Name: 
 

Plant Evolution, Structure, and Function



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The ancestors of today’s land plants were probably
a.
brown algae.
c.
green algae.
b.
red algae.
d.
lichens.
 

 2. 

The challenges faced by early land plants included
a.
conserving water.
b.
reproducing on land.
c.
absorbing minerals from the rocky surface.
d.
All of the above
 

 3. 

The waxy protective covering of a land plant is called a
a.
cuticle.
c.
rhizome.
b.
capsule.
d.
stoma.
 

 4. 

The cuticle
a.
helps reduce the evaporation of fluids from a plant.
b.
is a plant adaptation to an aquatic environment.
c.
is a reproductive structure in some plants.
d.
is crucial to plant cell nourishment.
 

 5. 

Some land plants developed an internal system of interconnected tubes and vessels called
a.
cuticles.
b.
nonvascular canals.
c.
the circulatory system.
d.
vascular tissues.
 

 6. 

The xylem in a plant
a.
transports food from the leaves.
b.
transports water and minerals to the stems and leaves.
c.
exchanges carbon dioxide with the atmosphere.
d.
All of the above
 

 7. 

liverworts, hornworts, mosses : nonvascular plants ::
a.
gymnosperms, angiosperms : bryophytes
b.
ferns : mosses
c.
gymnosperms, angiosperms : vascular plants
d.
bryophytes, liverworts : vascular plants
 

 8. 

gymnosperms : naked seeds ::
a.
pollen : mosses
b.
ferns : seeds
c.
liverwort : vascular tissue
d.
angiosperms : enclosed seeds
 

 9. 

The diploid form in a plant’s life cycle is called the
a.
sporophyte.
b.
gametophyte.
c.
parental generation.
d.
alternate generation.
 

 10. 

The haploid form in a plant’s life cycle is called the
a.
sporophyte.
b.
gametophyte.
c.
parental generation.
d.
alternate generation.
 

 11. 

Alternation between a haploid stage and a diploid stage in a plant’s life cycle is called
a.
generational recycling.
b.
periodic gametogenesis.
c.
alternating forms.
d.
alternation of generations.
 

 12. 

In plants, haploid gametes are produced as a result of
a.
fertilization.
c.
encapsulation.
b.
meiosis.
d.
mitosis.
 

 13. 

The dominant generation in vascular plants is the
a.
gametophyte.
c.
angiosperm.
b.
gymnosperm.
d.
sporophyte.
 

 14. 

vascular plants : sporophytes ::
a.
sporophytic plants : gametophytes
b.
nonvascular plants : gametophytes
c.
spores : gametes
d.
plants with seeds : seedless plants
 

 15. 

sporophytes : spores ::
a.
sporophytes : gametophytes
b.
gametophytes : gametes
c.
gametophytes : spores
d.
sporophytes : gametes
 

 16. 

Which of the following is not a nonvascular plant?
a.
moss
c.
hornwort
b.
liverwort
d.
fern
 

 17. 

Which of the following is not characteristic of all nonvascular plants?
a.
They produce seeds.
b.
They have a life cycle characterized by alternation of generations.
c.
They produce spores.
d.
They require water for sexual reproduction.
 

 18. 

Which of the following is a reason why mosses are good pioneer plants?
a.
They can survive in very wet areas.
b.
They can survive in areas that receive only low levels of sunlight.
c.
They can create a layer of soil on bare rock.
d.
They grow very slowly.
 

 19. 

The water-retaining ability of peat moss makes it ideal for
a.
use in garden-soil mixes.
b.
use in packing bulbs and flowers for shipping.
c.
use in houseplant soils.
d.
All of the above
 

 20. 

All of the following developed in some vascular plants and are not present in any nonvascular plants except
a.
pollen.
c.
chlorophyll.
b.
deep roots.
d.
seeds.
 

 21. 

The primary distinguishing characteristics of all vascular plants are
a.
xylem and phloem; true roots, stems, and leaves; pollen; seeds.
b.
xylem and phloem; true roots, stems, and leaves; spores.
c.
true roots, stems, and leaves; spores.
d.
xylem and phloem; true roots, stems, and leaves.
 

 22. 

Which of the following is not a seed plant?
a.
a flowering plant
c.
a fern
b.
a pine tree
d.
a ginkgo
 

 23. 

Which of the following is characteristic of all seed plants?
a.
a seed containing an embryo, a nutrient supply, and a protective coat
b.
enclosure and protection of seeds within a fruit
c.
production of flowers
d.
All of the above
 

 24. 

Pines, spruces, and firs are
a.
angiosperms.
c.
flowering plants.
b.
gymnosperms.
d.
sometimes nonvascular.
 

 25. 

The tallest trees in the world are species of
a.
conifers.
c.
liverworts.
b.
dicots.
d.
angiosperms.
 

 26. 

Which of the following were the first land plants to evolve seeds?
a.
angiosperms
c.
mosses
b.
gymnosperms
d.
ferns
 

 27. 

Seed plants are the dominant land plants because
a.
they include the largest plants on Earth.
b.
the seeds they produce enable the plant to survive in a dormant state when conditions are not suitable for growth.
c.
they are vascular plants with large root systems, so they can obtain water from any kind of environment.
d.
they produce flowers that are pollinated by insects, enabling them to produce many offspring.
 

 28. 

Monocots have
a.
leaves with branching veins.
b.
flower parts in multiples of four or five.
c.
leaves with parallel veins.
d.
two cotyledons.
 

 29. 

Flowering plants are classified as monocots or dicots according to their number of
a.
leaves.
c.
meristems.
b.
roots.
d.
cotyledons.
 

 30. 

Which of the following associations between a plant cell type and its characteristics is incorrect?
a.
collenchyma cell—thin cell walls; do not occur in groups
b.
parenchyma cell—cube-shaped or elongated; large vacuole
c.
sclerenchyma cell—thick, rigid cell walls
d.
All of the above are correct.
 

 31. 

Which of the following types of plant cells provides structural support and is typically dead at functional maturity?
a.
collenchyma
c.
sclerenchyma
b.
parenchyma
d.
None of the above
 

 32. 

The conducting cells of phloem are called
a.
tracheids.
c.
sieve plates.
b.
sieve tube members.
d.
vessel elements.
 

 33. 

In xylem tissue, water moves from tracheid to tracheid through
a.
pits.
c.
sieve tubes.
b.
vessel elements.
d.
companion cells.
 

 34. 

The outermost layer consisting of ground tissue in a stem is the
a.
sapwood.
c.
pith.
b.
nodes.
d.
cortex.
 

 35. 

vascular tissue : transport of fluids ::
a.
epidermis : support
b.
dermal tissue : storage
c.
dermal tissue : transport of fluids
d.
ground tissue : metabolism
 

 36. 

Regions of active cell division in plants are called
a.
meristems.
c.
phloem.
b.
xylem.
d.
dermal tissue.
 

 37. 

Meristems can be found
a.
only at the tips of roots.
b.
only at the tips of stems.
c.
at the tips of stems and roots.
d.
None of the above
 

 38. 

Which of the following types of meristems is found in some monocots above the bases of leaves and stems?
a.
apical meristems
b.
vascular cambium
c.
intercalary meristems
d.
cork cambium
 

 39. 

The lengthening of plant roots and shoots is called
a.
secondary growth.
c.
primary growth.
b.
germination.
d.
vascular growth.
 

 40. 

During periods of primary growth at apical meristems, stems and roots
a.
become wider.
b.
become longer.
c.
maintain a constant number of cells.
d.
undergo photoperiodism.
 

 41. 

secondary growth : width ::
a.
secondary growth : height
b.
lateral meristem : length
c.
apical meristem : width
d.
primary growth : length
 

 42. 

The primary function of root hairs is
a.
to strengthen roots as they grow downward.
b.
to transport food up the stem.
c.
to absorb water and minerals.
d.
to store water.
 

 43. 

leaves : carbon dioxide from the air ::
a.
leaves : water from the air
b.
roots : light from the air
c.
roots : carbon dioxide from the air
d.
roots : nutrients from the soil
 

 44. 

Which of the following are taproots?
a.
underground roots of grass plants
b.
prop roots of corn plants
c.
roots of radish plants
d.
aerial roots of orchids
 

 45. 

Which of the following is not characteristic of fibrous roots?
a.
many branch roots
b.
shallow roots
c.
dominant primary root
d.
possible development from the base of the stem
 

 46. 

Which of the following is not characteristic of secondary growth of roots?
a.
Vascular cambium is formed.
b.
Secondary xylem is produced toward the inside of the root and secondary phloem is produced toward the outside of the root.
c.
Cork cambium is formed.
d.
It occurs in monocot, dicot, and gymnosperm roots.
 

 47. 

Which of the following is the function of the endodermis?
a.
water absorption
b.
water storage
c.
regulation of passage of water and minerals into the vascular tissue
d.
production of new cells for secondary growth
 
 
The diagram below shows the stem of a coleus plant.

nar001-1.jpg
 

 48. 

Refer to the illustration above. The tissue labeled “1” in the diagram is called
a.
meristem.
c.
phloem.
b.
xylem.
d.
ground tissue.
 

 49. 

Refer to the illustration above. In the diagram, the tissue labeled “2,” which conducts water and is made of elongated cells that connect end to end, is called
a.
meristem.
c.
phloem.
b.
xylem.
d.
ground tissue.
 

 50. 

Refer to the illustration above. In the diagram, the tissue labeled “3,” which transports sugars from regions where they are made to regions where they are used, is called
a.
meristem.
c.
phloem.
b.
xylem.
d.
ground tissue.
 

 51. 

The ground tissue in the center of roots and stems
a.
turns into meristem.
b.
transports food.
c.
provides support.
d.
germinates at least once a year.
 

 52. 

Leaves connect to the stems of plants at the
a.
lateral buds.
c.
nodes.
b.
pith.
d.
internodes.
 

 53. 

Secondary xylem and phloem are produced from the
a.
cork cambium.
c.
apical meristems.
b.
vascular cambium.
d.
bark.
 

 54. 

xylem : inner side of vascular cambium ::
a.
vascular cambium : cork cambium
b.
cork : vascular cambium
c.
phloem : outer side of vascular cambium
d.
phloem : inner side of vascular cambium
 

 55. 

Bark contains
a.
xylem and phloem.
c.
phloem and cork cells.
b.
sapwood.
d.
mesophyll.
 

 56. 

In a woody stem, cork cambium
a.
forms phloem.
b.
forms xylem.
c.
produces the outer bark.
d.
becomes vascular cambium.
 

 57. 

The movement of water through a plant is caused by
a.
the attraction of water molecules for each other.
b.
capillary action.
c.
transpiration.
d.
All of the above
 

 58. 

The loss of water by the leaves and stem of a plant is called
a.
translocation.
c.
active transport.
b.
osmosis.
d.
transpiration.
 

 59. 

The phloem in a plant
a.
transports sugars.
b.
transports water and minerals.
c.
exchanges carbon dioxide and oxygen with the atmosphere.
d.
None of the above
 

 60. 

The transport of food from the leaf to the rest of the plant is called
a.
translocation.
c.
active transport.
b.
osmosis.
d.
transpiration.
 

 61. 

A hypothesis that explains the movement of sugar in a plant is the
a.
transpiration hypothesis.
c.
pressure-flow hypothesis.
b.
translocation hypothesis.
d.
source-sink hypothesis.
 

 62. 

cohesion : adhesion ::
a.
hydrogen : polar
c.
hand : people
b.
book : pages
d.
night : day
 
 
The diagram below shows a portion of a plant’s vascular system.

nar002-1.jpg
 

 63. 

Refer to the illustration above. Structure 2 is a
a.
tracheid.
c.
vessel element.
b.
companion cell.
d.
sieve tube member.
 

 64. 

Refer to the illustration above. Structure 3 is a
a.
tracheid.
c.
vessel element.
b.
companion cell.
d.
sieve tube member.
 

 65. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which structure allows the cytoplasm of one cell to connect to the cytoplasm of a neighboring cell?
a.
1
c.
4
b.
3
d.
5
 

 66. 

The xylem in a plant
a.
transports sugars.
b.
transports water and minerals.
c.
exchanges carbon dioxide and oxygen with the atmosphere.
d.
None of the above
 

 67. 

Scientists studying the transport of sugars in plants found it difficult to conduct experiments that didn’t damage the plants they were studying. Some of them decided to use some insects they knew fed on plants. The insects they chose were aphids, which have mouthparts that they insert into plants and use to suck out nutrients. Many of these aphids also release excess sugars from the anal end of their digestive tracts. These substances are called honeydew because they are released as sugary droplets. The scientists conducted the following experiments:
(1) They measured the rate at which honeydew was released from aphids feeding on cucumber plants. The average rate was two drops per hour.
(2) They froze some aphids and the plant parts to which the aphids were attached. They then examined cross sections of the plant parts using an electron microscope. They found that the tips of the aphids’ mouthparts were in individual cells in the phloem tissue.
(3) They anesthetized aphids feeding on plants and then cut away the aphids, leaving the mouthparts in place. They noted that the honeydew continued to be released through the mouthparts at a rate of two drops per hour. They also analyzed the honeydew and found that it had the same chemical composition as the sugars transported in the plants.

Which of the following statements is not supported by the data obtained in these experiments?
a.
The contents of the phloem are under pressure.
b.
Sugars are transported in the phloem of plants.
c.
Sugars are actively transported into cells of the phloem.
d.
Some aphids take up more sugars from plants than they can use.
 

 68. 

mc068-1.jpg

Refer to the illustration above. Which of the leaves is a doubly compound leaf?
a.
1
c.
3
b.
2
d.
4
 

 69. 

In plants, the ground tissue that is made up of chloroplast-rich cells is the
a.
vascular bundle.
c.
pith.
b.
petiole.
d.
mesophyll.
 

 70. 

The tissue of the leaf mesophyll that is located directly below the upper epidermis and consists of tightly packed column-shaped cells is the
a.
palisade layer.
c.
adventitious layer.
b.
cortex.
d.
spongy mesophyll.
 
 
The diagram below shows a leaf cross section.

nar003-1.jpg
 

 71. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which label indicates the spongy layer?
a.
2
c.
4
b.
3
d.
5
 

 72. 

Refer to the illustration above. Structure 1
a.
is the cuticle.
c.
covers the epidermis.
b.
protects the leaf.
d.
All of the above
 

 73. 

Refer to the illustration above. The vein is made up of
a.
only xylem vessels.
b.
only phloem vessels.
c.
both xylem and phloem vessels.
d.
neither xylem nor phloem vessels.
 

 74. 

Photosynthesis enables plants to produce most of the organic molecules they need. This process requires the use of all of the following except
a.
carbon dioxide.
c.
light.
b.
water.
d.
glucose.
 

 75. 

Which of the following is an adaptation found in leaves of shade-grown plants?
a.
high density of chloroplasts
b.
small leaf area
c.
chloroplasts not shading each other
d.
dense hair coatings
 

 76. 

The stomata are responsible for
a.
translocation.
b.
leaf growth.
c.
regulation of water loss.
d.
transport of minerals.
 

 77. 

The guard cells that surround a stoma
a.
have no cell walls.
b.
swell with water, causing the stoma to open.
c.
shrivel up when opening the stoma.
d.
are responsible for translocation.
 

 78. 

guard cells : stomata ::
a.
can openers : cans
c.
cushions : rocking chairs
b.
hammers : nails
d.
trout : stream
 

 79. 

cuticle : above-ground parts ::
a.
vascular system : plant
c.
guard cell : stoma
b.
sperm : pollen
d.
root system : wax
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 80. 

In leaves, the openings called ____________________ regulate the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen.
 

 

 81. 

The surface of a vascular plant is covered by a waxy, waterproof layer called a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 82. 

One of the first environmental challenges that early land plants had to overcome was finding a way to conserve ____________________.
 

 

 83. 

The tissues that transport water and minerals within a plant make up the ____________________ system.
 

 

 84. 

____________________ are seed plants with uncovered seeds.
 

 

 85. 

In alternation of generations, the ____________________ generation alternates with the diploid generation.
 

 

 86. 

co086-1.jpg

Refer to the illustration above. The cycle shown in the diagram is referred to as _________________________.
 

 

 87. 

The fusion of two gametes results in the production of a(n) ____________________ sporophyte.
 

 

 88. 

The haploid form of a plant is the ____________________ generation.
 

 

 89. 

Conifers produce ____________________ to protect their seeds.
 

 

 90. 

The sporophyte generation produces haploid spores by the process of ____________________.
 

 

 91. 

Peat bogs contain organic matter that decomposes very slowly because of a(n) ____________________ produced by peat moss.
 

 

 92. 

Bryophytes have a dominant ____________________ generation.
 

 

 93. 

In mosses and liverworts, the ____________________ generation is the dominant generation.
 

 

 94. 

A rootlike structure that anchors plants in the phylum Bryophyta is called a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 95. 

The ability of mosses to absorb and retain ____________________ contributes to their ability to help prevent soil erosion.
 

 

 96. 

Partially decomposed moss plants of the genus Sphagnum are dried and used as a source of ____________________ for heating.
 

 

 97. 

A plant that has flower parts that occur in multiples of four or five is usually a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 98. 

Most ____________________ have thin, transparent leaflike structures along a stemlike axis.
 

 

 99. 

Nonvascular plants known as ____________________ usually have cells with a single large chloroplast, similar to algae.
 

 

 100. 

Photosynthetic and storage tissues of plants are made up of ____________________ cells.
 

 

 101. 

____________________ are narrow, elongated, thick-walled sclerenchyma cells that taper at each end.
 

 

 102. 

The lateral meristem that produces secondary vascular tissue is called the _________________________.
 

 

 103. 

The lateral meristem that produces the cork cells of the outer bark is called the ____________________.
 

 

 104. 

Plants grow at the tips of roots and stems in regions of active cell division called ____________________.
 

 

 105. 

Cell division in the ____________________ adds layers of new cells around the outside of a plant’s body.
 

 

 106. 

Growth that occurs from the formation of new cells at the tip of a plant is called ____________________.
 

 

 107. 

Growth that causes a plant to increase in width is called _________________________.
 

 

 108. 

The thickening of a plant body by the production of new xylem and phloem is called ____________________ growth.
 

 

 109. 

The ____________________ of plants absorb water and minerals necessary for growth.
 

 

 110. 

The two main types of root systems are fibrous root systems and ____________________ systems.
 

 

 111. 

Primary growth in roots occurs in cells of the _________________________, carbohydrate storage occurs in cells of the ____________________, and water absorption occurs through cells of the ____________________.
 

 

 112. 

Flexible, soft, and usually green stems are called ____________________ stems.
 

 

 113. 

Edible parts of the potato plant are modified stems called ____________________, which grow underground and store starch.
 

 

 114. 

The darker wood in the center of a tree trunk is called ____________________.
 

 

 115. 

Wood consists primarily of _________________________ cells.
 

 

 116. 

The transport of organic molecules from the leaf to the rest of the plant is called ____________________.
 

 

 117. 

The broad, flat portion of a typical leaf is called the ____________________.
 

 

 118. 

When the guard cells that surround a stoma fill with water, the stoma ____________________.
 

 

 119. 

____________________ ions play an important role in opening and closing stomata.
 

 

Problem
 

 120. 

pr120-1.jpg

Refer to the illustration above. This cladogram depicts the presumed evolutionary relationships between the major phyla of land plants. The list below consists of paired characteristics found in at least some land plants. For each pair of characteristics, choose the one that is the more evolutionarily advanced. Then complete the cladogram by indicating on it where each of the more advanced characteristics first appeared.

Characteristics:

cones / flowers
sporophyte dominant / gametophyte dominant
waxy cuticle present / waxy cuticle absent
vascular tissue absent / vascular tissue present
gametophyte independent of sporophyte / gametophyte dependent on sporophyte
stomata absent / stomata present
seeds / spores
multicellular reproductive structure / unicellular reproductive structure
 

Essay
 

 121. 

What problems were encountered by the first land plants? What adaptations evolved to solve these problems? Write your answer in the space below.
 

 122. 

How is a seed an adaptation for life on land? Write your answer in the space below.
 

 123. 

Describe three characteristics of angiosperms that have helped to make the group successful. Write your answer in the space below.
 

 124. 

Describe the functions of ground tissue in a plant. Write your answer in the space below.
 

 125. 

What kinds of plants have lateral meristems, and what kind of growth occurs in the lateral meristems? Write your answer in the space below.
 

 126. 

While walking through a forest you notice that someone has carved his or her initials into the bark of a tree. The initials are exactly 1.5 meters from the ground. How far from the ground will the initials be next year and the year after that? Why? Discuss growth tissues in plants in your answer. Write your answer in the space below.
 

 127. 

Secondary growth adds width to a woody stem. Briefly describe the tissues involved and explain how they increase the stem’s diameter. Write your answer in the space below.
 

 128. 

Define the terms source and sink in relation to the transportation of organic molecules in the phloem of plants. Write your answer in the space below.
 

 129. 

Compare the movement of sugar and water in a plant. Write your answer in the space below.
 

 130. 

Why is it advantageous for mesophyll cells to be more densely packed in the upper part of a plant leaf than in the lower part? Write your answer in the space below.
 

 131. 

Describe how stomata open and close. Write your answer in the space below.
 



 
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