Name: 
 

PCC Prokaryotes



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Eubacteria and archaebacteria differ in
a.
the presence of a nucleus.
c.
size.
b.
the makeup of their cell walls.
d.
the presence of a cell wall.
 

 2. 

Escherichia coli is classified as a(an)
a.
archaebacterium.
b.
eubacterium.
c.
eukaryote.
d.
virus.
 

 3. 

Which of the following is NOT a way in which archaebacteria and eubacteria differ?
a.
Archaebacteria lack an important carbohydrate found in the cell walls of eubacteria.
b.
The two groups have very different membrane lipids.
c.
Archaebacteria have gene sequences that are similar to those of eukaryotes.
d.
Archaebacteria follow the lytic cycle, while eubacteria follow the lysogenic cycle.
 

 4. 

Which of the following are members of the kingdom Archaebacteria?
a.
methanogens
c.
eukaryotes
b.
eubacteria
d.
E. coli
 
 
nar001-1.jpg

Figure 19–1
 

 5. 

The structure in Figure 19–1 represents a(an)
a.
virus.
c.
methanogen.
b.
archaebacterium.
d.
eubacterium.
 

 6. 

Which structure or structures shown in Figure 19–1 have key differences in eubacteria and archaebacteria?
a.
A, B, C
c.
D only
b.
A, B, E
d.
A only
 
 
nar002-1.jpg

Figure 19–2
 

 7. 

Which cell shape in Figure 19–2 is called a coccus?
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
none of the above
 

 8. 

Which of the following can survive either with oxygen or without it?
a.
obligate aerobes
c.
facultative anaerobes
b.
obligate anaerobes
d.
bacteriophages
 

 9. 

Some bacteria are able to survive unfavorable conditions by forming
a.
photoautotrophs.
c.
coccus.
b.
capsids.
d.
endospores.
 

 10. 

Which of the following is(are) used to identify prokaryotes?
a.
cell shape
c.
the way prokaryotes obtain energy
b.
the way prokaryotes move
d.
all of the above
 

 11. 

Where are you likely to find a photoautotroph?
a.
in your refrigerator
b.
in the darkness of the ocean
c.
in your digestive system
d.
near the surfaces of lakes, streams, and oceans
 

 12. 

Unlike photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs obtain energy
a.
directly from the sun.
c.
indirectly from organic molecules.
b.
directly from inorganic molecules.
d.
indirectly from other organisms.
 

 13. 

A method called Gram staining is used to tell
a.
what shape a prokaryote has.
b.
how a prokaryote obtains energy.
c.
what kind of cell wall a prokaryote has.
d.
whether a prokaryote has flagella.
 

 14. 

Which of the following describes a role of bacteria in the environment?
a.
carrying out photosynthesis
c.
fixing nitrogen
b.
recycling nutrients
d.
all of the above
 

 15. 

Bacteria that break down the nutrients in dead matter into simpler substances that are taken up by plant roots are called
a.
endospores.
c.
photoautotrophs.
b.
flagella.
d.
decomposers.
 

 16. 

Nitrogen fixation involves each of the following EXCEPT
a.
soybeans.
c.
fertilizer.
b.
Rhizobium.
d.
nodules on roots.
 

 17. 

Which of the following is produced when bacteria break down complex compounds in sewage?
a.
carbon dioxide gas
c.
nitrogen
b.
purified water
d.
all of the above
 

 18. 

Humans use bacteria to
a.
clean up small oil spills.
c.
synthesize drugs.
b.
mine minerals from the ground.
d.
all of the above
 

 19. 

Bacteria living in extreme environments may be a good source of
a.
antibiotics.
c.
nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
b.
heat-stable enzymes.
d.
Gram stains.
 

 20. 

Which of the following is a way that bacteria cause disease?
a.
by capsids
c.
by conjugation
b.
by nitrogen fixation
d.
by releasing toxins
 

 21. 

Bacteria that cause disease are called
a.
viruses.
c.
endospores.
b.
pathogens.
d.
antibiotics.
 

 22. 

Food stored in a refrigerator will keep longer because the bacteria that spoil food
a.
die at low temperatures.
b.
take longer to multiply at low temperatures.
c.
require light to live.
d.
grow more slowly in the dark.
 

 23. 

Which of the following is a characteristic of bacteria that is key to keeping them under control?
a.
Most bacteria cannot survive high temperatures for long periods.
b.
Most bacteria are resistant to harmful chemicals.
c.
Most bacteria form endospores when subjected to harsh conditions.
d.
Most bacteria do not cause food to spoil.
 

 24. 

Which of the following will NOT kill bacteria?
a.
refrigeration
c.
chemical disinfection
b.
boiling
d.
frying
 

 25. 

The chromosomes of bacteria
a.
contain numerous types of organelles.
b.
are divided into compartments.
c.
vary in number, depending on the species of bacteria.
d.
contain a single circular piece of DNA.
 

 26. 

Structures found in bacterial cells but not in eukaryotic cells are
a.
nuclei.
c.
membrane-bound organelles.
b.
linear chromosomes.
d.
circular chromosomes.
 
 
nar003-1.jpg
 

 27. 

Refer to the illustration above. Organism B has a shape similar to that of
a.
Micrococcus.
c.
Streptococcus.
b.
Bacillus.
d.
Leptospira.
 

 28. 

Refer to the illustration above. The shape represented by Organism A applies to the bacterial genus
a.
Streptococcus, which causes strep throat.
b.
Leptospira, which can cause urinary tract infections in humans.
c.
Bacillus, which produces antibiotics.
d.
Penicillium, which produces penicillin.
 

 29. 

Refer to the illustration above. The shape represented by Organism C is called
a.
a coccus.
c.
a bacillus.
b.
a spirillum.
d.
filamentous.
 

 30. 

Bacteria often have small extra loops of DNA called
a.
nucleoids.
c.
plasmids.
b.
pili.
d.
prions.
 

 31. 

Cell organelles that Escherichia coli and other bacteria have in common with eukaryotes are
a.
chloroplasts.
c.
nuclei.
b.
mitochondria.
d.
ribosomes.
 

 32. 

It is important to distinguish between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in diagnosing a bacterial infection because
a.
Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria differ in their response to different antibiotics.
b.
Gram-positive bacteria never cause fatal diseases.
c.
Gram-positive bacteria destroy antibiotics, preventing them from working.
d.
Gram-positive bacteria do not respond to many antibiotics.
 

 33. 

Bacterial cells have
a.
a cell wall only.
b.
a cell membrane only.
c.
both a cell membrane and an outer cell wall.
d.
a cell wall inside their cell membrane.
 

 34. 

Escherichia coli is an example of a bacterium that has
a.
a thin layer of peptidoglycan in its cell wall.
b.
a thick layer of peptidoglycan in its cell wall.
c.
a shape called a coccus.
d.
a cell wall but no cell membrane.
 

 35. 

Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs because they require
a.
oxygen.
c.
inorganic chemicals.
b.
carbon dioxide.
d.
light.
 

 36. 

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria
a.
repair nitrogen-damaged soybean roots.
b.
damage the environment by using atmospheric oxygen to produce toxic nitrogen compounds.
c.
convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form of nitrogen.
d.
convert ammonia in the soil into nitrogen gas.
 

 37. 

Bacterial cells such as Escherichia coli transfer pieces of genetic material in a process called
a.
binary fission.
c.
conjugation.
b.
mitosis.
d.
sexual reproduction.
 

 38. 

Bacterial endospores
a.
are formed when there is plenty of available food.
b.
allow certain species to survive harsh environmental conditions.
c.
are similar to human tumors.
d.
can cause growth abnormalities in plants.
 

 39. 

A chain of round bacteria would be called:
a.
spirilla.
b.
diplococci.
c.
bacilli.
d.
streptococci.
e.
streptobacilli.
 

 40. 

Rod-shaped bacteria are called:
a.
streptococci.
b.
bacilli.
c.
diplococci.
d.
vibrio.
e.
spirochete.
 
 
Figure 23-02
Use the figure below to answer the corresponding questions.

nar004-1.jpg
 

 41. 

The structure in Figure 23-02 labeled C is:
a.
a ribosome.
b.
the plasma membrane.
c.
the capsule.
d.
the cell wall.
e.
the flagellum.
 

 42. 

What is the function of the structure labeled A in Figure 23-02?
a.
to adhere to surfaces or other bacteria
b.
to prevent phagocytosis
c.
support and protection in hypotonic conditions
d.
transmission of DNA between bacteria
e.
locomotion
 

 43. 

The walls of Eubacteria contain peptidoglycan, which is:
a.
lipids crosslinked with sugars.
b.
sugars crosslinked with proteins.
c.
a protein.
d.
a lipid.
e.
a polysaccharide.
 

 44. 

Penicillin works most effectively against gram-positive bacteria because:
a.
penicillin affects cell membranes.
b.
they have a thick peptidoglycan cell wall and penicillin affects the synthesis of peptidoglycans.
c.
they have special protein channels that allow penicillin to enter the cell and halt the cell cycle.
d.
they are smaller than gram-negative bacteria and, thus, easily take up penicillin by diffusion.
e.
they contain prophages that negatively interact with penicillin.
 

 45. 

Some bacteria avoid a host's immune system by means of:
a.
efficient use of their flagella.
b.
ameboid motion.
c.
their capsule.
d.
changing their cell wall structure.
e.
eliminating the use of a membrane.
 

 46. 

Bacteria:
a.
are incapable of locomotion.
b.
move by means of pili
c.
move by means of cilia.
d.
move by means of a rotating flagella.
e.
move by means of a whiplike flagella.
 

 47. 

Small circles of DNA called ______________ exist in addition to the bacterial chromosome.
a.
capsids
b.
plasmids
c.
chromatids
d.
pili
e.
centromeres
 

 48. 

Small hairlike structures on the surface of bacteria are called:
a.
capsids.
b.
pili.
c.
chromatids.
d.
plasmids.
e.
virons.
 

 49. 

Plasmids of bacteria often have genes involved in:
a.
reproduction.
b.
motility.
c.
viral resistance.
d.
antibiotic resistance.
e.
photosynthesis.
 

 50. 

Pili are involved in adhesion of bacterial cells to a substrate or host, or in transmission of __________ between bacteria.
a.
ribosomes
b.
cytoplasm
c.
vectors
d.
RNA
e.
DNA
 



 
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