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PCC Phylogeny Study Guide



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Biologists use a classification system to group organisms in part because organisms
a.
are going extinct.
c.
are too much alike.
b.
are very numerous and diverse.
d.
share too many derived characters.
 

 2. 

The study of organisms requires the use of
a.
only large, general categories of organisms.
b.
only small, specific categories of organisms.
c.
both large and small categories of organisms.
d.
no categories of organisms.
 

 3. 

Scientists assign each type of organism a universally accepted name in the system known as
a.
traditional classification.
c.
binomial nomenclature.
b.
the three domains.
d.
cladistics.
 

 4. 

For many species, there are often regional differences in their
a.
common names.
c.
taxa.
b.
scientific names.
d.
binomial nomenclature.
 

 5. 

In taxonomy, a group at any level of organization is referred to as a
a.
cladogram.
c.
taxon.
b.
binomial.
d.
system.
 

 6. 

Scientists have identified and named
a.
all living species.
c.
all extinct species.
b.
all living and extinct species.
d.
a fraction of all species.
 

 7. 

In the scientific version of a species name, which of the terms is capitalized?
a.
the first term only
c.
both the first and second terms
b.
the second term only
d.
neither the first nor the second term
 

 8. 

Based on their names, you know that the baboons Papio annubis and Papio cynocephalus do NOT belong to the same
a.
class.
c.
genus.
b.
family.
d.
species.
 

 9. 

How do binomial, or two-part, names compare with early versions of scientific names?
a.
They are longer.
c.
They are completely descriptive.
b.
They are shorter.
d.
They are in English.
 

 10. 

The second part of a scientific name is unique to each
a.
order in its class.
c.
genus in its family.
b.
family in its order.
d.
species in its genus.
 

 11. 

Often, the second part of a scientific name is
a.
a Latinized description of a particular trait.
b.
the same as for other members of the same genus.
c.
capitalized if it derives from a proper name.
d.
different in different locations.
 

 12. 

Before Linnaeus, scientific names were problematic because they were
a.
too brief to be descriptive.
c.
written only in Greek.
b.
very long and difficult to standardize.
d.
written only in Latin.
 

 13. 

In Linnaeus’s system of classification, how many taxonomic categories were there?
a.
one
c.
five
b.
three
d.
seven
 

 14. 

A genus is composed of a number of related
a.
kingdoms.
c.
orders.
b.
phyla.
d.
species.
 

 15. 

Several different classes make up a
a.
kingdom.
c.
family.
b.
phylum.
d.
genus.
 

 16. 

Which two kingdoms did Linnaeus recognize?
a.
bacteria and animals
c.
plants and animals
b.
plants and fungi
d.
protists and animals
 

 17. 

Animals that are warm-blooded, have body hair, and produce milk for their young are grouped in the class
a.
Amphibia.
c.
Aves.
b.
Mammalia.
d.
Reptilia.
 

 18. 

The most general and largest category in Linnaeus’s system is
a.
the phylum.
c.
the genus.
b.
the kingdom.
d.
the domain.
 

 19. 

Traditional classifications tended to take into account primarily
a.
extinct organisms.
c.
DNA similarities.
b.
RNA similarities.
d.
general similarities in appearance.
 

 20. 

Sometimes, organisms that are not closely related look similar because of
a.
convergent evolution.
c.
mutations.
b.
molecular clocks.
d.
reclassification.
 

 21. 

The procedure of grouping organisms based on their evolutionary history is called
a.
traditional classification.
c.
derived characters.
b.
binomial nomenclature.
d.
evolutionary classification.
 

 22. 

In an evolutionary classification scheme, species within one genus should
a.
be more similar to one another than they are to species in other genera. 
b.
not be similar in appearance.
c.
be limited to species that can interbreed.
d.
have identical genes.
 

 23. 

What kind of analysis focuses on the order in which derived characters appeared in organisms?
a.
cladistic analysis
c.
taxonomy
b.
traditional classification
d.
anatomy
 

 24. 

In biology, an evolutionary innovation is also referred to as a
a.
derived character.
c.
molecular clock.
b.
taxonomic group.
d.
physical similarity.
 

 25. 

What do scientists consider when they perform a cladistic analysis?
a.
only the RNA of organisms
c.
derived characters
b.
all traits of organisms
d.
only physical similarities
 

 26. 

An analysis of derived characters is used to generate a
a.
family tree based on external appearance.
b.
family tree based on DNA structure.
c.
cladogram.
d.
traditional classification system.
 

 27. 

What does a cladistic analysis show about organisms?
a.
the relative importance of each derived character
b.
the order in which derived characters evolved
c.
the general fitness of the organisms analyzed
d.
all traits of each organism analyzed
 

 28. 

Similar genes are evidence of
a.
binomial nomenclature.
c.
common ancestry.
b.
mutations.
d.
different anatomy.
 

 29. 

What do all organisms have in common?
a.
They use DNA and RNA to pass on information.
b.
They are all prokaryotes.
c.
They are all eukaryotes.
d.
They are genetically identical.
 

 30. 

What is true about dissimilar organisms such as a cow and a yeast?
a.
They are not related at all.
b.
Their degree of relatedness cannot be evaluated.
c.
Their degree of relatedness can be determined from their genes.
d.
They can interbreed and thus are the same species.
 

 31. 

Scientists have found that humans and yeasts
a.
have similar genes for the assembly of certain proteins.
b.
share all aspects of cellular structure.
c.
have nothing in common.
d.
cannot be evaluated for degree of relatedness.
 

 32. 

What does the presence of similar genes in very dissimilar organisms imply?
a.
The genes were produced by different selection pressures.
b.
The organisms share a common ancestor.
c.
The organisms do not share a common ancestor.
d.
The genes became identical through mutation.
 

 33. 

What is the main idea behind the model of a molecular clock?
a.
that neutral mutations accumulate at a steady rate
b.
that certain traits are under the pressure of natural selection
c.
that segments of DNA can be compared with segments of RNA
d.
that phenotypes, not genotypes, are affected by natural selection
 

 34. 

All organisms in the kingdoms Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia are
a.
multicellular organisms.
c.
eukaryotes.
b.
photosynthetic organisms.
d.
prokaryotes.
 

 35. 

Which kingdom contains heterotrophs with cell walls of chitin?
a.
Protista
c.
Plantae
b.
Fungi
d.
Animalia
 

 36. 

What kingdoms composed the three-kingdom classification system used by scientists in the late 1800s?
a.
animals, plants, fungi
c.
animals, fungi, protists
b.
animals, plants, bacteria
d.
animals, plants, protists
 

 37. 

Which of the kingdoms in the six-kingdom system of classification was once grouped with plants?
a.
Animalia
c.
Fungi
b.
Carnivores
d.
Protista
 

 38. 

Some scientists propose that the kingdom Protista should be broken up into several kingdoms. Which of these statements accurately supports this idea?
a.
Protists are all very similar and easy to confuse.
b.
Protista contains very diverse organisms that do not fit into the other kingdoms.
c.
Protists are the most numerous organisms on Earth.
d.
Protista evolved before any other kingdom.
 

 39. 

The domain that corresponds to the kingdom Eubacteria is
a.
Archaea.
c.
Eukarya.
b.
Bacteria.
d.
Fungi.
 

 40. 

The domain that contains unicellular organisms that live in extreme environments is
a.
Eubacteria.
c.
Archaea.
b.
Eukarya.
d.
Bacteria.
 

 41. 

The two domains composed of only unicellular organisms are
a.
Eubacteria and Archaea.
c.
Archaea and Bacteria.
b.
Eukarya and Bacteria.
d.
Archaea and Eukarya.
 

 42. 

The three-domain system arose when scientists grouped organisms according to how long they have been
a.
alive in their present forms.
c.
evolving independently.
b.
going extinct.
d.
using DNA to store information.
 

 43. 

The three-domain system recognizes fundamental differences between two groups of
a.
prokaryotes.
c.
protists.
b.
eukaryotes.
d.
multicellular organisms.
 

 44. 

Organisms in the kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaebacteria were previously grouped in a kingdom called
a.
Animalia.
c.
Monera.
b.
Fungi.
d.
Eukarya.
 

 45. 

What is thought to be true about the three domains of living things?
a.
They diverged from a common ancestor fairly recently.
b.
They diverged from a common ancestor before the evolution of the main groups of eukaryotes.
c.
They did not have a common ancestor.
d.
Domains Bacteria and Archaea evolved after the main groups of eukaryotes.
 

 46. 

Taxonomy is the science of:
a.
making new biological species.
b.
generating cladograms that represent evolutionary relationships between organisms.
c.
naming, describing, and classifying organisms.
d.
conserving biodiversity.
e.
comparing macromolecules to assess evolutionary relationships.
 

 47. 

About __________ different species have been described and named to date.
a.
160,000
b.
265,000
c.
750,000
d.
1.75 million
e.
6.25 million
 

 48. 

The scientific study of the diversity of organisms and the evolutionary relationships between them is:
a.
taxonomy.
b.
ecology.
c.
biological classification.
d.
evolutionary biology.
e.
systematics.
 

 49. 

What is the correct format for the scientific name of an extinct carnivorous dinosaur?
a.
tyrannosaurus Rex
b.
Tyrannosaurus Rex
c.
Tyrannosaurus rex
d.
Tyrannosaurusrex
e.
tyrannosaurus rex
 

 50. 

The binomial system of nomenclature is a product of the work of:
a.
Charles Darwin.
b.
Carolus Linnaeus.
c.
Gregor Mendel.
d.
Paul Hebert.
e.
Ernst Haeckel.
 

 51. 

Which classification level would contain the greatest number of species?
a.
class
b.
division or phylum
c.
domain
d.
family
e.
order
 

 52. 

Which classification level would be the least inclusive?
a.
genus
b.
family
c.
phylum
d.
order
e.
class
 

 53. 

Zea mays is the scientific name of the corn plant. Zea is the ____________ name.
a.
class
b.
division
c.
genus
d.
ordinal
e.
species
 

 54. 

Closely related or similar genera are grouped into a single:
a.
class.
b.
phylum.
c.
order.
d.
species.
e.
family.
 

 55. 

How would the scientific name of the yellow perch, Perca flavescens, be abbreviated?
a.
Perca f.
b.
Perca Fl.
c.
P. flavescens
d.
Perc. fl.
e.
P. flav.
 

 56. 

The classification scheme of Linnaeus was originally based on ________, but has now been altered to reflect ___________.
a.
similarities; structural differences
b.
biodiversity; structural similarity
c.
evolutionary history; structural similarity
d.
similarities; evolutionary history
e.
differences; similarities
 

 57. 

Which of the following is a taxon?
a.
class
b.
family
c.
phylum
d.
species
e.
All of the above.
 

 58. 

Some biologists are considering adopting a different classification scheme based on common ancestors, called:
a.
BioDiversity.
b.
the biological BarCode.
c.
the phylogical guide.
d.
the molecular blueprint.
e.
PhyloCode.
 

 59. 

Which of the following is the taxon that can be most clearly defined in biological terms?
a.
class
b.
species
c.
strain
d.
subspecies
e.
variety
 

 60. 

Most biologists recognize ___________ domains.
a.
3
b.
4
c.
5
d.
6
e.
12
 

 61. 

The classification level of domain is immediately "above" (more inclusive than) the level of:
a.
a class.
b.
a genus.
c.
a kingdom.
d.
a phylum.
e.
a species.
 

 62. 

The first kingdom recognized beyond Plantae and Animalia was:
a.
Archae.
b.
Protista.
c.
Eubacteria.
d.
Archaebacteria.
e.
Fungi.
 
 
Figure 22-02
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.

nar001-1.jpg
 

 63. 

The animals in Figure 22-02 are all representative of the:
a.
Class Carnivora.
b.
Order Carnivora.
c.
Phylum Animalia.
d.
Class Chordata.
e.
Order Mammalia.
 

 64. 

The taxonomic grouping that would represent the next highest (more inclusive) level above that represented in Figure 22-02 is:
a.
Family.
b.
Order.
c.
Class.
d.
Phylum.
e.
None of the above.
 

 65. 

The original two Kingdoms that were established to organize living organisms were:
a.
Protista and Animalia.
b.
Eukaryotae and Prokaryotae.
c.
Plantae and Animalia.
d.
Plantae and Eukarya.
e.
Eubacteria and Eukarya.
 

 66. 

Early biologists classified living things into two kingdoms. Many biologists today recognize ____________ kingdom(s).
a.
one
b.
two
c.
three
d.
six
e.
twelve
 

 67. 

Bacteria are found in the Kingdom:
a.
Eubacteria.
b.
Fungi.
c.
Protista.
d.
Animalia.
e.
Plantae.
 

 68. 

Which Kingdom contains the protozoa, water and slime molds, and algae?
a.
Prokaryotae
b.
Fungi
c.
Protista
d.
Animalia
e.
Plantae
 

 69. 

Which of the following does not describe members of the Kingdom Fungi?
a.
absorb nutrients produced by other organisms
b.
possess cell walls
c.
not photosynthetic
d.
cells lack a nucleus
e.
yeasts and mushrooms
 

 70. 

Fungi may be differentiated from plants, because fungi are:
a.
photosynthetic.
b.
all macroscopic.
c.
all multicellular.
d.
heterotrophic.
e.
all prokaryotic.
 

 71. 

The evolutionary history of a group of organisms from a common ancestor is termed:
a.
biohistory.
b.
phylogeny.
c.
phrenology.
d.
phenetics.
e.
species origenetics.
 

 72. 

An example of homologous structures is the wing of a bat and:
a.
the arm of a human.
b.
the wing of a beetle.
c.
the tail of a whale.
d.
the leg of a chimpanzee.
e.
the dorsal fin of a shark.
 

 73. 

An example of homoplastic structures is the wing of a butterfly and:
a.
the wing of a moth.
b.
the wing of a bird.
c.
the antenna of the butterfly.
d.
the legs of the butterfly.
e.
the antenna of a moth.
 

 74. 

Humans, as well as other mammals ranging from mice to elephants, have hair. Hair, then, would be considered to be:
a.
a derived character.
b.
an ancestral character.
c.
a cladistic character.
d.
an analogous character.
e.
a polyphyletic character.
 

 75. 

Sea snakes, which are reptiles, are similar in body form to eels, which are fish. Sea snakes and eels therefore share ________________ body form.
a.
ancestral
b.
homoplastic
c.
homologous
d.
monophyletic
e.
cladistic
 

 76. 

A(an) __________________ character is a trait that has evolved relatively recently.
a.
derived
b.
ancestral
c.
cladistic
d.
homologous
e.
polyphyletic
 

 77. 

Phylogenetic systematics produces branching diagrams called:
a.
phylogenic trees.
b.
cladistic trees.
c.
phenograms.
d.
molecular clocks.
e.
cladograms.
 

 78. 

A cladogram is based on:
a.
homologous characteristics.
b.
homoplastic characteristics.
c.
polyphyletic taxa.
d.
fossil evidence only.
e.
derived characters only.
 
 
Figure 22-03
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.

nar002-1.jpg
 

 79. 

The organism labeled B in Figure 22-03 is a common ancestor to:
a.
organism 2.
b.
organism 3.
c.
organism 5.
d.
organism 6.
e.
All of the above.
 

 80. 

In Figure 22-03, the pair of organisms that have the most recent ancestor is:
a.
2 and 4.
b.
6 and 4.
c.
4 and 5.
d.
2 and 3.
e.
1 and 2.
 

 81. 

In Figure 22-03, the taxon labeled II is:
a.
monophyletic.
b.
paraphyletic.
c.
polyphyletic.
d.
a clade.
e.
an outgroup.
 



 
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