 

 4. 

Mosses and liverworts lack a vascular system for transporting water and nutrients. _________________________

 

 5. 

Water must be present for fertilization to take place in mosses. _________________________

 

 6. 

In mosses and liverworts, eggs are formed through mitosis in the antheridia. _________________________

 

 7. 

Gametophytes of conifers are physically much larger than their sporophytes. _________________________

 

 8. 

One important difference between mosses and ferns is that mosses have a vascular system. _________________________

 

 9. 

Shoots, stems, and roots characterize the bodies of vascular plant sporophytes. _________________________

 

 10. 

Ferns are characterized by fronds and fiddleheads. _________________________

 

 11. 

Haploid fern spores are produced by gametophytes. _________________________

 

 12. 

In ferns, a large sporophyte with leaves called fronds alternates with a heart-shaped gametophyte. _________________________

 

 13. 

Ferns need water to reproduce because their sperm must swim to eggs. _________________________

 

 14. 

Both mosses and ferns require a thin film of water for gametes to meet. _________________________

 

 15. 

In both mosses and ferns, eggs are formed through mitosis in the antheridia. _________________________

 

 16. 

Gymnosperm seeds are enclosed in a fruit. _________________________

 

 17. 

Gametophytes of seed plants are large and easily viewed with the unaided eye. _________________________

 

 18. 

Sexual reproduction in seed plants involves the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structures of a plant to the female reproductive structures. _________________________

 

 19. 

Seed plants cannot reproduce without a film of water for transferring of gametes. _________________________

 

 20. 

A seed is a structure that contains a plant embryo. _________________________

 

 21. 

A plant embryo is a new sporophyte. _________________________

 

 22. 

In flowering plants, the embryos of monocots have two cotyledons. _________________________

 

 23. 

Pollen is produced in the tip of the stamen, a structure called the sepal. _________________________

 

 24. 

The lower portion of the pistil produces pollen. _________________________

 

 25. 

Gametophytes develop within flowers. _________________________

 

 26. 

Pollen tubes grow through the style toward the ovule. _________________________

 

 27. 

Many seeds have appendages that aid in dispersal. _________________________

 

 28. 

Asexual reproduction produces new plants that are genetically different from the parent plant. _________________________

 

 29. 

Vegetative reproduction does require a plant to have flowers. _________________________

 

 30. 

In vegetative reproduction, new plants may be generated from stems or roots. _________________________

 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 31. 

The ancestors of today’s land plants were probably
a.
brown algae.
c.
green algae.
b.
red algae.
d.
lichens.
 

 32. 

Among the challenges that faced early land plants were
a.
eliminating excess water.
b.
obtaining sunlight for photosynthesis.
c.
absorbing minerals from the rocky surface.
d.
avoiding being eaten by grazing mammals.
 

 33. 

The waxy protective covering of a land plant is called a
a.
cuticle.
c.
rhizome.
b.
capsule.
d.
stoma.
 

 34. 

Some land plants developed an internal system of interconnected tubes and vessels called
a.
cuticles.
c.
a circulatory system.
b.
nonvascular canals.
d.
vascular tissue.
 

 35. 

sporophytes : spores ::
a.
sporophytes : gametophytes
c.
gametes : gametophytes
b.
gametophytes : gametes
d.
sporophytes : gametes
 

 36. 

The diploid form in a plant’s life cycle is called the
a.
sporophyte.
c.
parental generation.
b.
gametophyte.
d.
alternate generation.
 

 37. 

The haploid form in a plant’s life cycle is called the
a.
sporophyte.
c.
parental generation.
b.
gametophyte.
d.
alternate generation.
 

 38. 

A haploid stage following a diploid stage in a plant’s life cycle is called
a.
generational recycling.
c.
alternating forms.
b.
periodic gametogenesis.
d.
alternation of generations.
 

 39. 

In plants, haploid gametes are produced as a result of
a.
fertilization.
c.
encapsulation.
b.
meiosis.
d.
mitosis.
 

 40. 

sporophytes : meiosis ::
a.
sporophytes : spores
c.
gametophytes : gametes
b.
gametophytes : mitosis
d.
sporophytes : gametes
 

 41. 

Mosses, hornworts, and liverworts all possess
a.
fibrous roots.
c.
tap roots.
b.
spore capsules.
d.
green leaves.
 

 42. 

In nonvascular plants, structures in which spores are produced are known as
a.
meristems.
c.
cones.
b.
pollen grains.
d.
sporangia.
 

 43. 

Which of the following statements about moss spores is not true?
a.
They are produced by the sporophyte.
b.
They are dispersed and then germinate.
c.
They are produced in a capsule-like top.
d.
They are diploid.
 

 44. 

The sporophyte generation in mosses produces spores by
a.
meiosis.
c.
sexual reproduction.
b.
mitosis.
d.
asexual reproduction.
 

 45. 

The most noticeable form of a moss life cycle is the
a.
sporophyte.
c.
rhizoid.
b.
gametophyte.
d.
zygote.
 

 46. 

In which of the following structures do seedless plants produce eggs?
a.
antheridia
c.
archegonia
b.
capsules
d.
cones
 

 47. 

antheridia : sperm ::
a.
rhizoids : gametes
c.
archegonia : eggs
b.
seeds : gametophytes
d.
sperm : megaspores
 

 48. 

Both mosses and ferns produce
a.
seeds.
c.
flowers.
b.
fruit.
d.
spores.
 

 49. 

Fern sporophytes consist of rhizomes,
a.
large leaves, and flowers.
c.
pollen grains, and ovules.
b.
cones, and stems.
d.
roots, and fronds.
 

 50. 

Unlike mosses, ferns possess
a.
spore capsules.
c.
antheridia.
b.
archegonia.
d.
vascular tissue.
 

 51. 

Fiddleheads are produced by
a.
whisk ferns.
c.
ferns.
b.
club mosses.
d.
horsetails.
 

 52. 

Both mosses and ferns produce gametes through
a.
mitosis.
c.
osmosis.
b.
meiosis.
d.
diffusion.
 

 53. 

vascular plants : sporophytes ::
a.
sporophytic plants : gametophytes
c.
spores : gametes
b.
gametes : sporophytes
d.
nonvascular plants : gametophytes
 
 
The diagram below shows the plant life cycle.
nar001-1.jpg
 

 54. 

Refer to the diagram above. At which point in the life cycle does fertilization take place?
a.
1
c.
3
b.
2
d.
4
 

 55. 

Refer to the diagram above. The structures produced at 3 are called
a.
sporangia.
c.
spores.
b.
archegonia.
d.
antheridia.
 

 56. 

Which of the following were the first land plants to evolve seeds?
a.
angiosperms
c.
mosses
b.
gymnosperms
d.
horsetails
 

 57. 

liverworts, hornworts, and mosses : nonvascular plants ::
a.
gymnosperms and angiosperms : bryophytes
b.
ferns : mosses
c.
gymnosperms and angiosperms : seed plants
d.
bryophytes and liverworts : vascular plants
 

 58. 

gymnosperms : naked seeds ::
a.
pollen : mosses
c.
liverwort : vascular tissue
b.
liverwort : pollen
d.
angiosperms : enclosed seeds
 

 59. 

In seed plants, female gametophytes produce
a.
sperm.
c.
cells.
b.
eggs.
d.
spores.
 

 60. 

A male gametophyte of a seed plant develops into a
a.
pollen grain.
c.
pollen tube.
b.
spore capsule.
d.
seed coat.
 

 61. 

The partially developed plant found in seeds is known as a(n)
a.
gametophyte.
c.
embryo.
b.
spore capsule.
d.
sporophyte.
 

 62. 

A typical seed contains all of the following except a(n)
a.
seed coat.
c.
embryo.
b.
nutritious tissue.
d.
spore case.
 

 63. 

The tallest trees in the world are a species of
a.
conifers.
c.
liverworts.
b.
dicots.
d.
angiosperms.
 

 64. 

The process of transferring pollen from a male cone to a female cone in gymnosperms is called
a.
fertilization.
c.
pollination.
b.
seed formation.
d.
asexual reproduction.
 

 65. 

In conifers, the diploid condition is resumed following
a.
pollination.
c.
respiration.
b.
fertilization.
d.
sporulation.
 

 66. 

The seeds of monocots have
a.
one embryo and two cotyledons.
c.
one embryo and one cotyledon.
b.
two embryos and two cotyledons.
d.
two embryos and one cotyledon.
 

 67. 

Flowering plants are classified as monocots or dicots according to the number of their
a.
leaves.
c.
meristems.
b.
flowers.
d.
cotyledons.
 

 68. 

Monocots and dicots are subdivisions of
a.
angiosperms.
c.
ferns.
b.
gymnosperms.
d.
mosses.
 
 
nar002-1.jpg
 

 69. 

Refer to the diagram above. The structure labeled f
a.
supports the anther.
c.
supports the pistil.
b.
produces pollen.
d.
develops into a fruit.
 

 70. 

Refer to the diagram above. The structure labeled c
a.
produces pollen.
b.
contains sperm cells.
c.
is the area where pollen lands and sticks.
d.
contains meristematic tissue.
 

 71. 

Removing a flower’s stigma would initially affect
a.
fertilization.
c.
pollination.
b.
seed production.
d.
seed dispersal.
 

 72. 

Pollen is produced in a structure called the
a.
anther.
c.
ovary.
b.
stigma.
d.
pistil.
 

 73. 

In angiosperms, immediately following pollination,
a.
the seed develops.
c.
fertilization occurs.
b.
an egg cell is formed.
d.
the pollen tube begins to form.
 

 74. 

During fertilization in flowering plants, one sperm fuses with an egg to form an embryo, and another fuses with two nuclei to form nutritive tissue. This event is called
a.
self-pollination.
c.
maximization.
b.
adaptation.
d.
double fertilization.
 

 75. 

fruit : mature ovary
a.
gametophyte : sporophyte
c.
cotyledon : food reserve
b.
gymnosperm : angiosperm
d.
vascular plant : nonvascular plant
 

 76. 

If a plant’s flowers are very colorful and produce nectar, the plant is probably pollinated by
a.
water.
c.
insects.
b.
wind.
d.
self-pollination.
 

 77. 

One way that flowers produced by angiosperms help ensure the transfer of gametes is by
a.
traveling in the air currents.
b.
bursting open and projecting gametes onto the landscape.
c.
attracting animals that carry pollen from one flower to another.
d.
producing tasty fruits that animals depend on for food.
 

 78. 

What function do all fruits produced by angiosperms perform?
a.
produce nutrients for the plant
b.
nourish the embryos
c.
disperse the seeds
d.
ensure pollination
 

 79. 

Which structure allows plants to reproduce asexually?
a.
tuber
c.
archegonium
b.
flower
d.
antheridium
 

 80. 

The production of offspring genetically identical to the parent plant is the result of
a.
sexual reproduction.
c.
alternation of generations.
b.
asexual reproduction.
d.
double fertilization.
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 81. 

The surface of a vascular plant is covered by a waxy, waterproof layer called a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 82. 

One of the first environmental challenges that early land plants had to overcome was developing a way to conserve ____________________.
 

 

 83. 

The sporophyte generation produces spores by the process of ____________________.
 

 

 84. 

The haploid form of a plant is known as the ____________________ generation.
 

 

 85. 

Nonvascular plants transport materials within their bodies through the process of ____________________.
 

 

 86. 

A green, hornlike sporophyte growing upward from the gametophyte is typical of plants known as ____________________.
 

 

 87. 

In mosses and liverworts, the ____________________ generation is the dominant generation.
 

 

 88. 

The very tiny liverwort ____________________ grow from the archegonia under the caps of female stalks.
 

 

 89. 

The gametophytes of ____________________ plants are larger and more noticeable than the sporophytes.
 

 

 90. 

The seedless plants produce sperm within the ____________________.
 

 

 91. 

True roots, stems, and leaves are associated with ____________________ plants.
 

 

 92. 

A fern is an example of a(n) ____________________ vascular plant.
 

 

 93. 

Both mosses and ferns produce eggs within structures called ____________________.
 

 

 94. 

Like the nonvascular plants, the seedless vascular plants can reproduce sexually only when a film of ____________________ covers the gametophyte.
 

 

 95. 

Unlike mosses, ferns have sporophytes that are much ____________________ than their gametophytes.
 

 

 96. 

Seed plants whose seeds do not develop within a sealed container (fruit) are called ____________________.
 

 

 97. 

Fruit is a characteristic associated only with the flowering plants, or ____________________.
 

 

 98. 

A male gametophyte of a seed plant develops into a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 99. 

The ____________________ is the protective cover that surrounds a seed.
 

 

 100. 

The seed coat prevents the embryo from drying out, from mechanical injury, and from ____________________.
 

 

 101. 

A(n) ____________________ is a specialized structure that develops from an ovule and serves to protect a plant embryo from harsh conditions.
 

 

 102. 

The four major groups of gymnosperms are gnetophytes, cycads, ginkgoes, and ____________________.
 

 

 103. 

A mature pine tree produces both male and female ____________________.
 

 

 104. 

Gymnosperms are pollinated by ____________________, which makes sexual reproduction possible even during dry conditions.
 

 

 105. 

The life cycle of a conifer is characterized by a large ____________________ generation.
 

 

 106. 

In conifers, seeds form on the ____________________ of cones.
 

 

 107. 

A plant that has flower parts that occur in fours or fives or multiples of four or five is a member of a subgroup called a(n) ____________________.
 

 
 
nar002-1.jpg
 

 108. 

Refer to the diagram above. The structure labeled f is called the ____________________.
 

 

 109. 

Refer to the diagram above. The structure labeled b is called the ____________________.
 

 

 110. 

Refer to the diagram above. A flower like this one has all four basic flower parts and thus is an example of a(n) ____________________ flower.
 

 

 111. 

The transfer of pollen grains from an anther to a stigma is known as ____________________.
 

 

 112. 

In angiosperms, seeds develop from the ____________________ inside a(n) ____________________ after an egg has been fertilized.
 

 

 113. 

The event in which one sperm fertilizes an egg and a second sperm fuses with two nuclei is called _________________________.
 

 

 114. 

A flower is a(n) ____________________ structure that produces pollen and seeds.
 

 

 115. 

Flowers are a source of ____________________ for pollinators.
 

 

 116. 

The seeds of angiosperms are enclosed in ____________________.
 

 

 117. 

Because flowering plants are rooted in the ground and cannot move from place to place, they must disperse their ____________________ so that their offspring can grow in new environments.
 

 

 118. 

Many fruits are spread by ____________________ that are attracted to sweet, fleshy fruits, which they use for food.
 

 

 119. 

Many of the structures by which plants reproduce vegetatively are modified ____________________.
 

 

 120. 

Bulbs, stolons, and tubers are examples of modified stems that allow plants to reproduce ____________________.
 

 



 
Check Your Work     Start Over