Little Rock School District
Student Learning Expectations:
Nature of Science
Standard 10: Students shall demonstrate an
understanding that science is a way of knowing.
Explain why science is limited to natural
explanations of how the world works
Explain why science is limited to natural explanations of how the world works
Compare and contrast hypotheses, theories, and laws
Distinguish between a scientific theory and the term “theory” used in general conversation
Summarize the guidelines of science:
A. Explanations are based on observations, evidence, and testing
B. Hypotheses must be testable
C. Understandings and/or conclusions may change with additional empirical data
D. Scientific knowledge must have peer review and verification before acceptance
Standard 11: Students shall design and safely conduct scientific inquiry
Develop and explain the appropriate procedure, controls, and variables (dependent and independent) in scientific experimentation
Research and apply appropriate safety precautions (refer to ADE Guidelines) when designing and/or conducting scientific investigations
Identify sources of bias that could affect experimental outcome
Gather and analyze data using appropriate summary statistics
Formulate valid conclusions without bias
Communicate experimental results using appropriate reports, figures, and tables
Standard 12: Students shall demonstrate an
understanding of current life science theories.
Recognize that theories are scientific explanations that require empirical data, verification, and peer review
Understand that scientific theories may be modified or expanded based on additional empirical data, verification, and peer review
Standard 13: Students shall use mathematics,
science equipment, and technology as tools to communicate and solve
life science problems
Collect and analyze scientific data using appropriate mathematical calculations, figures, and tables
Use appropriate equipment and technology as tools for solving problems (e.g., microscopes, centrifuges, flexible arm cameras, computer software and hardware)
Utilize technology to communicate research findings
Standard 14: Students shall describe the
connections between pure and applied science.
Compare and contrast biological concepts in pure science and applied science
Discuss why scientists should work within ethical parameters
Standard 15: Students shall describe various life
science careers and the training required for the selected career
Research and evaluate science careers using the following criteria:
The major content themes of biology
Ø Matter and Energy
Ø Reproduction and Inheritance
Ø Homeostasis and Stability
What science is and is not
Ø Deals only with natural world
Ø Explanations can be tested
Ø Explanations are used to make predictions
Ø Is revised to account for new evidence
Ø Also refers to a body of knowledge that has accumulated after repeated attempts to verify/refute
Process of science
Ø Starts with observation
Ø Form inferences
Ø Develop hypotheses
Ø Test hypotheses
Ø Form Theories
Hypotheses vs. theories vs. laws
Ø What if statements
Ø Researched, hypothesized and tested
Ø Statements of occurrences in natural world
Ø Peer collaboration
Ø Peer verification
Designing an Experiment
Ø Stating the problem
Ø Forming hypotheses
Ø Setting up controlled experiment
Ø Recording and analyzing results
Ø Drawing conclusions
Ø *Science Fair Proposals
How raw data must be
organized to reveal patterns
How to take data and
Using charts to
Interpret results by
what is seen and not what it is thought to be
and rates of change
information from graphs
in data plots
The role of
dependent and independent variables
A theory is more than a guess
It involves research
Must be repeatable
May combine several
Ex. Plate Tectonic
Theory and how it developed
The tools of
The metric system
The role of
science in society
Science leads to
changes in technology
the goal of science
is to improve human condition
Life has value and
should be respected even during research
Pure science is
research that leads to the research being applied or used for the good of
What are some of the
various life science careers?
What kind of
training does it take to be a life scientist?
What are the working
conditions and compensation for being a life scientist?
How can you use the same skills and strategies as a scientist to learn
about your world?
What is the importance of the major themes of
What is the role of experimental design in
What systematic procedures are necessary to
investigate biological problems?
What are important tools used in the study of
What are useful data types and how are they
What important mathematical manipulations should
be performed on qualitative data?
Why is the scientific method a logical process for
observing the natural world
What is the difference between a hypothesis and a
Why it is important to acknowledge that science is
a human endeavor, not separate from society but a part of society?
what ways do scientists make accommodations for differences in racial,
social, and ethnic backgrounds among scientists?
What are some of the various roles that science plays in society, especially in the workforce?
Scientific Method Lab (Vitruvian Man) Lab Report
( found in LRSD Biology Literacy Notebook)
“Owls use dung to “Fish” for Beetles”
“Distinguishing Science and Pseudoscience”
“Scientific Laws, Hypotheses, and Theories”
“Wrong! Wrong! Wrong!”
“Designing an Experiment”
“The effects of steroids on athletes”
“Experimental Design/Presentation Rubric”
“ Experimental Design Reference”
“Natural plant defenses-fight or flight?”
“Brainwashed by Parasite Worms”
“Toads that Go Pop in the night”
“Weapons of Mouse Destruction?”
“A Weed, a Fly, a Mouse and a Chain of Unintended
“Future Tech, Spare Parts”
“Device Uses Sewage Bacteria to Produce Electricity”
“Locus Inspire Technology That May Prevent Car Crashes”
“Scientists sticking it to nature by replicating tiny gecko feet”
Ecological and Biological Relationships
Standard 8: Students shall demonstrate an
understanding of ecological and behavioral relationships among organisms.
contrast the characteristics of biomes.
carbon, nitrogen, phosphate, and water cycles in an ecosystem.
Analyze an ecosystem’s
energy flow through food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids.
predict the factors that control population, including predation,
competition, crowding, water, nutrients, and shelter.
symbiotic ways in which individuals within a community interact
with each other: commensalisms, parasitism and
contrast primary succession with secondary succession.
properties of each of the five levels of ecology: organism, population
,community ,ecosystem and biosphere
Compare and contrast the functions of autotrophs and heterotrophs
9: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of ecological impact of
effects of human population growth and technology on the
range plans concerning resource use and by-product disposal in terms of
their environmental, economic, and political impact.
current world issues applying scientific themes (e.g., global changes in
climate, epidemics, pandemics,
ozone depletion, UV radiation, natural resources, use of technology,
and public policy).
Molecules and Cells
Standard 1: Students shall demonstrate an
understanding of the role of chemistry in life processes.
Describe the structure and function of the major organic molecules found in living systems:
Investigate the properties and importance of water and its significance for life:
· surface tension
Describe the relationship between an enzyme and its substrate molecule(s)
Explain the role of energy in chemical reactions of living systems:
Levels of Organization
Ø biosphere àBiomeà ecosystem à community à population à species à organism
Ø Autotroph vs. Heterotroph
Ø Producers: photosynthesis and chemosynthesis
Ø Consumers: herbivore, carnivore, detritivore, omnivore, decomposer
Ø Feeding relationships: food chain vs. food web
Ø Energy conversion and transfer by trophic levels
Ø Water cycle
Ø Nutrient cycles: Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorous
Ecosystem productivity and biomass
Factors shaping ecosystems:
Ø Climate zones and Greenhouse phenomenon
Ø Biotic and Abiotic factors
Ø Niche concept
Ø Community interactions: competition, predation, symbiotic interactions (commensalisms, mutualism, parasitism)
Ø Primary succession and pioneer species
Ø Secondary succession
Ø Identify defining characteristics of each
Ø Terrestrial biomes: tropical rain and dry forests, savanna, desert, grassland, temperate woodland and shrubland, temperate forests, coniferous forests, boreal (taiga) forests, tundra
Ø Aquatic ecosystems:
Ø Freshwater – flowing, standing,
Ø Marine – photic vs. aphotic
Ø Zones, intertidal, coastal, coral
Ø Reef, open ocean, benthic zone
Ø Factors affecting and limiting growth
Ø Density-dependent and density independent factors
Ø Carrying capacity vs. exponential growth
Ø Describe human population growth, analyze age structures, describe how humans growth has affected other species
Human impact on the environment:
Ø Biodiversity threat
Ø 6th mass extinction
Ø pollution, acid rain, ozone depletion, and greenhouse affect
Ø global warming
Ø exotic (introduced) species
Ø conservation efforts and how individuals can affect change
Review basic chemistry concepts:
Ø atomic structure
Ø covalent, ionic, hydrogen
Ø elements and isotopes
Ø chemistry of carbon
Ø macromolecules of life – identify and describe structure (monomers) and examples of polymers
Ø lipids, carbohydrates, proteins,
Ø nucleic acids
Chemistry of water:
Ø hydrogen bonding
Ø water properties
Ø solutions and suspensions
Ø pH – acids and bases and buffers
Ø reactions and activation energy
Ø enzymes as catalysts
Ø 3-D structure of enzymes
Ø examples of enzymes
Ø how enzymes work
Ø regulation of enzymes
How are all living things connected to one another and to the universe?
How are the biotic factors of an ecosystem
different from the abiotic factors?
What are the biotic and abiotic factors present in
a temperate deciduous forest?
What is the general climate in each of the 7 major
What role does the climate play in determining the
types of organisms that can live in specific biomes?
How does carbon enter the living part of the
How does carbon re-enter the environment from
How does nitrogen cycle from the environment into
How does water enter and exit the biotic part of
the water cycle?
How does energy cycle through an ecosystem?
are some specific factors that limit growth of animal populations?
are three types of symbiotic relationships between organisms?
Give an example of each type or relationship.
does primary succession differ from secondary succession?
do humans impact the carbon cycle and what are the global consequences?
factors should be taken into consideration when deciding the location for
a new landfill?
human activities have impacted the ozone layer?
16. Why is sustainable use of natural resources important?
How do molecules sustain living things?
1. What are the major groups of organic compounds and how do they function in living things?
2. What is an enzyme and how does it function in cells?
3. Why is water essential to life?
4. What are the distinguishing chemical and physical properties of water?
Literacy Materials (Ecology)
“Soil Fertility in Agricultural Systems”
“Power or Plants?”
“What’s the big Deal About dirt?”
“ A Diverse Ecosystem Offers Little or No Protection Against Invading Species”
“Earth’s Uncanned Crusaders: Will Sardines Save Our Skin?”
“A melting Glacier in Tibet serves as an Example and a Warning”
“Overfishing is Emptying World’s Rivers, Lakes, Experts Warn”
“Global Warming is Spurring Evolution, Study Says”
“Is Global Warming Harmful to Health?”
“Enzymes may help brain clean the slates”
“Enzyme may aid people with Celiac Disease”
“Lactic acid is not muscles' foe, it's fuel”
October( thru end of 1st 9 weeks)
Nature of Sci.
Students shall demonstrate an understanding of current life science theories.
Relate the development of the cell theory to current trends in cellular biology.
Standard 2: Students shall demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of cells.
contrast prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Describe the role of sub-cellular structures (organelles, ribosomes, & cytoskeleton) in the life of a cell.
contrast the structures of an animal cell to a plant cell.
remainder of month during 2nd 9 weeks)
function of the plasma (cell) membrane to its structure.
using thermoregulation as an example.
contrast active transport and passive transport mechanisms:
Cell structure and function
Ø History: Hooke, van Leeuwenhoek
Ø History: cell theory (Schleiden, Schwann, Virchow)
Ø Symbiotic theory: Margulis
Ø Levels of Organization
Atoms -> Molecules->Cells-> Tissue->Organ->Organ System->Organism->Species->Population-> Community->Ecosystem->Biome->Biosphere
Ø Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes
o Be able to compare and contrast
Eukaryotic cell structure
o Compare plant vs animal cell
Ø Levels of organization
Ø Identify parts of a microscope
Ø Make specimen slides
Ø Identify parts of cell
Ø Cell membrane structure and function
Ø Lipid bilayer
Ø Cell wall
Ø Diffusion through
Ø Active transport
What are the activities cells carry out that are necessary to sustain life?
1. The invention of what important tools led to the formation of the cell theory?
2. What is the cell theory? What evidence supports the cell theory?
3. What are prokaryotic cells?
4. What are eukaryotic cells?
5. How do prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells compare?
6. What organelles are found in eukaryotic cells?
7. What is the function of each organelle?
8. What is the difference between animal and plant cells?
Plasma Membrane Essential Question:
How does the Plasma membrane function as the gateway of a cell?
1. How do the responsibilities of cells in multi cellular organisms compare to the cells that comprise single-celled organisms?
2. What is the composition of the cell (plasma) membrane?
3. What are the processes that allow materials to enter and exit the cell?
4. What is homeostasis?
5. How do cells maintain homeostasis?
Literacy Materials (Cell)
“How Human Cells Get Their Marching Orders”
“ Stressed to Death”
“Stem Cell Surprise”
“ Cells that Read Minds”
Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis
Standard 3: Students shall demonstrate an
understanding of how cells obtain and use energy. (Energetics)
contrast the structure and function of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
model the conversion of light energy to chemical energy by
photosynthetic organisms (light dependent & independent reactions).
contrast cellular respiration and photosynthesis as
energy conversion pathways.
Describe and model the conversion of stored energy (glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron
transport chain) in organic molecules into usable cellular energy (ATP).
Standard 2: Students shall demonstrate an
understanding of the structure and function of cells.
Compare and contrast
aerobic and anaerobic respiration (lactic acid and alcoholic
Describe and model the conversion
of light energy to chemical energy by photosynthetic organisms:
main events in the cell cycle (mitosis, interphase, &
cytokinesis), including the differences in plant and animal cell
List in order and describe the stages of mitosis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, &
meiotic maintenance of a constant chromosome number from one
generation to the next.
Ø Explain where plants get energy to produce food
Ø Describe the role of ATP in cellular activities
Ø Experiments of van Helmont, Priestley, Ingenhousz
Ø Photosynthesis equation
Ø Describe role of light and chlorophyll
Ø Describe structure and function of chloroplast
Ø Light-dependent reactions – describe what happens
Ø Light-independent reactions – describe Calvin cycle
Ø Identify factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis
Ø Chemical pathways
o Explain what cellular respiration is
o Describe what happens during glycolysis and products produced
o Name and describe two main types of fermentation
Ø Krebs cycle and Electron transport
o Describe what happens during Krebs cycle and products produced
o Explain how high-energy electrons are used in transport chain
o Identify pathways the body uses to release energy during exercise
Compare photosynthesis and cellular respiration
Cell cycle and Growth/Division
Ø Describe and identify typical stages in cell’s life cycle
Ø Somatic cell reproduction
o Mitotic stages, identify and describe
Ø Gamete production
o Meiosis, identify and describe stages
o Spermatogenesis vs. Oogenesis
Ø Compare mitosis and meiosis
Ø Regulation of cell cycle
Ø How do cancer cells differ from other cells
Why do living
things make or eat food?
1. How is the sun the ultimate source of energy for all living things?
How do organisms
produce and use energy?
What is cellular
4. What are the reactants and products of respiration?
5. What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
6. What is the role of ATP in photosynthesis and respiration?
Mitosis & Meiosis:
How do cells grow, divide, and make new cells?
1. What are mitosis and meiosis and which cells perform each process?
2. How does the chromosome number in parent cell and daughter cells differ with regards to mitosis and meiosis?
3. What is the difference in the way plant and animals undergo cell division?
4. How does crossing over act as the genetic mechanism for diversity?
Cellular Energetics Open Response item
“How do certain living things use sunlight to make food and why are they eaten?”
Compare and Contrast Respiration vs. Photosynthesis. Be sure to include the cell structures involved in each and how energy flows from the sun through living things.
Compare/Contrast Essay on Mitosis vs. Meiosis
& Photos Labs
“Lactic Acid Is Not Muscles’ Foe, It’s Fuel”
“Modified Mice Stay Super-fit”
“In the Genes”
“Grow in The Dark”
“Source of Half Earth’s Oxygen Gets Little Credit”
Heredity and Evolution
Standard 4: Students shall demonstrate an
understanding of heredity.
Differentiate among the laws and principles
of inheritance (dominance, segregation, independent assortment).
Use the laws of probability and Punnett
squares to predict genotypic and phenotypic ratios.
Analyze the historically significant work of
Evaluate karyotypes for abnormalities such as monosomy & trisomy.
The work of Gregor Mendel
Ø Describe Mendel’s work and summarize his conclusions
Ø Explain principle of dominance
Ø Law of segregation and independent assortment
Ø Describe what probability is
Ø Explain how probability is used in genetics
Ø Construct and read Punnett Squares
Patterns of inheritance
Ø Simple dominance
Ø Incomplete dominance
Ø Pedigree and karyotypes
Why do living things not look the same?
1. What are Mendel’s laws of heredity?
2. What are genotype and phenotype?
3. How do the terms heterozygous, homozygous, dominant and recessive relate to Mendelian genetics
4. What are the potential effects of genetic recombination and mutation on organisms?
Performance Assessment: Correctly Created and Diagnosed
“ Gene that led to man found”
“ Gene Study Identifies 5 Main Human Populations, Linking Them to Geography”
“Still Evolving , Human Genes Tell New Story”
“Without Gene, timid Mice Turn into Daredevils”
“Study Offers New Insight Into Why Learning Disorders Are Genetic”
“Early Risers have Mutated Gene, Study Says”
“A Gene for Romance? So It seems( Ask the Vole)
Standard 5: Students shall investigate the
molecular basis of genetics.
Model the components of a DNA nucleotide
and an RNA nucleotide.
Describe the Watson-Crick double helix
model of DNA, using the base-pairing rule (adenine-thymine,
Compare and contrast the structure and
function of DNA and RNA.
Describe and model the processes of
replication, transcription, and translation.
Compare and contrast the different types of mutation
events, including point mutation, frameshift mutation, deletion,
Identify effects of changes brought about by mutations
(beneficial, harmful, & neutral).
Molecules and Cells
Describe the structure and function of nucleic
acids found in living systems.
Relate the chromosome theory of heredity to
recent findings in genetic research (e.g., Human Genome
Project-HGP, chromosome therapy).
Research current events and topics in Biology
Standard 6: Students shall examine the development
of the theory of biological evolution.
Compare & contrast Lamarck's explanation
of evolution with HE.6.B.2
Darwin's theory of evolution by natural
Recognize that evolution involves a change in allele
frequencies in a population across successive generations.
Analyze the effects of mutations and
the resulting variations within a population in terms of natural
Illustrate mass extinction events using a time
Evaluate evolution in terms of evidence as found in the following:
Nature of Science
Compare the processes of relative and
radioactive dating to determine the age of fossils.
Understand that scientific theories may be
modified or expanded based on empirical data, verification, & peer
Heredity and Evolution
Interpret a Cladogram
Ø History of DNA – Griffith, Avery, Pauling, Franklin, Watson/Crick
Ø Summarize relationship between genes and DNA
Ø Describe structure of DNA
Ø Summarize events of DNA replication
Ø RNA and protein synthesis
o Compare DNA and RNA
o Describe types of RNA
o Stages in protein synthesis
o Contrast gene and chromosomal mutations
Ø Gene regulation
Ø Genetic engineering
What is evolution?
Ø Fact and theory
Ø Review what a theory is
History of evolutionary thought
Ø Darwin and Wallace
Ø Voyage of the Beagle
Ø Four postulates
Ø Influences on his theory: Hutton, Lyell, Malthus, Wallace
Ø Support for natural selection
Other mechanisms of evolutionary change
Ø Genetic drift
Speciation and Extinction
Evidence for evolution
Ø Fossil record
Ø Geographic distribution
Ø Comparative morphology
Ø Comparative embryology
Ø Artificial selection
Ø Observational examples (resistant bacteria)
Ø Hardy-Weinberg conditions
How does DNA
function as the basic set of instructions for all living things?
1. How can the structure and function of DNA and RNA be characterized?
2. How are the structures of DNA and RNA similar and different? How do DNA and RNA molecules replicate themselves? What was the nature of the quest for discovering the source of heredity in living things?
3. What types of methodology were used to conclude that DNA is the genetic material?
4. How can the structure of DNA be described? Who are notable contributors to our knowledge of DNA? What are the roles of DNA and RNA in the construction of proteins?
5. What is involved in the processes of transcription and translation?
6. What are some of the new DNA techniques molecular biologists have created to allow them to identify, study, and modify genetic information?
7. What is the Human Genome Project?
8. What are some issues that have arisen as a result of new DNA technologies?
9. How does DNA function as the basic set of instructions for all living things?
How do species
change over time?
1. What were some early models for how life formed on Earth?
2. What types of evidence support the theory of evolution?
3. How do environmental pressures cause variations in populations?
4. How does natural selection explain the idea of change over time?
Performance Assessment: Correctly Constructed DNA models
2. DNA models
“Molecular Structure of nucleic Acids”
“Chemical Achievers: Watson, Crick, Wilkins, and Franklin”
“Human, Chimp Ancestors may Have Mated, DNA suggests
Global warming is spurring evolution, study says
Still evolving, human genes tell new story
New study supports idea that primates, dinosaurs coexisted
Twenty species we may lose in the next twenty years
Hobbit-like human ancestor found in Asia
Fear of snakes, spiders rooted in evolution
Sex speeds up evolution
Rodent has long lineage
Fins to limbs: New fossil gives evolution insight
Spike seen in drug-resistant germ
Fins to limbs: New fossil gives evolution insight
Hard-wired for prejudice
Classification and the Diversity of life
Standard 7: Students shall demonstrate an
understanding that organisms are diverse.
Differentiate among the different domains (Bacteria,
Archaea, & Eukarya).
Differentiate the characteristics of the six kingdoms:
Identify the seven major taxonomic categories:
Classify and name organisms based on their
similarities and differences applying taxonomic nomenclature using dichotomous
Bacteria, Protists and Fungi
Compare and contrast the structures and
characteristics of viruses (lytic and lysogenic cycles)
with non-living and living things.
Evaluate the medical and economic importance
Classify bacteria according to their
characteristics and adaptations.
Evaluate the medical and economic importance
Describe the characteristics used to classify protists:
Evaluate the medical and economic importance
of protists .
Compare and contrast fungi with other
Evaluate the medical and economic importance of fungi.
Ø What is taxonomy?
Ø Explain how living things are organized
Ø Describe binomial nomenclature
Ø Explain Linnaeus’s hierarchical system
Ø Modern evolutionary classification
o Cladistics and acquired characteristics
o Explain evolutionary relationships
Ø Kingdoms and Domains
o Name the six kingdoms and explain characteristics of each
o Describe domain system of classification
Ø Viruses and Bacteria
Multicellular organisms – structure and function
scientists organize all the known living things on Earth?
1. What do taxonomists use to determine similarity between organisms?
How does taxonomy lend insight into the process of evolution
What are the major divisions in the modern classification
bacteria, protists and fungi so abundant, diverse and successful?
How do microscopic
organisms affect our lives?
2. How do viruses compare to organisms? What are the components of a typical virus?
3. How do viruses replicate?
4. How are viruses specific to particular host cells?
5. How does the virus that causes AIDS reproduce?
6. How can the spread of AIDS be prevented
7. What are the distinguishing characteristics of monerans, protists, and fungi in terms of anatomic features, food getting and reproductive methods; metabolic activities, and environmental responses?
Project Based Assessment:
Students construct a wanted poster on any disease causing bacteria or virus. At minimum it must include a picture, a description of the microorganism and the symptoms it causes
Communicable Disease Lab (LRSD Lab Handbook)
Bread Mold Lab(LRSD Lab Handbook)
Creating order out of chaos
Stinging fire ants have good points
Group revamps world of taxonomy
Linnean naming system faces challenges
Team races to catalog every species on earth
Literacy Items (Microorganisms)
The mighty worm
Device uses sewage bacteria to produce electricity
Differentiate between vascular and nonvascular
Differentiate among cycads, gymnosperms, and
Describe the structure and function of the major parts of a plant:
Relate the structure of plant tissues
(epidermal, ground, and vascular) to their functions.
Evaluate the medical and economic importance
Investigate Arkansas' biodiversity using appropriate tools and technology.
o Vascular vs. non-vascular plants
o Tissue types
What is the importance of plants in our lives?
1. What are distinguishing differences between nonvascular and vascular plants?
2. What specific roles do dermal, vascular, and ground tissues play in plants?
Lab Report on Seed germination inquiry lab
Natural plant defenses- fight or flight?
Soil fertility in agricultural systems
Power or plants
Differentiate the characteristics of the kingdom Animalia
Identify the symmetry of organisms:
o Animal characteristics: symmetry, anatomy, physiology
What are the similarities and differences among
What are the basic
body plans of all animals?
Why are body plans
useful in classifying animals?
Animal Phyla Lab-Correct Phyla Descriptions
Differentiate the characteristics of the kingdom Animalia .
Compare and contrast the major invertebrate classes according to their nervous, respiratory, excretory, circulatory, and digestive systems
Differentiate the characteristics of the
Compare and contrast the major vertebrate classes according to their nervous, respiratory, excretory, circulatory, digestive, reproductive and integumentary systems.
Compare and contrast life cycles of familiar organisms
Dissection and comparative anatomy
Dissection and comparative anatomy
Why are invertebrates so diverse, successful and abundant?
1. How are the body plans of invertebrates different from those of vertebrates?
2. What are the eight major invertebrate phyla and the major characteristics of each in terms of anatomical features; food getting and reproductive methods; metabolic activities; and environmental responses?
How does the spinal cord allow diversity in the form and function of
1. What distinguishes chordates from other animals?
2. What are the major structural and functional adaptations found in fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals? What are the major vertebrate systems that can be studied and compared?
3. How did the evolution of the spinal cord allow for diversity in the form and function of vertebrates?
Labeled/colored diagram from Earthworm Dry Lab
Frog dissection on FrogGuts
Suicide grasshoppers brainwashed by parasite worms
Toads that go pop in the night
Weapons of Mouse destruction?
Earth's uncanned crusaders: Will sardines save our skin?
Owls use dung to "fish" for beetles