Simple tips for writing a paper on aging biological changes

Nowadays, gerontological science attracts many researchers. There is still enough time to not worry about aging, whether you are young. For older people, biological and functional changes in their bodies are becoming crucial year by year as they influence their everyday lives.

The demand for exciting and actual articles and essays about aging is high as science moves toward new revolutionary inventions that prolong people’s lives. Students at colleges and universities who study specific disciplines also get assignments on a topic related to aging and biological changes. Being vast and complex, the subject may be embarrassing for those not very familiar with the actual problems of aging.

If you have some questions on how to write a paper on biological changes, there are several ways out of this situation. The easiest way is to ask your friend or family member with needed skills to help you out. Also, you can reach for the help of a teacher.

Another effective option is finding a reliable online site that helps students write papers. AnyHomeworkHelp.com homework help service is an excellent example of a dependable site created and supported by solid specialists. Professional writing services aim to support students with essays, case studies, and other papers. You can order work on any topic, not only on aging biological changes and get many benefits from collaboration with proficient authors. The article below will provide several effective hacks on writing an excellent paper on aging from writers with experience. We recommend you read the tips we offer and apply them in practice.

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Aging Biological Changes

The Main Points Of Aging Are Biological Changes

Before we start informing you about the working hack on writing, go through the essential aspects of aging biological changes. The information below will suit anyone who will write an effective and actual paper on aging. By reading about the main points, you will prepare yourself for writing.

Bones

*Less calcium containment leads to losing bones density

*Bones become weaker

*Losing strength in bones often leads to osteoporosis.

Muscles and fat

*After 30, the amount of tissue and muscle strength starts decreasing.

*Levels of hormones decline with age and stop stimulating muscle growth.

*Aging reduces overall muscle mass by up to 15%.

*Physical inactivity speeds up the loss of muscle mass.

*The percentage of fat almost doubles by the age of 75.

*The risk of diabetes increases accordingly to fat and weight boosting.

Cells

*A genetic code programs the limit of a cell’s division.

*After a cell finish dividing, it grows bigger and after dies.

*With aging, cells start functioning worse.

Organs Aging With Biological Changes

*The number of cells in organs decreases with age.

*Some organs lose fewer cells than others if an elderly is healthy.

*Many organs have a functional reserve from birth, so many of their functions remain adequate with age.

*The kidneys, the heart and blood vessels, and the brain are more likely to be damaged with age because of stress. 

Define the type of a paper

The preparational stage of writing a good paper on aging biological changes must obligately include reading instructions (if any) and defining the type of a paper. For example, you might be assigned to write an article for a magazine, a blog post, or a college paper. Each type of task will differ on such points as word count, formatting, audience, tone of voice, and other vital aspects. If you are a student who needs to write a term paper or an essay, you might get manuals from a teacher and read them.

Choose a topic

Depending on the type of task, you may need to generate a topic by yourself or choose one from several offered cases. For example, you can write about changes in skin or bones, psychological aspects related to biological changes, etc. We recommend you select a topic that will excite you and make you desire to research the topic deeply. 

Collect information

Now, after you are happy and excited about the topic for your paper, start researching to gather actual data. Any paper will benefit from using various sources. Ensure to use only reliable databases and encyclopedias. One should get access to paid and closed online libraries for some topics. It would be best to include dissertations, scientific articles, interviews, official websites, laws, and other types of sources.

Create the main thesis

Once you have all the needed data collected, proceed with generating the central idea for your work. The main thesis is a summary of your core statement on the topic. Any paper must be built around one or two significant thoughts to be readable and exciting. Thus, it would be best to start with a presentation of the main thesis in the first part of the paper. While writing the body, remind the main thesis and add some approvals. When finalizing, restate the main thesis.

Outline a Biological change paper

One should structure a paper by adding some core elements. The structure will depend on the type of paper you are about to create. A standard college essay or a term paper contains an introduction, the body, and a conclusion. Following the concrete sequence of placing the paper’s elements will help make it logical and practical. When you transition between paragraphs, use cohesive words to connect your thoughts.

Reduce mistakes

After you finish writing a paper, leave it for some time and have some rest. You will be ready to proceed with the final essential stage of writing – proofreading. Ensure to read a paper several times, looking for errors and mistypes. Ensure you are okay with grammar and punctuation. Check the tone of voice and overall style of the text—double-check the names, dates, numbers, etc.

Recap

To master a meaningful and readable paper on aging biological changes, you need to start by defining the type of paper. The next crucial step is choosing a perfect topic that inspires you. The research stage will determine the quality of your paper and help to formulate an effective main thesis. The outlining stage will help you arrange your thoughts and make a paper convincing. Please, do not forget to proofread the text. We hope these tips were helpful! Good luck!

5 Golden Rules of Successful Biology Research

Successful Biology Research

Doing successful biology research is not as easy as it seems. There are 5 golden rules that you should always follow if you want to get the most out of your project. In this blog post, we will discuss these rules and provide some tips on how to implement them in your own work. So, whether you are just starting out in biology research or you have been doing it for years, be sure to read on!

Rule 1: Know Your Audience

When you’re doing research for a biology project, it’s important to keep your audience in mind. You’ll likely be presenting your findings to a teacher or classmates, so you’ll need to choose a topic that’s appropriate for their level of understanding. 

For example, if you’re researching for a high school biology class, you wouldn’t want to write about something too complex or controversial. However, if you’re doing research for a college biology class, you can feel free to explore more complicated topics. In general, it’s always a great idea to check with your teacher before starting your research to make sure you’re on the right track. By taking the time to understand your audience, you’ll be able to create a more successful biology research project.

Rule 2: Don’t Be Afraid to Ask for Help

Asking for help is a natural part of the research process. No one knows everything, and even the most experienced biologists need assistance from time to time. If you’re thinking, should I pay someone to write my research paper? The answer is, it depends. Research paper writing can be very challenging. Without the right tools, you might end up disappointed with your result. If you’re afraid that might happen, then the best thing to do is buy a research paper online. You could search for ‘write my research paper’ on your favorite engine and set up an appointment with a writing specialist.

You could also consult with a professor or other expert in the field. If you don’t know anyone who specializes in biology, you can try reaching out to a librarian or searching for online resources. Another great way to get help is to ask fellow students who might be working on similar projects. No matter how you choose to get help, don’t be afraid to ask for it when you need it. Doing so will allow you to make the most of your research and produce the best possible results.

Learn the 5 Golden Rules for Successful Biology Research

Rule 3: Pick a Topic That You Are Passionate About

When it comes to research, picking a topic that you’re passionate about can make all the difference. Not only will you be more likely to enjoy the process of research, but you’ll also be more likely to stick with it even when the going gets tough. And trust me, there will be tough times. There will be days when you feel like you’re getting nowhere when all your hard work seems to be for nothing. 

But if you care about your topic, if you’re invested in finding out the answer to your question, then you’ll keep going. You’ll find a way to push through the difficult times and come out on the other side with new knowledge and a sense of accomplishment. So if you’re thinking about starting a research project, ask yourself: what is a topic that I’m passionate about? Once you have your answer, you’ll be one step closer to success.

Rule 4: Do Your Research

When you’re doing biology research, it’s important to do your research. That may sound like a no-brainer, but you’d be surprised how many people skimp on this step. They’ll read a few books or articles, maybe talk to a few experts, and then start writing. The problem is that they haven’t really taken the time to understand the topic inside and out. As a result, their work is often inaccurate or incompetent. 

So if you’re serious about doing great, successful biology research, take the time to immerse yourself in the literature. Read everything you can get your hands on. Talk to as many experts as possible. And only when you have a thorough understanding of the topic should you start writing.

Rule 5: Stay Organized and Keep Track of Your Progress

As a biology researcher, it’s also important to stay organized and keep track of your progress. That way, you can avoid duplication of effort and make sure that you’re making the best use of your time. There are a few different ways to do this. First, make sure to keep records of your experiments. Note down what you did, the results you receive, and any observations you made. 

Second, create a project plan that outlines the steps you need to take to complete your research. This will help you stay on track and identify any potential problems early on. Finally, don’t be afraid to ask for help online, from your supervisor or colleagues. They can offer valuable insights and feedback that can help improve the quality of your work!

4 Branches Of Biology To Help You Narrow Down Your Focus

If you’re a biology major, then you know it’s a scientific field that is vast and full of opportunities. So much so, that it can also be overwhelming if you don’t have a pre-determined focus.Biology (from the Greek words “bios” for life and “logos” for study) is the study of all living organisms, ranging from the smallest, single-celled organisms to super-complex human beings. It’s an overarching science, but within it are individual branches of biology — each with its own unique focus.

The Branches Of Biology

Biological science is classified into the following four main branches of biology:

  • Subdivisions based on their approaches of study
  • Medical sciences
  • Agricultural sciences
  • Biological science based on organisms

Each discipline has its own experts, its own courses of study and its own professional opportunities. Knowing which one of these branches of biology you want to specialize in will give you a leg up as you enter college, because you’ll be able to take specialized classes designed to maximize your potential and future opportunities.Here, at Biology Junction, we’ve put together a list of scientific specialties available for study within those four main branches of biology. Read the individual listings under each of the branches of biology to discover which might be a perfect fit for your interests.

Subdivisions Based On Approach Of Study

Branches of biology that focus on specific biological processes, such as the interaction either between different organisms or within a single organism’s biological functions, include:

Anatomy

Anatomy is the study of the inner workings of organisms, specifically focusing on the physical structures and organs of plants and animals. It further subdivides into even more specific branches of biology, including morphology (the study of form and structure), histology (the study of the fine details of biological cells observed via microscopes), cytology (the study of function of plant and animal cells) and physiology (the study of the functions and activities of living organisms).

Biochemistry

Biochemistry is the study of natural chemical reactions and processes that take place inside biological organisms and how to affect them. Biochemistry is a field valuable for work in the pharmaceutical industry, because it is helpful in the development of new drugs.

Biogeography

This is the study of the way various species and ecosystems are distributed in different regions of the world through time and structural evolution.

Biogeology

This is the study of the relationship between Earth’s biosphere (the surface area occupied by living organisms) and its lithosphere (the outer surface of the earth including the crust and outer mantle).

Ecology

Ecology focuses on the interactions between Earth’s organisms and their natural environment.

Embryology

Embryology examines the development of the embryo/fetus from the earliest stages through the birth process.

Eugenics

This is the study of how to improve the natural strengths of humanity through genetic selection. Although its primary aim today is to remove genetic disorders from the population, the field is controversial and mostly defunct due to its close association with racism. The remaining elements have been folded in with the study of genetics.

Evolution

Evolution is the study of the gradual changes in plants, animals and other life forms over the life cycle of Earth. It focuses primarily on the process of natural selection.

Genetics

This is the branch of biology focused on heredity and natural biological variations between generations. It focuses on the changes in the genetic code based on the combination of genes.

Immunology

This is a discipline that keys in on immune systems and how to improve those natural defenses against infection within humans, animals and other organisms.

Paleontology

Paleontology is the study of plant and animal fossils to observe the similarities and differences with modern life. It focuses heavily on extinct life forms such as dinosaurs and megafauna.

Parasitology

Among the branches of biology is parasitology, which focuses on parasitic life forms, or organisms that live on or inside other life forms taking their nourishment from their hosts.

Pathology

Pathology focuses on diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi and their effect on the host plant or animal. This overlaps some with parasitology, due to the parasitic nature of many disease-causing organisms. It is a field that leads to careers in the medical profession with its focus on treating rare diseases.

Taxonomy

Taxonomy is the study of classifications, determining the names, groups and subcategories of plants, animals and other organisms. It centers on finding both the similarities and differences between species. This discipline is also known as “systematics.”

Medical Sciences

This is the field of biology devoted to human biological processes and how to improve health. It focuses on curing diseases, repairing injuries and solving rare conditions. Most fields focus on humans exclusively, but some expand to the health and treatment of animals,

Cardiology

Cardiology is a medical science that focuses on diseases and disorders of the heart. This includes both congenital birth defects and acquired heart diseases caused by heart congestion. Many cardiology specialists become cardio-thoracic surgeons who specialize in open-heart surgery and transplants.

Dentistry

This branch of medical science focuses people’s mouths. Dentists diagnose and treat diseases and disorders of the teeth and gums, as well as develop preventative methods to help people avoid the ill effects of tooth decay and gum disease before they happen.

Dermatology

Dermatology is the medical science that focuses on diagnosing and treating conditions of the skin. These common disorders also affect the hair and nails, which are also treated by dermatologists.

Gynecology and Obstetrics

Gynecology and obstetrics are medical sciences that deal with the female reproductive system, with gynecology focusing on caring for the reproductive health of women before they become pregnant and obstetrics focusing on caring for pregnant women and their unborn children.

Nephrology

This branch of medical science deals with diseases and disorders of the kidney. Nephrologists often treat patients who have issues with their kidneys and they also conduct kidney transplants and post-transplant care.

Oncology

This is the branch of medical science that researches, diagnoses and treats various forms of cancers. There are many subdivisions focusing on specific types of cancer such as neuro-oncology, which studies and treats tricky cancers of the brain.

Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology is a medical science dealing with the anatomy and physiology of the eyeball and orbit. It specializes in treating vision disorders related to genetics, injury, age or disease. The most common area of ophthalmology involves diagnosing minor eye disorders and prescribing corrective eyewear.

Orthopedics

This medical science is devoted to the musculoskeletal system, which includes bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, tendons and nerves. It primarily focuses on the diagnoses and treatment of injuries and disorders, with specialized divisions focusing on prevention and rehabilitation.

Pediatrics

Pediatrics is a medical science that focuses on the general medical care of infants, children and adolescents. Many subdivisions have pediatric specialists, such as dentistry and oncology, as the medical needs of the young can differ.

Physiotheraphy

This branch of medicine focuses on the science of movement and helps people to rehabilitate after injuries or to maintain physical strength or balance while suffering chronic conditions. The goal of physiotherapy is to help people restore their physical strength and range of motion by addressing underlying issues and overall physical and emotional well-being. There are several subdivisions of physiotherapy that focus on rehabilitation from specific conditions, including traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries and amputations.

Urology

Urology is a medical science that focuses on treating conditions of the male and female urinary tract. It also focuses on diagnosing and treating disorders of the male reproductive system and often crosses over with fertility.

Agricultural Sciences

These are the branches of biology devoted to human interaction with their environment, particularly where it relates to harvesting plants or raising livestock for consumption.

Agriculture

This is the agricultural science branch focusing on raising crops and livestock. Also known as farm science or ag science, it opens the doors to careers in food science and production.

Animal Husbandry

This branch of agriculture focuses on the breeding and raising of domestic animals like cows, pigs, goats, and sheep, as well as their use for meat, fabric, dairy and eggs. It is the most common agricultural science used by farmers.

Biomedical Engineering

Biomedical engineers work with doctors and therapists to develop the tools they do for their job. The biomedical engineer uses their knowledge of the biological process to design the instruments in a way that will not interfere with human health or cause side effects.

Biometrics

Biomedical engineers work with doctors and therapists to develop the tools they do for their job. The biomedical engineer uses their knowledge of the biological process to design the instruments in a way that will not interfere with human health or cause side effects.

Biotechnology

This field focuses on the interaction between the human body and function and artificial products designed to improve human quality of life. A subdivision, bioengineering, focuses on the development of prosthetics, joint replacements, pacemakers, and artificial organs.

Cloning

This field of research involves using DNA from an organism to create genetic duplicates. Research currently focuses on animals and is highly controversial, with research into human cloning outlawed in most locations.

Forensic Science

Similar to biometrics, this division uses genetic markers such as DNA and fingerprints in the service of criminal justice. It focuses on the identification and evaluation of physical evidence and suspects.

Horticulture

This is the field of agricultural science specializing in the science of producing and developing plants for human use. This includes fruits, vegetables, flowers, and decorative plants. The field involves the study of the biological processes of plants and the art of evolving them for speedy development and shelf-stability.

Marine Biology

This field of science specializes in marine organisms and their interactions with humans, other marine animals, and their environment. Those interested in aquaculture or ocean preservation often go into this field.

Molecular Biology

Among the branches of biology, this one focuses on biological activity in individual molecules. Molecular biologists regularly have training in genetics and biochemistry.

Nuclear Biology

This is the field of science that focuses on the interaction of radioactivity with human cells and how to counter the diseases and deterioration that radiation exposure causes.

Pisciculture

This is the study of the domestic rearing of fish as a food source, also known as aquaculture. Specialists in pisciculture focus on the behavior and survival rates of fish in artificial habitats for farming, and provide much of the fish for domestic consumption as the supply of fresh-caught fish diminishes.

Sericulture

This is the study of and raising of silkworms for their raw silk production.

Space Biology

A newer branch of biology, it focuses on the impact of zero gravity and space travel on living organisms. These scientists work with NASA and have tested on both plant and animal life-forms.

Tissue Culture

This biological research field takes fragments of tissue from plant or animal organisms to study in artificial environments for research and experimentation.

Veterinary Science

This branch is a hybrid of agricultural and medical science, focusing on the diagnosis and treatment of injuries and illnesses in domestic animals. There are veterinary specialists for both domestic animals/pets and livestock.

Science Based On Organisms

This division focuses on the study of individual branches of life. There are four primary categories: botany, human biology, microbiology and zoology.

Botany

This is the study of plants and all subcategories including algae, fungi and flowering plants.

Human Biology

This is the branch of biology studying human physiology, evolution, genetics and culture.

Microbiology

This is the study of all living organisms that cannot be seen with the naked eye. This includes bacteria, viruses, fungi, prions and archaea.

Zoology

This is the study of all non-human members of the animal kingdom, including mammals, reptiles, fish, amphibians, birds and invertebrates.Within these four categories there are many subdivisions. They include:

Bacteriology

The study of bacteria and their interaction with other life forms.

Virology

The study of viruses and their interaction with other life forms.

Mycology

The study of fungi, their life cycle and interaction with the environment and other life forms.

Entomology

The study of insects and their interaction with the environment and other species of animals and plants.

Ichthyology

The study of fish and their interaction with their ocean and freshwater habitats.

Herpetology

The study of reptiles and amphibians.

Ornithology

The study of birds, their interaction with the environment and their unique bone structure that makes them capable of flight.

Conclusion

When you narrow down your focus from a biology major to the specific branches of biology you plan to major in, you will find that many opportunities will open for you. Not only are you able to tailor your classes to those relevant to your future career, but you’re also able to seek opportunities for hands-on study.An ichthyology major can talk to veteran ichthyologists at a major aquarium while a biotechnology major will find experts at a physical therapy clinic. Whatever your field of study, the more specific you are about your choice among the branches of biology the better equipped you will be to pursue your dream job.

Featured Image: Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay

Why Is Carbon So Important In Biology? Key Element Of Life On Earth

Why is carbon so important in biology? This was a question that we felt deserved an in-depth answer. Carbon, which so many of us take for granted, is actually one of the most important elements to life as we know it. Carbon’s molecular structure gives it the ability to form stable bonds with other elements, including itself, which makes it the central element of organic compounds. It makes up almost 20% of the weight of an organism, and it is essential for them to live, to grow, and to reproduce.

Because of its ability to form these bonds, carbon can create very large and complex molecules called macromolecules that make up living organisms. This is part of why this versatile element is considered the backbone, or basic structural component, of these molecules. Still wondering “Why is carbon so important in biology?” Let’s take a deeper look at what this element is, what it does, and what it is used for, because there is much more to learn about carbon.

What Is Carbon?

Carbon is the fourth most abundant element on earth, and it is a finite resource because it cycles through the earth in so many forms. Without carbon, life as we know it would cease to exist because it is the main element in organic compounds that make up living things. The presence or absence of carbon determines whether an organism is organic or inorganic.

1

The Element

The name for carbon comes from the Latin word ‘carbo’ which means coal. It has the atomic number 6 and uses the symbol C. The 6 represents six electrons and six protons and its placement is in the middle of the periodic table as a representation that it is central to life as we know it. Some refer to carbon as the ‘King of the Elements’ because it is an absolute necessary to life. It has the highest melting point of the pure elements at 3,500 degrees Celsius, and it’s one of the elements that ancient man knew in its pure form.

2

Stable Bonds

Carbon’s molecular structure allows it to form bonds with many elements, itself other carbon elements. Because of this, it can form long chain molecules, each having different properties. Carbon remains in balance with other chemical reactions in the atmosphere and water because of its stability.

3

Organic Compounds

Organic compounds make up the cells and other structures of living organisms and they carry out the processes of life. Carbon is the main element of organic compounds we need to live. We group these organic compounds into four types: Carbohydrates (sugars and starches), Lipids (fats and oils), Proteins (enzymes and antibodies), and Nucleic Acids (DNA, RNA). Still wondering why is carbon so important in biology? It’s role in creating living organisms is one of the core reasons we study it.

4

How Carbon Moves

Carbon, in its many forms, does not stay still. It moves all around the earth. It can move with respiration, photosynthesis, as a part of food chains, and by burning fuel, just to name a few.

What Is The Carbon Cycle?

Carbon is the fourth most abundant element on earth, and it is a finite resource because it cycles through the earth in so many forms. Without carbon, life as we know it would cease to exist because it is the main element in organic compounds that make up living things. The presence or absence of carbon determines whether an organism is organic or inorganic.

1

The Geological Carbon Cycle

The Geological Carbon Cycle is driven by the movements of the earth’s tectonic plates and geological processes such as chemical weathering. The Geological Carbon cycle is how carbon moves between rocks and minerals, seawater, and the atmosphere. It takes place over millions of years.

2

The Biological or Physical Carbon Cycle

The Biological or Physical Carbon Cycle is the way carbon cycles through vegetation, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, soil, and in fossil fuel burning. It takes place from days to thousands of years.

Why Is Carbon So Important In Biology?

illustration of a dna gene

image source: pixabay.com

Carbon is important in biology because without it, life itself would not exist. Carbon is important in everyday life for all living beings in order for them to live, grow, and reproduce. Carbon compounds are also very versatile and they are in many objects we use every day. Remember, the presence of carbon determines whether something is organic or inorganic.

1

Carbon And The Human Body

Sugars, DNA, proteins, fats, pretty much everything except water contains carbon in the human body. If you have heard it said water makes up most of the human body, then it would also be correct to say carbon makes up most of the other parts. This is another great example of an answer to the question “Why is carbon so important in biology?”

2

Photosynthesis And Respiration

The human body inhales oxygen from the atmosphere and when it combines with carbon, it creates carbon dioxide. The body does not need carbon dioxide so we exhale it when we breathe. Plants are the exact opposite. They take in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis and give off oxygen back into the atmosphere for us to breathe. All the carbon in your body once existed in the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.

3

Inorganic Compounds

ember from the heated wood

image source: pixabay.com

Many things we use are made of carbon. Rubber, plastics, gasoline, natural gas, are just a few examples. Also, coal and diamonds are made up of mostly carbon, and graphite, which gives pencil lead its black color, is pure carbon. Whenever a fire is burned, the black soot that results is a form of carbon.

4

Abundance In Nature

Carbon is found in different forms in all living beings on earth. Carbon is not only found in abundance on the earth, but the sun and the stars also contain carbon. Carbon also exists on many planets in the form of carbon dioxide.

5

Factors That Affect Carbon In The Atmosphere

There are many factors that affect the global concentration of carbon in the atmosphere, including seasons and human activities like carbon dioxide emissions. Environmental scientists and policy makers seek to understand these factors so they can try to pass regulations to offset negative impacts to the atmosphere.

How We Use Carbon

Allotropes are materials made from the same element, but their atoms fit together differently. Carbon exists on earth in three different allotropes: amorphous, graphite, and diamond. Almost every industry on the planet uses some form of carbon in their every day operations, and we highlight a few of those here.

1

Fuel

We use carbon for fuel in the form of coal, methane gas, petroleum, natural gas, and crude oil. There have also been some exciting breakthroughs by researchers as they have discovered how to take carbon dioxide from the air and turn it into fuel. This could mean a more environmentally friendly fuel for the world.

2

Graphite

Graphite is pure carbon, and we use it for pencil tips, and one mechanical pencil lead of 0.7mm, has about 2 million layers of Graphene. It is also used as a lubricant, for high temperature crucibles, and electrodes. One form of graphite, called Graphene, is the thinnest strongest material ever known.

3

Materials

ink printers

image source: pixabay.com

Carbon can form alloys with iron which makes carbon steel. We also find it in rubber, plastic, wood, and black pigment in ink used for printers or painting.

4

Diamonds

Diamonds are used to make jewelry, but because they are so hard that we also use them for cutting, drilling, grinding, and polishing. You can purchase many items such as cutting wheels that feature small diamonds on the edge for better cutting capabilities.

Conclusion

co2 written on a blackboard

image source: pixabay.com

Here we have answered the question “why is carbon so important in biology?” and in doing so, we have discovered many interesting facts about this element. The first and most important is that we could not live if carbon did not exist. Every organic compound is built around this essential element and we need it for life as we know it. The presence or absence of this element determines whether something is organic or inorganic.

Another answer for the question “why is carbon so important in biology?” is that this element exists everywhere on earth. As the fourth most abundant element, not just on earth, but in the universe, it will forever be a part of our existence. It is interesting to note that more compounds exist that contain carbon than those that don’t, and this is something for which we should be grateful.

Why is carbon so important in biology? It’s not just one, but many reasons why it’s so important, many of which we have listed here in our article. Carbon allows us to exist and it is in many of the things we use every day to build, create, and produce energy. Essential for life and useful, no wonder we call it the building block of life.

10 Questions To Study For A Mitosis Quiz In AP Biology

If you need to prep for a mitosis quiz in AP Biology, you are going to need to understand the difference between mitosis and meiosis thoroughly.

Many students fail to be able to identify the difference between the two biological processes accurately. So, you don’t want to get disappointing results on your mitosis quiz; there are a few key points you are going to want to study.

Remember to acquaint yourself with the following before you think you are prepared enough for a mitosis quiz.

  • There are six different stages of mitosis.
  • You want to be able to visualize and analyze diagrams displaying the stages of mitosis confidently.
  • It is good to be aware of any irregularities during mitosis and resulting genetic consequences

Give yourself ample time to take comprehensive notes when studying your AP Biology material. Don’t try to memorize everything, but seek to understand and make connections between the information. It may also be helpful to draw out the processes of mitosis, labeling each stage with a description that you can understand easily.

Ask yourself questions about what step comes next, and predict if something were to go wrong in the process what would be the result?

Taking steps to interact with your material will help you make more sense of things. You don’t want to only memorize and regurgitate the material without having a clear visual understanding of the what and why of the process.

What Is Mitosis?

Mitosis is the name given for the process of a cell’s duplication. When there is one cell with a single set of chromosomes, it goes through a step-by-step process where you end up with two cells that have identical sets of chromosomes.

When there are breakdowns or problems with the mitosis process, genetic diseases or anomalies are created.

Check Out These 10 QuestionTo Study For A Mitosis Quiz

Image by Adina Voicu from Pixabay​​​​

Out of all the information covering mitosis and meiosis, you may want to consider the following questions to help prepare you for an upcoming mitosis quiz. Choose to break down the information as you see fit and in a language, you can understand. Again, drawing images to help you better conceptualize the process is helpful, as well as using correct terminology.

Which Structure Is Responsible For Moving Chromosomes During Mitosis?

The centromere is a region of DNA that holds together the two chromatids of a duplicated chromosome. Centromeres are responsible for attaching microtubules and direct the movement of chromosomes in both the process of mitosis and meiosis.

First, the chromosomes move toward the center of a cell during metaphase, and then they proceed to opposite directions during anaphase.

 Why Do Chromosomes Fail To Separate Within Mitosis?

Image by Colin Behrens from Pixabay

Nondisjunction is when a pair of homologous chromosomes fail to separate. There are three forms of nondisjunction, and two happen during the process of meiosis I and meiosis II.

When the sister chromatids fail to separate during the process of mitosis, the number of chromosomes is abnormal, resulting in aneuploidy.

If a single chromosome is lost from a diploid genome, it is called monosomy. If a chromosome is gained, it is called a trisomy.

When chromosomes fail to separate correctly, it can lead to a genetic disorder such as Downs Syndrome or Turner Syndrome. In the most extreme cases, aneuploidy can be lethal. The risk of nondisjunction taking place increases exponentially with the rising age of parent cells.

Typically disjunction is found during the process of meiosis.

At Which Phase Do Chromosomes Become Visible And Of What Do Chromosomes Consist?

Before chromosomes become visible during the prophase stage, the chromosomes are long strands called chromatin. The chromatin is tightly wound up into chromosomes.

Chromosomes are made up of DNA which is coiled tightly around histones. Histones are proteins which support the structure of the thread-like structures. Chromosomes are not visible under a microscope if the cell is not dividing, and it is not visible in the nucleus of the cell.

The short arm of a chromosome is the ‘p arm,’ and the long arm is known as the ‘q arm.’

What Is Cytokinesis?

Cytokinesis is the process when cells physically divide. The cytoplasm of a parent cell splits into two daughter cells. This process starts during anaphase and doesn’t stop until the telophase. Cytokinesis takes places during both mitosis and meiosis.

When and Why Will Cells Divide, How Many Chromosomes Will They Have, And What Triggers This Process?

Cellular division during mitosis may be triggered because of the need to replace or repair dead or lost cells or to grow in size. As part of the cell cycle, a cell will prepare to divide at interphase and begins its division process during mitosis.

A single cell will divide and reproduce copies of its DNA into two identical cells. The number of chromosomes will be the same as in the parent cell.

What Is The Difference Between A Diploid And A Haploid?

Diploid cells have a set of chromosomes from two different parents, with two homologous copies of each chromosome of their parents. Diploid cells reproduce by mitosis, and somatic cells are examples of diploid cells.

Haploid cells are created because of the meiosis process. Gametes or sex cells are a common type of haploid cells. Haploid cells only have one complete set of chromosomes.

Define Polyploidy And Aneuploidy?

When there is a variation in the number of chromosomes, it is described as being either aneuploidy, monoploidy, or euploidy. Depending on whether one part of a chromosome is lost, an entire set of chromosomes is lost, or one or more than one complete set of chromosomes is gained the term changes.

With chromosomes, conditions can either be double monosomic or double tetrasomic.

What Is An Allele And The Law Of Independent Assortment?

A gene is a single unit of information that is hereditary. Except in the case of some viruses, genes are made up of DNA which transmits traits. An allele is a genetic sequence which is a variant of a gene. When there are differences among copies of a gene, they are called alleles. At the locus of a gene, there are only two alleles present.

Gregor Mendel has been credited with our enlightened understanding about genetics, heredity, and what happens when there are variants in genetic transmission. According to Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment, a pair of alleles will separate independently when gametes are forming. Traits are transmitted to offspring independently.

The Law of Independent Assortment was formed on principles uncovered when Gregor Mendel conducted experiments creating dihybrid crosses between plants which had two different traits. As a result of Mendel’s experiments, a ratio developed to reinforce this concept.

What Type Of DNA Damage Occurs When Cytokinesis And Mitosis Fail?

If a cell fails to separate during cytokinesis, it may have multiple nuclei.

During the prometaphase and metaphase stage, if a cell fails, it enters the G1 phase of a cell cycle, or it results in cell death. The checkpoints within the cell cycle help to regulate the process of cell division and will signal to different pathways if there is a failure.

Steps are automatically taken to prevent any damaged DNA from being reproduced or transmitted to a new generation of cells, to protect integrity.

When mitosis fails to carry out is process an abnormal number of chromosomes is created. To prevent continuous cell division, abnormal cells may be removed. A failure in mitosis typically activates cell death and consequent DNA damage.

What Are The Cell Checkpoints And What Are Their Functions?

Depending on if certain conditions are met cellular division may be inhibited, such as in the instance that growth hormones are released. When there is cellular growth, cells have to divide to prevent cell crowding.

If there is a release of specific hormones or a lack thereof, cell checkpoints may not allow the progression of a cell to the next stage in the cell cycle until there are viable conditions.

At the G1 checkpoint, any damage to DNA and relevant external stimuli are evaluated before a cell can move forward to interphase.

The G2 checkpoint is needed to make sure that all chromosomes have been replicated without any damaged DNA. Until this is assured, a cell will not be able to enter mitosis.

The M checkpoint is responsible for making sure every chromosome is attached to the spindle, and will not allow the separation of duplicated chromosomes if there is a problem.

Cell checkpoints are part of the eukaryotic cell cycle.

Additional Helpful Pointers

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Before your quiz make sure that you can break down any pertinent information in easy to understand terms. However, be aware of the correct terminology and the sharp differences between mitosis and meiosis to reduce any unwanted confusion. Make sure to get enough sleep, eat well, and give yourself enough time to study the material before attempting to complete a quiz.

Don’t underestimate or disregard the power of drawing out your own diagrams to fully grasp the concept of each stage of mitosis. Visuals can have a stronger influence than reading words alone about the process.