Pzsol Moss Fern

Moss & Fern Puzzle Solution

Plants that lack tubes to carry food and water are called nonvascular plants. These plants are also known as bryophytes. Most bryophytes are terrestrial and live in moist environments. Water is required so that the sperm can swim to the egg during fertilization. Bryophytes do not produce seeds, but instead produce spores to reproduce. These plants exhibit alternation of generations in their life cycle. Because these plants lack vascular tissue, they are small in  height.

Moss is one example of a bryophyte that grows like a lush, green carpet. The dominant stage in the moss life cycle is the gametophyte. Root like rhizoids attach each gametophyte to the soil but do not absorb water. Both male and female gametophytes exist. The sporophyte generation is attached to the top of the gametophyte. Mosses are called pioneer plants because they often are the first plants to re-enter a barren area. Mosses also help prevent soil erosion. Sphagnum, or peat moss, is harvested and burned as fuel in some countries.

Liverworts and hornworts are nonvascular plants that also grow in moist, shady places. Liverworts have leaflike structures along a stem and lay close to the ground. Hornworts, like algae, have a single large chloroplast in each cell.

Ferns are simple, vascular plants that also lack seeds and reproduce by spores. Tree ferns are the largest ferns. Most ferns have an underground stem called a rhizomes. New leaves of ferns are tightly coiled and are called fiddleheads. Mature fern leaves are called fronds. Spores are produced on the underside of fern fronds.


Pzsol Photosynthesis




Answer Key:


All organisms use energy to carry out their life functions. Some organisms obtain this energy from sunlight. The process by which this energy transfer takes place is called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis involves a biochemical pathway in which the product of one reaction is consumed in the next reaction. Autotrophs are organisms that carry on photosynthesis and includes plants and other organisms containing the green pigment chlorophyll. Autotrophs use carbon dioxide and water to make oxygen and the simple sugar glucose. The pigment chlorophyll absorbs light energy from the sun during the light reactions. Accessory pigments also in the chloroplast absorb other wavelengths of light that chlorophyll does not absorb. These accessory pigments are responsible for other colors we see in plants such as red, orange, and yellow. Chloroplasts are surrounded by a double membrane. Inside chloroplasts is a system of membranes arranged as stacks of flattened sacs called granum. Each sac in the stack is called a thylakoid. The thylakoids are surrounded by a solution called the stroma. The dark reactions of photosynthesis take place in the stroma. Most chloroplasts are found in the leaves of plants. The underside of a leaf contains openings called stomata where gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide enter and leave. These openings or stomata are closed during the hottest times of the day by cells called guard cells.

PowerPoint Biology


Biology PowerPoint
All Materials © cmassengale
Click here to download PowerPoint viewer

The POWERPOINTS on this website are COPYRIGHTED. They may be SHOWN in class,

All teachers and students need one of these “catch up days” now and then.


Introduction to Biology
Question Guide
Starting a New Year
Cellular Respiration Plant Structure and Function
Characteristics of Life
Question Guide
ADP, ATP, & Cellular Respiration
Question Guide
Seeds & Fruits
Water Properties and More
Water ppt Q’s
Water, Solutions, pH, & Buffers
Cell Cycle & Reproduction
Question Guide Reproduction in Cells
Protist Types
Scientific Method
Question Guide
Meiosis – Gamete Production
Question Guide
Meiosis Animation

 Protists & Fungi

Lab Safety
Question Guide
Mitosis & Meiosis
Question Guide
 Introduction to Animals
Identifying controls & Variables Mendel’s Genetics
Question Guide
Practice Crosses
Hemophilia – the F8C Gene
Karyotypes & Chromosomes
Invertebrate Overview


Metric Measurement
Question Guide

Genetics Problems
Question Guide


Cnidarians & Ctenophorans

Question Guide
DNA Structure
Strawberry DNA
Strawberry Q’s
Unsegmented Worms (Flat & Round worms)
Question Guide
DNA & Replication
Question Guide
Question Guid
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis2
Question Guide

Clam dissection

Biochemistry of Cells
Question Guide
Macromolecule Chart
DNA Technology
Question Guide

World of Insects

Insect Orders

Macromolecules Taxonomy
Question Guide


Carbohydrates Origin of Life  Question Guide

Evidence for Evolution

Lipids Evolution   Question Guide

Darwin Versus Lamarck

Proteins Population Genetics Reptiles
Nucleic Acids Bacteria
Question Guide
Story of the Eagle
Cellular Structure
Question GuideCell Structure (revised)
Question Guide (revised)
Question Guide
Transport Across Cell Membranes
Question guide
Transport Flash Cards Review
Flash Card Activity
Tonicity Animations
Introduction to Plants
Question Guide
Plant Diversity
Ecology and Notes
Land Biomes
Water Biomes
Ecological Succession
Photosynthesis Reactions
Question Guide 
Mosses to Ferns
Question Guide
What is Ecology?
Question GuideEcosystem Energy Flow
Photosynthesis Gymnosperms & Angiosperms Biomes
Food Energy & Ecosystems


Pre AP Biology Biology I


Plant Analytical Questions

Plant Analytical Questions

Plant Structures and Function

Part 1: Use the following diagram of a seedling to answer these questions.

  1. What tropisms are being exhibited by the various parts of this seedling?




  1. What hormones are involved in these responses?




Part 2: Use the diagram below to complete lines a – f.

The diagrams represent three conditions of day & night length. A short-day plant, with a critical night length of 14 hours, and a long-day plant, with a critical night length of 8 hours, are grown under each condition. On lines a – f, indicate whether each plant will flower under each condition.


Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis


Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis


In this laboratory you will separate plant pigments using chromatography. You will also measure the rate of photosynthesis in isolated chloroplasts. The measurement technique involves the reduction of the dye DPIP. The transfer of electrons during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis reduces DPIP, changing it from blue to colorless.

Exercise 4A: Plant Pigment Chromatography:
Paper chromatography is a useful technique for separating and identifying pigment and other molecules from cell extracts that contain a complex mixture of molecules. The solvent moves up the paper by capillary action, which occurs as a result of the attraction of solvent molecules to the paper and the attraction of the solvent molecules to one another. As the solvent moves up the paper, it carries along any substances dissolved in it. The pigments are carried along at different rates because they are not equally soluble in the solvent and because they are attracted, to different degrees, to the fibers of the paper through the formation of intermolecular bonds, such as hydrogen bonds.

Beta carotene, the most abundant carotene in plants, is carried along near the solvent front because it is very soluble in the solvent being used and because it forms no hydrogen bonds with cellulose. Another pigment , Xanthophyll differs from carotene in that it contains oxygen. Xanthophyll is found further from the solvent font because it is less soluble in the solvent and has been slowed down by hydrogen bonding to the cellulose. Chlorophyll’s contain oxygen and nitrogen and are bound more tightly to the paper than the other pigments. Chlorophyll a is the primary photosynthetic pigment in plants. A molecule of chlorophyll a is located at the reaction center of the photo systems. The pigments collect light energy and send it to the reaction center. Carotenoids also protect the photosynthetic systems from damaging effects of ultraviolet light.

1. Obtain a 250 mL beaker which has about 2 cm of solvent at the bottom. Cover the beaker with aluminum foil to prevent the vapors from spreading. It is also suggested this work be done under a fume hood.

2. Cut a piece of filter paper which will be long enough to reach the solvent. Draw a line about 1.0 cm from the bottom of the paper. See Figure 4.1 below.

Figure 4.1

3. Use a quarter to extract the pigments from spinach leaf cells. Place a small section of leaf on the top of the pencil line. Use the ribbed edge of the coin to to crush the leaf cells. Be sure the pigment line is on top of the pencil line. Use a back and forth movement exerting firm pressure through out.

4. Place the chromatography paper in the cylinder. See Figure 4.2 below. Do not allow the pigment to touch the solvent.

Figure 4.2


5. Cover the beaker. When the solvent is about 1 cm from the top of the paper, remove the paper and immediately mark the location of the solvent front before it evaporates.

6. Mark the bottom of each pigment band. Measure the distance each pigment migrated from the bottom of the pigment origin to the bottom of the separated pigment band. Record the distance that each front, including the solvent front, moved in Table 4.1 Depending on the species of plant used, you may be able to observe 4 or 5 pigment bands.

Table 4.1

Distance moved by Pigment Band (millimeters)

Band Number Distance (mm) Band Color

Distance Solvent Front Moved _________________

Analysis of Results:
The relationship of the distance moved by a pigment to the distance moved by the solvent is a constant called Rf . It can be calculated for each of the four pigments using the formula:


Rf = distance pigment migrated (mm)_____
distance solvent front migrated (mm)

Record your Rf values in Table 4.2

Table 4.2

___________________________ = Rf for carotene (yellow to yellow -orange)
___________________________ = Rf for xanthophyll (yellow)
___________________________ = Rf for Chlorophyll a (bright green to blue green)
___________________________ = Rf for Chlorophyll b (yellow green to olive green)

Topics for Discussion:
1. What factors are involved in the separation of the pigments?






2. Would you expect the Rf value of a pigment to be the same if a different solvent were used? Explain.






3. What type of chlorophyll does the reaction center contain? What are the roles of the other pigments?






Exercise 4B: Photosynthesis / The Light Reaction:
Light is a part of a continuum of radiation or energy waves. Shorter wavelengths of energy have a greater amounts of energy. For example, high-energy ultraviolet rays can harm living things. Wavelengths of light within the visible spectrum of light power photosynthesis. when light is absorbed by leaf pigments, electrons within each photosystem are boosted to a higher energy level and this energy level is used to produce ATP and to reduce NADP to NADPH. ATP and NADPH are then used to incorporate CO2 into organic molecules, a process called carbon fixation.

Design of the Exercise:
Photosynthesis may be studied in a number of ways. For this experiment, a dye-reduction technique will be used. The dye-reduction experiment tests the hypothesis that light and chloroplasts are required for the light reactions to occur. In place of the electron accepter, NADP, the compound DPIP ( 2.6-dichlorophenol-indophenol), will be substituted. When light strikes the chloroplasts, electrons boosted to high energy levels will reduce DPIP. It will change from blue to colorless.

In this experiment, chloroplasts are extracted from spinach leaves and incubated with DPIP in the presence of light. As the DPIP is reduced and becomes colorless, the resultant increase in light transmittance is measured over a period of time using a spectrophotometer. The experimental design matrix is presented in Table 4.3.

Table 4.3: Photosynthesis Setup






Unboiled Chloroplasts Dark


Unboiled Chloroplasts Light


Boiled Chloroplasts Light



Phosphate Buffer 1 ml. 1 ml. 1 ml. 1 ml. 1 ml.
Distilled Water 4 ml. 3 ml. 3 ml. 3 ml. 3 ml + 3 drops
DPIP —- 1 ml. 1 ml. 1 ml. 1 ml.
Unboiled Chloroplasts 3 drops 3 drops 3 drops —- —-
Boiled Chloroplasts —- —- —- 3 drops —-

1. Turn on the spectrophotometer to warm up the instrument and set the wavelength to 605 nm by adjusting the wavelength control knob.

2. While the spectrophotometer is warming up, your teacher may demonstrate how to prepare a chloroplast suspension from spinach leaves.

3. Set up an incubation area that includes a light, water flask, and test tube rack. The water in the flask acts as a heat sink by absorbing most of the light’s infrared radiation while having little effect on the light’s visible radiation.

Figure 4.2: Incubation Setup

Flood Light ——-Water Heat Sink——-Cuvettes


4. Your teacher will provide you with two beakers, one containing unboiled chloroplasts. Be sure to keep these on ice at all times.

5. At the top rim, label the cuvettes 1,2,3,4, and 5, respectively. Using lens tissue, wipe the outside walls of each cuvette ( Remember: handle cuvettes only near the top). Using foil paper, cover the walls and bottom of cuvette 2. Light should not be permitted inside cuvette 2 because it is a control for this experiment.

6. Refer to Table 4.3 to prepare each cuvette. Do not add unboiled or boiled chloroplasts yet. To each cuvette, add 1 ml of phosphate buffer.

7. Bring the spectrophotometer to zero by adjusting the amplifier control knob until the meter reads 0% transmittance. Cover the top of cuvette 1 with Parafilm@ and invert to mix. Insert cuvette 1 into the sample holder and adjust the instrument to 100% transmittance by adjusting the light -control knob. Cuvette 1 is the blank to be used to recalibrate the instrument between readings. For each reading, make sure that the cuvettes are inserted into the sample holder so that they face the same way as in the previous reading.

8. Obtain the unboiled chloroplast suspension, stir to mix, and transfer three drops to cuvette 2. Immediately cover and mix cuvette 2. Then remove it from the foil sleeve and insert it into the spectrophotometer’s sample holder, read the % transmittance, and record it as the time 0 reading in Table 4.4 . Replace cuvette 2 into the foil sleeve, and place it into the incubation test tube rack. Turn on the flood light. Take and record additional readings at 5,10,and 15 minutes. Mix the cuvette’s contents just prior to each readings. Remember to use cuvette 1 occasionally to check and adjust the spectrophotometer to 100% transmittance.

9. Obtain the unboiled chloroplast suspension, mix, and transfer three drops to cuvette 3. Immediately cover and mix cuvette 3. Insert it into the spectrophotometer’s sample holder, read the % transmittance, and record it in Table 4.4 . Replace cuvette 3 into the incubation test tube rack. Take and record additional readings at 5,10,and 15 minutes. Mix the cuvette’s contents just prior to each readings. Remember to use cuvette 1 occasionally to check and adjust the spectrophotometer to 100% transmittance.

10. Obtain the boiled chloroplast suspension, mix, and transfer three drops to cuvette 4. Immediately cover and mix cuvette 4. Insert it into the spectrophotometer’s sample holder, read the % transmittance, and record it in Table 4.4 . Replace cuvette 4 into the incubation test tube rack. Take and record additional readings at 5,10,and 15 minutes. Mix the cuvette’s contents just prior to each readings. Remember to use cuvette 1 occasionally to check and adjust the spectrophotometer to 100% transmittance.

11. Cover and mix the contents of cuvette 5. Insert it into the spectrophotometer’s sample holder, read the % transmittance, and record it in Table 4.4 . Replace cuvette 5 into the incubation test tube rack. Take and record additional readings at 5,10,and 15 minutes. Mix the cuvette’s contents just prior to each readings. Remember to use cuvette 1 occasionally to check and adjust the spectrophotometer to 100% transmittance.

Table 4.4: Transmittance (%)

Time (minutes)

Cuvette 0 5 10 15
2 Unboiled /Dark
3 Unboiled/ Light
4 Boiled / Light
5 No Chloroplasts

Analysis of Results:
Plot the percent transmittance from the four cuvettes on the graph below

a. What is the dependent variable? ____________________________________________

b. What is the independent variable? __________________________________________

Graph Title: __________________________________________________________________

Graph 4.1

Topics for Discussion:
1. What is the purpose of DPIP in this experiment?




2. What molecule found in chloroplasts does DPIP “replace” in this experiment? _________________

3. What is the source of the electrons that will reduce DPIP? _________________________________

4. What was measured with the spectrophotometer in this experiment? ____________________________________________________________________________




5. What is the effect of darkness on the reduction of DPIP? Explain.





6. What is the effect of boiling the chloroplasts on the subsequent reduction of DPIP? Explain.





7. What reasons can you give for the difference in the percent transmittance between the live chloroplasts that were incubated in the light and those that were kept in the dark?







Exit mobile version