1. Approximately what
percentage of animals are invertebrates?
What are invertebrates?
3. Name the phyla of
invertebrates and members of each phyla.
__________ are in the phylum Porifera. There
are about _____ different species & most of
these are _________ organisms found in oceans & seas.
A few sponges are found in __________,
but these are small and not brightly colored.
Sponges are _____________ that trap __________ from water as it flows through
Sponges have no basic body arrangement and are said to be ________________.
Sponges live attached to one spot as adults so they are __________.
The skeleton of sponges is made of a flexible protein called ___________ and
hard fibers called __________
which are composed of calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide.
9. Sponges are full
of holes called __________ through which water flows into their __________
10. Sponges are the simplest
animals and lack the __________ level of specialization like all
other animals. Sponges do have some specialized _________ in their
11. Special cells
called choanocytes line the pores and have __________ that spin to pull in
__________cells at the base of choanocytes capture plankton from the water
& start digesting it.
_______________ are special cells that carry this food to all other parts of
Wastes and excess water leave a sponge through a large opening at the top
called the __________.
15. Sponges reproduce
asexually by internal or external __________ and by _______________ whenever
a piece of a sponge breaks off. This
last method helps sponges form _____________.
16. Sponges reproduce
sexually also and are _______________ producing both eggs and sperm. Sponges
__________ sperm with each other and do not fertilize their own eggs.
Internal buds or ____________ form if the freshwater supply evaporates and are
release when the sponge
__________ and become ___________ when freshwater returns.
The phylum Cnidaria includes what organisms?
All cnidarians are _______________ organisms except for the __________ which
is found in freshwater.
19. Cnidarians all
have _______________ symmetry and _____________ or arms that have stinging
cells called _______________. These
stinging cells shoot out like a _______________ and contain a __________ that can kill or paralyze
Cnidarians have _____ body layers; an inner _______________ and an outer
Cnidarians have _______ opening into their hollow bodies called the __________
so food enters and wastes leave
through this same opening. This
is called a ________________ digestive system.
22. The hollow cavity
the mouth opens into is called the ____________________ cavity.
23. Cnidarians have 2
body forms. ___________ forms have the mouth & tentacles located at the
top like Hydra, corals, and sea anemones. _____________forms
like the jellyfish have their tentacles and mouth located at the bottom.
Some cnidarians like the _______________ go through both polyp and medusa
forms in their life cycle.
25. Cnidarians have a
simple nerve _________ and can reproduce both _____________ and _____________.
Corals build _____________ cases that make underwater ___________.
Flatworms are in the phylum _______________ and are flattened ______________
with __________ symmetry.
28. Flatworms are
said to be _________________ because of their solid body.
____________ are parasitic flatworms having only _______ body opening called the
Specialized _____________ cells remove wastes.
The ______________ is the most common free living flatworm.
It is found in __________ or _____________ places.
produce both eggs and sperm and are said to be ________________; however, they
_____________ sperm with other planarians.
Planarians also reproduce asexually by _________________.
33. Flukes and
tapeworms usually live in their host's ______________ tract resistant to
digestive _______________ allowing the __________ to digest their food.
34. Tapeworms are
divided into sections called _________________ with complete _________________ structures.
The head is called the _______________ and has both _________________ and ______________ to attach to the host.
35. Tapeworms are ___________________ and ______________ their own eggs which pass out of the host's body in ripe ____________________ along with feces.
36. Humans get tapeworms
from eating _______________________, while children pick up tapeworm
eggs from ________________ boxes.
_______________ are in the phylum Nematoda and are _________________ in shape
and ________________ at both ends.
38. Roundworms are
____________________ because their body cavity or ________________is not fully lined.
The body cavity is filled with fluid giving them a
Roundworms have a complete gut with both a ______________ and an
_____________ giving them a ________________ digestive tract.
Roundworms have no ____________ and no ___________ but can digest food.
Most roundworms are _________________ with ________________ symmetry and no _____________________. They
are found in _______________________.
A protective __________________covers them and must be _____________.
Roundworms reproduce _________________.
44. The roundworm
called Trichinella causes the disease _______________ and is picked up when
someone eats ________________________. This
disease affects the ______________ and _______________.
The roundworm Ascaris parasitizes human _____________________.
_________________ are common parasites of humans, and the Filaria worm
attacks the _________________ system causing great swelling.
46. Rotifers are ___________________ worms found in terrestrial & aquatic habitats.
47. Rotifers have a
crown of ______________ surrounding their mouth for ________________ and ______________________. Their
bodies are covered with ________________.
Rotifers have separate _____________, but some species reproduce by _______________________.
50. Name several
organisms in the phylum Mollusca.
51.Mollusks have a
durable shell made of ________________ and are found ________________.
List several economic importance's of this group.
Name the 2 largest invertebrates.
54. Mollusks have
________________ symmetry and a ___________________ containing their body
organs. Mollusks also have a
muscular ____________ for movement which can be modified into arms or
Mollusks breathe through ________________ or________________ located below a protective
layer called the _______________. This
layer can also form an external _____________.
The ______________ is a rough tongue for scraping food.
57. Mollusks have a
___________________ heart and an ______________________circulatory system.
reproduce ___________________ and go through a free swimming larval stage called
____________________ mollusks have a muscular foot on their belly and include
the shelled _______________ and the unshelled ________________.
___________________ mollusks have a 2 part hinged shell that is opened and
closed by _________________ muscles. They
move by ___________________ or by extending their muscular _______________,
and they respire through __________________.
61. Name some bivalve mollusks.
_____________________ are head-foot mollusks that have a _______________
and ________________, arms or ___________________, and
____________________ to move by jet
63. Name some
What is the only shelled cephalopod?
Cephalopods breathe through _______________ .
Cephalopods are the most ________________________ mollusks.
The _____________________ & ________________ can secrete an inky substance
into the water to escape predators and
have an __________________ shell.
Annelids are ____________________ worms found in _________________.
External segments correspond to internal segments called _______________.
Give two ways that segmentation is an advantage for an organism.
Annelids have a tube within a tube body plan called the ___________________
where the body _______________ are
located. This tube runs from the _________________ to the _______________ and
is fully _______________.
Annelids show ______________________ by having bilateral symmetry with an
anterior head where most sense organs
Coelomic fluid gives annelids a ______________________ skeleton.
The best known member of this group is the ____________________ which moves by
external bristles called
_________________ on each body segment. These
bristles are made of _________________. Earthworms
respire through their ________________________ and have a ___________________
circulatory system and _____________ pairs of hearts or
75. Describe how an
earthworm feeds and tell how this helps the environment.
What are castings and where can they be found?
are annelids with _____________ at both the anterior and posterior end.
Anterior suckers are used to __________________________ , while
posterior suckers help to ____________________________.
Most leeches are _______________________ or ____________________, but blood
sucking leeches are collected for
79. Both leeches and
earthworms produce eggs and sperm and are called _______________________;
however, leeches lack ________________ and are flattened _________________________.
___________________ are marine annelids whose setae are modified into paddle like
____________________ for movement
and more area for _______________________.
81. Polychaetes live
commensally with what other organisms?
82. Arthropod means
83. Give 5
characteristics of all arthropods.
What is ecdysis and why is it necessary?
85. What is the
exoskeleton of arthropods composed of?
What is meant by an open circulatory system?
87. Arthropods are
divided on the type of _____________________ they have. ______________________ have
chelicerae or fangs and no_________________, _______________________ have pincers called ___________________,
and _______________________ have mandibles or
___________________ are extinct, marine arthropods with a_____________ and segmented
_____________________ with a pair of legs on each section.
________________________ arthropods like insects, centipedes, & millipedes
breathe through hollow air tubes
called _____________________; aquatic
chelicerates like the ____________________ crab have ___________________ to
breathe; spiders, ticks, and scorpions
use _____________________ to get air; and crustaceans breathe through ______________________.
mandibulates are ____________________ with one-branched appendages; while aquatic
crustaceans are _______________________ with two-branched appendages.
91. Arthropods have a
nervous system with an anterior ___________________ and sensory organs
that include compound eyes or simple eyes called _______________; ______________________ membranes for hearing; and
___________________ for smelling,
feeling, or tasting.
______________________ tubules filter wastes in arthropods.
The subphylum Chelicerarta contains the class ______________________ with the
horseshoe Crab and the class ____________________ with spiders, ticks,
scorpions, & mites. Both
classes have ___________ body regions, the ___________________ and abdomen, no
___________________, ____________________ legs, and ___________________ or
Appendages on the head of chelicerates called _____________________ are used
for sensing the environment and getting
food into the mouth.
Spiders have posterior glands called ________________ that help make their
silken webs to get prey.
Spiders detect movement whenever their prey gets caught in their ________________ and by sensory ________________ on their body.
Spiders produce _______________ to kill their prey & are beneficial because
they feed mainly on ____________________.
Spiders are unlike insects in that they have _____________ not ___________
legs, only ___________________ eyes
and not compound, and _________ body regions and not _____________.
97. Name the body
regions of insects and spiders.
____________________ and ____________________ are two poisonous spiders in our
The class Crustacea is in the subphylum _______________________ and
includes _________________, ________________, ________________,
_________________, _________________, and the terrestrial __________________ &
Crustaceans have a pair of sensory __________________ and a pair of shorter ___________________
for balance. The head also contains three types of mouthparts - _____________________, _____________________, and
_______________________. They also have pincers called
__________________ to help catch and eat food.
crustaceans have an external shell or __________________ that must be molted, and
they are used by man for ___________________.
The class _____________________ contains predators called centipedes
with ________________, _________________ glands,
posterior_______________, & ________________ pairs of legs per body segment.
103. The class
____________________ contains millipedes which are ____________________ with
_______________ pairs of legs per body segment.
The largest and most successful group of arthropods are the
Insects have _______ body regions, _________ legs, a pair of sensory
________________, and a pair of
________________ for flight. ___________________ & ___________________ are
wingless insects, while flies have their second pair of wings modified into
balancing organs called ____________________.
106. Insects have 4 mouthparts which include the jaw or ________________, the _______________, the lower lip or _________________, and the upper lip or __________________.
mouthparts are modified according to their ___________________. Butterflies have ___________________ mouthparts, flies have _________________
mouthparts, mosquitoes have ________________ mouthparts, and grasshoppers
have ___________________ mouthparts.
Wings and legs are both attached to the _________________ on insects,
and some female insects have an egg laying tube or ____________________ on the
end of their abdomen.
109. Name 2 ways
Insects detect sound by _________________ membranes on the abdomen and sensory _______________ that cover their body.
_________________ along the abdomen of insects open into their breathing tubes
112. Insects with
_________________ metamorphosis go through egg, larva, pupa, & adult stages;
while those with incomplete metamorphosis go through ________________, ___________________, and _________________ stages.
113. Give examples of
insects with complete and incomplete metamorphosis.
__________________ control metamorphosis.
115. Give some
examples of echinoderms.
What does echinoderm mean?
117. Why are
echinoderms considered to be the most advanced invertebrates?
invertebrates, except echinoderms, are considered to be________________ because
their blastopore becomes their _________________.
Echinoderms have an __________________ made of movable or fixed calcium plates
___________________ symmetry with a ______________ part body plan, no
__________________ or _________________ as adults, and extendable
________________________ for movement.
Echinoderms have a ___________________________ system composed of canals.
Water enters a pore called the ______________________ and goes through
a short _________________ canal to the _______________ canal.
__________________ canals connect
to the ring canal & determine the 5 part body plan.
How do starfish use their water vascular system when feeding?
_____________________ are used for respiration and________________.
Echinoderms reproduce asexually by _____________________ or sexually with _________________ fertilization.
Starfish are in the class ____________________ and are active marine
_______________ With _______________ arms attached to a _______________________.
Their mouth is located on the underside or _________________ surface.
___________________ mollusks are favorite food of starfish. They can eject
their _________________ into the clam
and digest it.
125. ___________________ and ____________________ are in the class Echinoidea and they lack distinct __________________. They do have five rows of protruding _____________________ which they use along with external __________________ for movement. Triangular ________________ around the mouth help them scrap or crush their food. They graze on __________________,
____________________, & dead fish.
126. The class
Crinoidea contains ______________________ & ______________________.
Crinoids have upright, highly branching ________________ around their mouth
which they use for
lilies are attached by a _________________, while feather stars are able to
________________ and move about.
128. Brittle stars are
in the class ________________ and have slender _______________ that
easily break off to escape predators.
Holothuroidea contains ___________________ that are soft, sluglike marine
creatures with ___________________
outer skin. They usually lie ________________________ and can eject part
of their _____________________ to scare away predators.
They move with _________________ or by
of these are _________________________ which is unusual for echinoderms.