7 Cell Raps To Help Memorize The Functions Of Cells

If you’re studying for a science test, one of the best ways to help remember the material is by setting to music! That’s right; cell raps can help you remember the names of the organelles located in each cell, as well as their functions.

We’ve rounded up our top seven picks for cell raps that we think you’re going to love.

 

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Best Cell Rap for Sixth-Graders: Cells Cells by Crappy Teacher

As YouTuber CrappyTeacher (Emily Crapnell) explains in her cell rap video, she created this video to help her sixth-grade science students learn the different parts of a cell. At over 5.7 million views, it seems that this cell rap has caught on with more than just Crapnell’s students! We can’t blame people for watching it; it’s catching and makes science–dare we say it?–fun!

“Today’s the day,” the rap begins; “let’s talk about the building blocks of life–cells that make us.”

The cell rap chorus covers some of the most vital parts of cellular biology. It explains that cells are made of organelles, and mentions cytoplasm, the nucleus (“controllin’ everything”), the membrane, the vacuole (“we can float around for hours”), and chloroplasts by name.

The next chorus explains that there are two different types of cells–animal and plant cells, while the final three stanzas are devoted to explaining in more details with each part of the cell does. “The cell membrane is the border patrol,” raps CrappyTeacher, and then later, “The mitochondria’s something every cell needs, breaking down the food and releasin’ energy.”

Over second thousand people have taken the time to comment on this cell rap. Many mention how they heard it years ago and still remember it, speaking to the catchy lyrics and the arresting beat. While designed for sixth-graders, the content is sophisticated enough that even college students report finding it helpful!

We also feel like it’s one of the best mixes of catchy lyrics and useful information, managing to find a good balance between repetition and new information. Plus, it provides a great video with very helpful images which will further solidify the information in your mind.

The rap can be viewed here or may be purchased.

Best Karaoke Option: The Cell Song by Glenn Wolkenfeld

The Cell Song, created and sung by Glenn Wolkenfeld, isn’t a cell rap–but it is a fantastic way to use the power of song to help commit the parts of a cell to memory! And with over two million views, we’re not the only people who think so.

The song is a folksy, bluesy tune where the singer asks what happens when he goes into a cell. “Who drives this bus,” sings Wolkenfeld, and then he “found myself talking to the boss, the nucleus.”

Unlike some of the other cell raps available, The Cell Song explains that chromosomes stores genetic information, the ribosomes make proteins, and the lysosome use enzymes to dissolve, and centrioles organize chromosomes into spindles.

Wolkenfeld also uses The Cell Song to explain how rigid cell walls allow plants to grow extremely tall, and the purpose of green in the plant cell. “I went into a plant cell, ‘why’s it so green?’” sings the artist. “‘Cause I make food from sunlight,’” answers a green chloroplast.

The video is filled with helpful drawings and diagrams to further illustrate each concept. Wolkenfeld, as we mentioned already, also offers a karaoke version, which is the same version, but instead of Wolkenfeld singing, the lyrics are on the screen.

The Cell Song, like Cells Cells by CrappyTeacher, has the ability to combine great video content with helpful, relevant information about cells.

You can find The Cell Song here, and the karaoke version here.

Best Song With Video: The Parts of a Cell Song by Jam Campus

The Parts of a Cell Song is a cell rap created by an organization called Jam Campus. It’s one of many Jam Campus creations; in fact, the YouTube channel creates educational videos on everything history to science to mathematics.

With over 54,000 views, The Parts of a Cell Song is catchy and well-loved. What we especially love, in addition to the self-made music, is the high quality illustrated video! Any time you can marry great visual images with catchy lyrics, you increase the likelihood of you remembering the information.

The Parts of a Cell Song gets right down to business, stating in its first line, “here’s what each cell contains, outer layer is the cell membrane.” The lyrics point out where cells get their energy (mitochondria), and what ribosomes do (help with protein synthesis).

We also appreciate this lyric, which helps to sum up the parts of a cell, something most cell raps don’t do:

Cell membrane, mitochondria, lysosomes and the ribosomesCytoplasm, nucleus, E.R. and Golgi body, and the nucleolus

​We especially appreciate how accurate the presented information is here (many cell raps mistakenly identify ribosomes as making proteins; however, they simply help in the assembly of polypeptides, chains of amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein).

Best for Repetitive Learning: The Cell Rap with Mr. Simons’ Fifth Grade Class

Mr. Simons and his fifth grade have teamed up to create another great cell rap, available on YouTube. This cell rap has approximately 468,000 views, and we understand why–out of all the cell raps we’re sharing today, this one is probably the most likely to get stuck in your head!

​Every song has to decide how to balance repetition with new information; as you’ll see later, some of the cell rap songs we’ve rounded up choose to focus on including as much data as possible. This rap, however, from Jake Simons, focuses on repetition.

In fact, we feel it focuses a little too much on repetition, but it’s still a great rap that will help cement many of the things you’re learning about cell biology into your memory.

​This five-minute rap features the cytoplasm, the nucleus, the membrane, the vacuoles, and the mitochondria of the cell. Here’s an example of a lyric:

“Just like us, the cell has energy. The mitochondria takes the food and puts it where it needs to be.”

Here’s another line from the cell rap, this one memorably explaining how the cell membrane works:

“There’s a thing called a membrane that holds it all in place so none of us will ever complain.”

​Is this the cell rap to turn to if you need to memorize complicated material? Probably not; but it is a great option for younger students or people who need just the basic parts of a cell!

​Best Use of Additional Resources: The Cell Song by Keith Smolinski

​The Cell Song was written and recorded by Dr. Keith Smolinski as part of a doctoral study to research how music can help students learn complex science concepts. In addition to The Cell Song, which features the parts of a cell, there are another nine songs sold in an album called Biorhythms: The Music of Life Science.

Songs in Biorhythms cover everything from cellular division, to the digestive tract, to the ecosystem. The song we’re featuring, The Cell Song, isn’t a cell rap, but it is well-performed, catchy, and interesting to listen to!

While the accompanying video doesn’t include images, it does utilize the lyrics on screen. In just two minutes and nineteen seconds, Dr. Smolinski manages to cover everything from the nucleus to the cell membranes.

In The Cell Song, listeners learn that the nucleus contains the genetic code, the mitochondria are the power plants of the cell, and the vacuoles store food and water. We also learn that the ribosomes make proteins, the Golgi bodies pack and ship the proteins, and the endoplasmic reticulum carries them.

Plus, the song teaches that lysosomes are janitors, cytoplasm is gel-like, and cell membranes help regulate what comes in and out of the cell.

​In the notes section of this video, Dr. Smolinski also explains that additional teacher’s resources are available on his website, including a Teacher’s Guide for The Cell Song. All of Dr. Smolinski’s resources are based on the National and State of Connecticut Science Standards, so you can be sure you’re getting accurate and helpful information.

Best Rap Alternative: Organelles Song by ParrMr

​ParrMr, a YouTube creator, has garnered over one hundred thousand subscribers thanks to her (or his!) ability to put science lyrics to popular songs. If you cringe over cells raps or want music you’re already familiar with, you can find videos on everything from Pangaea to the atmosphere to the planets.

ParrMr’s songs are set to hits like Forget You by Cee Lo Green, Toothbrush by D’NCE, and Jealous by Nick Jonas. The one we’re featuring here is Organelles Song, set to Counting Stars by OneRepublic.

The music is easy to remember if you’re already familiar with the song–our one complaint, however, is that the lyrics have very little repetition. This has the upside of packing a ton of information into the four-plus minute song, but if you’re trying to make sure the material sticks, this might be a downside.

​“Look inside a cell,” sings ParrMr, who created this song for his or her sixth-grade students, “and you will see…organelles have jobs, yeah, organelles have…jobs.”

​The next lines focus on how plant cell walls and cell membranes protect the line like a fence, letting the right things in and out. ParrMr covers vacuoles, lysosomes, the nucleus, chromatin, DNA, and ribosomes.

The final stanza explains proteins and their relationships to the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, and cytoplasm. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are also mentioned.

​Organelles Song by ParrMr has racked up over 700,000 views, and for a good reason.

Runner-up Rap Alternative: Cells Song by ParrMr

Another much-loved option (four hundred thousand views!) by ParrMr, also for a sixth-grade classroom, this is another song about cells set to hit music. This one, called Cells Song, is set to Sail by AWOLNATION.

In it, ParrMr sings about cell membranes, cytoplasm, organelles, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, and Golgi bodies.

“Cells cells cells cells cells,” he sings, before starting another chorus about vacuoles, the nucleus, and lysosomes.

​Here is the final stanza:

Capturing Sun’s energyChloroplasts in plants and treesAnd cell walls giving box-like shape, rigid

If you’re a fan of pop or dance music or are simply looking for a non-rap alternative to cell raps, this is a great option. It’s short on useful information, but what is included is presented appealingly, and will be likely to stick!

Thanks to these seven awesome cell raps, we have a feeling you’re going to ace your next quiz or test. We’d say good luck, but we don’t think you’ll need it!

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Questions To Study For A Brain Anatomy Quiz In AP Biology

Questions To Study For A Brain Anatomy Quiz In AP Biology

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Taking AP Biology? Have a brain anatomy quiz coming soon? We’ve got 17 questions to help you study for it, plus some clever tricks and tips for studying smarter, not harder!

Parts Of The Brain

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One of the first things you should have to ace a brain anatomy quiz is a thorough grasp of the parts of the brain and each part’s function. Here are some of the questions you might expect:

1. Where Is The Cerebellum Located And What Does It Do?

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The cerebellum is the part of the brain situated at the back of the head. It receives sensory information and regulates your motor movements. The cerebellum also controls balance and coordination, helping you to enjoy smooth movements.

2. Which Part Of The Brain Processes Visual Information?

The occipital lobe lies underneath the occipital bone. It is part of the forebrain (you have two, technically; one at the back of each cortex) and is responsible for processing visual information. Here’s a helpful memory device: the “o” in occipital can remind you of the “o” in optometrist or ophthalmologist.

3. If A Person’s Frontal Lobe Is Injured, What Functions Might He Or She Lose?

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The frontal lobe can be found in the front of the brain, in each cerebral hemisphere. A deep groove called the central sulcus separates it from the parietal lobe, and another groove called the lateral sulcus separates it from the temporal lobe. A part of the frontal lobe known as the precentral gyrus contains the primary motor cortex, which controls specific body parts’ voluntary movements.

The frontal lobe is responsible for reasoning, higher order thinking, and creativity, so if somebody’s frontal lobe is damaged, he or she could have difficulty making decisions and reasoning.

4. What Are The Gyrus And Sulcus And How Do They Help The Brain?

Gyrus are the ridges on the brain and sulcus are the grooves (also seen as furrows or depressions). Together, their up and down “motion” are responsible for the folded, “spaghetti” appearance of the brain.

They are, in fact, an extremely clever way of making the most of very limited space. The brain is limited to the area inside your cranium, but the folding of the brain tissue allows a much greater surface area for cortical tissue, allowing additional cognitive function even in a relatively small space.

The human brain begins as a smooth surface, but as the embryo develops, the brain begins to form the deep indentations and ridges we see in the adult brain.

5. What Part Of The Brain Controls The Primitive Parts Of Our Body?

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Pons is the Latin word for bridge, and that’s exactly what the pons appears to do in the brain, as its physically connected to the brainstem. Like any good bridge, the pons contains neural pathways to move signals to the medulla, cerebellum, and thalamus.

Many of the nuclei contained inside the pons are responsible for relaying signals, as we’ve already described, but other nuclei play roles in primitive functions that we don’t normally consider being within our control, such as respiration, sleep, bladder control, and others.

6. What Is The Corpus Callosum?

The corpus callosum sits underneath the cerebral cortex. It’s about 10cm long and is a thick, tough bundle of fibers that connects the cerebral hemispheres (right and left), enabling them to communicate with each other.

It has over 200 million axonal projections, making it the largest white matter structure.

7. Which Part Of The Brain Is The Newest From An Evolutionary Perspective?

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The cerebrum is the part of the brain that is outermost. In it, the brain can store memories, call upon senses, and establish self-awareness. High order functioning can also take place here and its known for being larger in musicians and left-handed individuals. It is also considered to be the most recent brain development.

8. How Many Lobes Is The Brain Comprised Of, And What Are Their Names And Functions?

Inside the brain is found the occipital lobe (see question #2), the frontal lobe (see question #3), the parietal lobe, and the temporal lobe. The parietal lobe sits behind the frontal lobe and above the temporal lobe. It is where the body becomes self-aware and plays an important role in language processing.

The temporal lobe plays a role in the processing of sensory input, helping the brain to translate these inputs into meaning. If, for example, you smell apple pie and think of your grandmother, you have your temporal lobe to thank!

9. Which Part Of Your Brain Acts Like A Supercomputer?

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The thalamus is the small organ at the very center of your brain that acts as a supercomputer or switchboard, relaying signals throughout the brain. It is one of the most important parts of the brain and regulates motor signals, sleep, and consciousness.

Closely related to the thalamus is the hypothalamus, which sits just underneath the thalamus and regulates the pituitary gland and homeostasis.

10. Which Part Of The Brain Helps You Sneeze?

The medulla oblongata (medulla is Latin for “middle”), and the medulla oblongata is located on the brainstem close to the cerebellum. It is responsible for involuntary or autonomic processes, which include vomiting and sneezing. It also helps with breathing, cardiac functions such as heart rate, and blood pressure.

 The Central Nervous System

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The central nervous system is another important subject likely to show up on a brain anatomy quiz. The questions below will help you better prepare.

11. What Is The Central Nervous System (CNS) Comprised Of?

The brain and the spinal cord make up the CNS, which is protected by the skull and the spine’s vertebral canal. It is the command center of the entire body, regulating all activity and processing all sensory inputs.

 12. What Role Does The Midbrain Play In The CNS?

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The midbrain controls visual reflexes (including automatic eye movements, such as blinking and focusing). It also contains nuclei that link parts of the body’s motor system, including both cerebral hemispheres.

13. What Is A Neurotransmitter?

A neurotransmitter is a chemical that a nerve fiber releases when a nerve impulse arrives. It diffuses across the junction or synapse so that the impulse may pass to the next nerve fiber, muscle fiber, or other structure. Both neurotransmitters and inhibitory neurotransmitters are found in the brain.

14. What Is The Difference Between Dopamine And Serotonin?

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Dopamine and serotonin are both powerful neurotransmitters. Serotonin impacts your sleep, arousal, hunger, and mood, while dopamine impacts your brain’s pleasure and reward system, your learning and attention, and movement.

15. What Is Glutamate And Why Is It Important?

Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter found in the CNS; in fact, it accounts for more than 90% off all the synaptic connections in your brain! Some parts of the brain, including granule cells found in the cerebellum, rely on glutamate almost exclusively. Glutamate also plays a vital role in memory and learning.

16. Can You Name The Most Common Inhibitory Neurotransmitter In The Brain?

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GABA (gamma-Aminobutyric acid) is the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the brain. It is considered inhibitory because it helps to calm or reduce neuron excitability. This means it plays an important role in calming anxiety. It also is responsible for the regulation of muscle tone.

17. What Is The Neurotransmitter That Triggers Our Fight Or Flight Response?

The fight or flight response is also called the acute stress response or hyperarousal; it is a physiological reaction that occurs when the brain perceives an imminent threat. Epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) is the neurotransmitter most responsible for this response. It can signal an increase in blood flow to muscles and greater blood flow through the heart, among other things (this is why your heart starts to beat quickly when you’re afraid).

The Quick Guide To Studying Smarter

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If you’re reading this article, you’re already well on your way to preparing for your brain anatomy quiz, but here are a few more tips to help you get the most out of your time studying:

Get Lots of Rest

Sleeping instead of studying sounds counterintuitive, but without sleep, your brain will have a hard time committing what you’ve learned to memory. In fact, one of the best things you can do to prepare for a test or quiz is to get a good night’s sleep the night before!

Use Memory Devices

We’ve already hinted at a few tricks for helping your brain remember facts (did you notice them in the questions above?), but mnemonic devices and facts set to music help those boring facts stick much better than just rote memorization.

Setting the major parts of the brain to your favorite song, for example, can help pique your brain’s interest and increase emotional arousal, increasing your odds of remembering the information!

Finally, make it real. Drawing the brain, using models of the brain, or reading stories about people who have injured certain parts of the brain are all ways to make abstract concepts seem real–and make you more likely to remember them. Good luck!

8 Websites with the Best AP Practice Exams

 High school is a challenging time in everyone’s life. And for students enrolled in AP courses, the end of the year is particularly challenging. As high-achieving students gear up for long exams that offer the potential for early college credit, many students are searching high and low for reliable study materials.

One favorite way to practice for an important exam is by taking practice exams. But finding high-quality AP practice exams is challenging. That’s why we curated this list of websites for you. Whether you’re looking for AP Biology practice exams or one for AP Art History, these websites will help you in your quest for a good score.

Why You Should Take a Practice Exam

The best way to gauge how ready you are for an exam is by taking a practice test. While its best to drill yourself with a wide variety of study materials throughout the year, use of a full-length practice test will help you to prepare for the exam in a whole new way. In addition to helping you study, taking a practice exam can offer the following benefits:

  • Enables you to acclimate to the test format.
  • Relieves unwanted test anxiety.
  • Familiarizes you with test content.
  • Offers an opportunity to customize your study plan.
  • Gives testers a sense of readiness.

Practice exams are a helpful tool for getting yourself in tip-top test shape. But don’t forget to apply the knowledge you gain from taking practice tests. For example, if you come across the material in the practice test that you don’t understand, bring it up with your teacher as soon as possible.

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Below you’ll find a list of websites that offer AP practice exams in one format or another. Not all of them provide full-length tests, but all of them will help you get ready for your AP exams. Keep in mind, that AP tests are different each year and the practice questions you find online won’t necessarily be the ones you encounter on your exam.

8 Websites with the Best AP Practice Exams

College Board

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If you’re looking for a good starting place when it comes to mastering an AP exam, start with the official College Board website. There are many useful resources available on this website for students who are preparing for any of the AP Exams. In addition to study materials, the College Board website provides all of the information students need about the AP exams.

In addition to general information about each of the AP exams, the College Board website also offers sample questions for curious students. While a limited number of multiple choice sample questions are provided, a wide array of free response questions are typically available. Also, you’ll find a handful of student responses for comparison.

While this website doesn’t provide full-length practice exams, it is a great starting place. College Board is the official company behind all of the AP exams, and therefore the study materials they provide will be most like the AP tests.

APPracticeExams.com

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This website is an all-purpose study site from students preparing for AP exams. From AP Biology practice exams to class notes on Statistics, this website has a little something for everyone. It’s also worth noting that all of the resources on this web page are provided free of charge.

Unlike some websites that maintain their database of practice materials, AP Practice Exams provides links to the best free AP practice exams online. Students love using this site because it is easy to navigate and understand. Parents like this website because all of the materials are free.

While you can find a lot of resources through this web page, it does have its limitations. More specifically, the site is not backed by any testing or tutoring service. This drawback means that you’re on your own with the resources provided. However, for those who are self-driven, this site can be a treasure trove of information.

Also, it’s worth noting that the website is very low-key and doesn’t feature many stunning visual features or modern conventions. However, because the resources are all free, it’s a good option for many.

Albert

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Albert is a study and test-prep website designed to help students get the most out of the learning experience. Unlike the sites already mentioned above, the resources available through this website are not free of charge. However, they do offer a comprehensive program for preparing for many of the AP exams.

Pricing for the materials on this website varies by subject area, but for the most part, you can expect it to be relatively affordable. Unfortunately, it doesn’t seem that there are any concessions made for students who can’t afford the costs associated with using Albert.

Albert provides a variety of study materials including practice multiple choice questions, practice free response questions, and at least one full-length practice exam. Additionally, there are numerous study tips and testing tricks to help students make the most of test day. Albert also offers an overview of the core concepts that are tested in each subject.

This website features an attractive and easy-to-use interface that simplifies the study process. However, the fact that you must pay to use these study materials means that many students won’t be able to take advantage of this program. All in all, this is a good website for students whose parents have a little extra cash to spare.

Get A Five

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Get A Five is a web-based tutoring program that is available to students and teachers free of charge. However, unlike some other websites, this one is somewhat limited in scope. But, if your AP class is available, we highly recommend taking advantage of this valuable resource.

Unlike other programs, Get A Five offers a virtual study room, a diagnostic test, practice tests, and video-based lessons. Each program available in this online resource is customized to provide users with the ultimate learning experience.

Despite being limited to the few materials available, this website is an excellent resource for AP students in the classes offered. And, for a small fee, you can have your practice free response questions hand graded. We love that this resource doesn’t cost anything to use, but provides excellent value nonetheless.

Get A Five currently offers four courses for students preparing for the AP exam period. The subjects offered include AP Calculus AB, AP Biology, AP US History, and AP World History. While this selection is limited, it’s worth checking back from time to time to see if new courses become available later on.

High School Test Prep

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High School Test Prep is another free resource available for students preparing to take an AP exam. The materials available on this website are relatively limited but can prepare you for the general idea of how the test will be. However, it’s worth noting that this resource does not provide full-length exams. Also, it only covers multiple choice questions.

To help students understand the subject area they are testing over, each multiple choice question on this website gives a brief explanation of the correct answer. And while we wouldn’t recommend relying on this website alone, it serves as an excellent way to see where you stand.

After reviewing the materials on this website, you’ll be better prepared to formulate a study plan that will adequately prepare you for your upcoming test. Once you’ve studied the areas that are more difficult for you, use one or more of the other resources listed here to prepare yourself even more.

Study.com

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Study.com offers students a variety of materials for preparing for several different AP exams. They even provide several short practice exams to help you evaluate where you stand concerning the test you’ll be taking later in the school year.

In addition to the short practice tests they offer, study.com also offers test prep services. However, it’s worth noting that these services are not free of charge. Information on pricing is not disclosed without starting a “free trial” so explore these options carefully.

We like that there are several free practice tests available, but the lack of clarity when it comes to plans and pricing seems a bit dubious. Still, if you’re willing to spend a little money, it may be worth it to explore this option.

If you feel that you still need extra practice after thoroughly searching through these websites, consider visiting your local library. There, you may find practice books that contain additional practice questions or exams.

Keep in mind, not all study resources are free, and you should be extremely cautious when choosing how to spend your extra money. Also, always use caution when you have to input a credit card number online. And never purchase online materials without your parent’s permission.

With the resources listed above, you should be well on your way to finding the practice exam that’s right for you. Also, don’t forget that practice exams are only part of the study equation. Remember to brush up on necessary vocabulary and time management strategies as well.

Six Resources with the Best AP Textbook Prices

Advanced Placement classes were once limited to select groups of students, but today, these classes dominate the high school experience. During the 2016-2017 school year, 111,000 students in American schools took the computer science course with a growth of more than 54,000 students from the previous year. We’ve put together a list of excellent resources for finding the best AP Biology textbook prices including some brand-new publishers that focus on cutting the costs of AP courses.

Biology and other sciences are also on the rise. A total of 2.7 million students took five million AP exams according to College Board, the test designer and proctor.

Unfortunately, growth in enrolment hasn’t meant a decline in costs. While some low income students see their test fees covered, recent cuts from the Every StudentSucceedsAct mean that some students need additional dollars.

Finding financially accessible textbooks has never been more critical as more students prepare for more AP tests. Fortunately, these textbooks don’t have to break the bank and with greater student enrolment comes more options for new books.

Six Places to Find the Best AP Textbook Prices

Searching for your AP biology book and think you might get a better price? Check out these resources before placing your order.

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Amazon

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Buying AP biology test books from Amazon means you have access to almost every brand and publisher imaginable including off-the-beaten-path books. You’re not only offered the most up-to-date editions of each book, but they come in various formats. Both comprehensive reviews and Cliff’s Notes versions of each book are available online.

Why buy Amazon?

Amazon offers excellent back-to-school prices and a simple returns policy. If you’re a Prime member, you’ll also benefit from free, fast shipping.

Additionally, Amazon hosts customer reviews that give you insight into the book. If you’re looking for complete coverage in specific areas or a particular learning style, the reviews section provides excellent coverage of what it’s like to use the book.

Finally, some books come in both used and new varieties as well as Kindle editions, so there are plenty of ways to save extra cash or even get more books.

Google Books

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Buying the digital version of AP books is a great way to save money and make test prep more accessible wherever you are.

Google Books offers a range of AP test prep e-books including AP Biology. Google’s library hosts most of the major test prep brands including:

  • Kaplan
  • Barron’s
  • CliffsNotes
  • The Princeton Review
  • McGraw Hill

There are also plenty of unknown authors that offer a different or cheaper way to study.

You can access Google Books on any device as long as you log into your Google account. You can even use them on your computer if you prefer a bigger screen. Visit the desktop version of the Google Play store for access.

Google Books also offers refunds on unread books. If you find digital versions don’t work for you or you’re one chapter into a book unsuited to your learning style, it’s possible to return it. Visit the My Account section the Google Play store and click the item you want to return.

You may return any e-book up to seven days after buying it. E-book rentals are final sales. If the e-book malfunctions, you may receive a refund within 65 days of the purchase date.

Textbooks.com

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Looking for an AP Biology textbook rather than test prep?

Visit Textbooks.com to search through the vast marketplace of competitively priced books. You’ll find new, used, and e-book versions of most of the primary textbooks all from different sellers.

Type “AP biology” into the search bar to find precisely what you need. When we last looked, 274 results were available and included:

  • Biology (AP 11thEdition) (Mader)
  • Cliff’s AP: Biology (2ndEdition)
  • SparkNotes Guide to AP Biology
  • Barron’s AP Biology
  • Campbell Biology, AP Edition
  • Cracking the AP Biology Exam 2017

Textbooks.com offers the best prices we’ve seen with some books.

While the prices can’t be beaten, it’s good to be wary of buying used books. While used books are ideal, an older book might miss something covered on the test. New books tend to include the latest edition of the test more precisely as well, which helps give you an edge.

eBay

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If one internet giant comes to mind for textbook purchases, it’s Amazon. But eBay is also an excellent resource for AP biology books. Much of what you’ll find on eBay falls under the category of gently used, but our searches showed that you’re more likely to get the very latest version of the book on eBay compared to other sites.

eBay was partly eclipsed by Amazon because it relied so heavily on seller’s ability to ship things in good time. Shipping was also previously based on zip codes. It quickly made up the bulk of the price on cheaper items.

Today, free shipping is standard on eBay items including on AP history books.

Why choose eBay over Amazon or another used book marketplace?

eBay demands more of a description of the book before posting. Amazon and other sellers tend to note whether the book is in excellent, good, or poor condition. On eBay, sellers indicate the state of the book, but many also describe any damage to the book such as any writing included in the book or if the cover is frayed.

Buying a New Book and Worried About the Price?

If the price of a textbook seems to good to be true, it often isn’t. Bookstores tend to sell U.S. versions of textbooks featuring hardcovers and quality materials. The international version, which is what is usually found significantly cheaper on eBay, is a softcover with cheaper paper. In most cases, the international version is a carbon copy of the same book. Some anomalies arise, but you are likely to see those in the seller reviews.

Regardless of where you buy, double check the edition to make sure it’s not a reprint. Fortunately, most AP course books include the date or version on the cover, so it’s easy to spot in the photos.

OpenStax

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Have you already looked at Barron’s, the Princeton Review, Cliff Notes, and others without finding much success?

AP biology students now have a new option: OpenStax.

OpenStax is a non-profit textbook developer from Rice University. Their goal is to improve access to AP tests, college, and education generally by providing open-licensed college textbooks. Because these books are open-license and OpenStax isn’t out to make money, you’ll receive a high quality, current book for far less money than traditional textbooks.

OpenStax started out providing STEM subjects including biology. Today, they are available for many AP topics including:

  • Biology
  • Physics
  • Macroeconomics
  • SparkNotes Guide to AP Biology

These books aren’t just test prep books. They’re suitable for students taking AP or college courses to prepare for the tests.

The OpenStax Biology for AP® Courses book covers all the requirements of the standard two-semester AP course. It meets core concepts and foundational research and uses the evolutionary lens mandated by AP. The company designed its book not just to meet but exceed the requirements set by College Board, which makes it an essential learning book and an excellent companion to AP study books for those working independently.

HOW MUCH WILL YOU PAY FOR THESE HIGH-QUALITY BOOKS?

Students are expected to pay nothing. These books are free and licensed under Creative Commons, which means everyone has access to them.

Before you worry about quality, don’t. Each book is written by experts in their field. The content is sourced and vetted by peer reviewers, just like the traditional course books you’d otherwise buy.

In 2016 alone, 392,000 students used these books to save a good amount of money. So, head over to OpenStax, and give them a try.

Pearson

Pearson is an industry-leading education company that publishes books known for their academic rigor. Their AP® Honors & Electives series is no different.Each Pearson book comes with a both an AP Exam Preparation Guide and Test Prep Workbook written according to the College Board course outline. Inside the books, you’ll find:

  • Overview of the program
  • Test-taking tips
  • Strategies for achieving the best score
  • Practice tests

Pearson’s test prep series is competitively priced and maybe even cheaper if you find yourself a promo code.

Are You Ready for Your AP Exam?

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AP classes aim to prepare you for the exam, but the help of test prep books and a good textbook are invaluable to the process. While exam prices continue to climb, test prep books remain competitive, and some quality materials are now free to all student.

What books would you recommend for scoring a 5 on an AP Biology exam? Share your favorite study materials and tricks in the comments below.

Earthworm Anatomy and Dissection Guide

Earthworm Dissection and Earthworm Anatomy

Pictures: Modern Biology, Holt

The following is a classification of a species in the earthworm family Lumbricidae. This common species is Lumbricus terrestris also known as the night crawler or dew worm. In this article, we will cover earthworm anatomy and an introduction on dissecting an earthworm. 

Phylum –
Class –
Family –
Genus –
Species –
Annelida
Oligochaeta
Lumbricidae
Lumbricus
terrestris

Objectives:

 

In this earthworm dissection guide, you will learn to:


• Describe the appearance of various organs found in the earthworm.
• Name the organs that make up various systems of the earthworm.

Materials:
Safety goggles, dissecting pins, gloves, forceps, lab safety apron, scissors, paper towel, scalpel, water, dissecting probe, preserved earthworm, hand lens, dissection tray.

Purpose:
In this lab, you will dissect an earthworm in order to observe the external and internal structures of earthworm anatomy, whilst following the all-important lab safety procedures.

 

This guide is perfect for students in colleges or universities. 

 

 

Background:


Among the most familiar invertebrate animals are the earthworms, members of the phylum Annelida. The word annelida means “ringed” and refers to a series of rings or segments that make up the bodies of the members of this phylum. Internally, septa, or dividing walls, are located between the segments. External segments are called metameres. There may be more than 100 segments in an adult worm. The clitellum is a swelling of the body found in sexually mature worms and is active in the formation of an egg capsule, or cocoon. This is the earthworm reproductive organ. Eggs are produced in the ovaries and pass out of the body through female genital pores. Sperm are produced in the testes and pass out through tiny male genital pores. During mating, sperm from one worm travel along the sperm grooves to the seminal receptacles of another worm. Fertilization of the eggs takes place outside the body as the cocoon moves forward over the body, picking up the eggs of one worm and the sperm of its mate. The pumping organs of the circulatory system are five aortic arches. Circulatory fluids travel from the arches through the ventral blood vessel to capillary beds in the body. The fluids then collect in the dorsal blood vessel and reenter the aortic arches. The earthworm takes in a mixture of soil and organic matter through its mouth, which is the beginning of the digestive tract. The mixture enters the pharynx, which is located in segments 1–6. The esophagus, in segments 6–13, acts as a passageway between the pharynx esophagus and the crop. The crop stores food temporarily. The mixture that the earthworm ingests is ground up in the gizzard. In the intestine, which extends over two-thirds of the body length, digestion and absorption take place. Soil particles and undigested organic matter pass out of the worm through the rectum and anus. The nervous system consists of the ventral nerve cord, which travels the length of the worm on the ventral side, and a series of ganglia, which are masses of tissue containing many nerve cells. The nerve collar surrounds the pharynx esophagus and consists of ganglia above and below the pharynx. Nervous impulses are responsible for movement and responses to stimuli. Each segment contains an enlargement, or ganglion, along the ventral nerve cord. Excretory functions are carried on by nephridia, which are found in pairs in each body segment. They appear as tiny white fibers on the dorsal body wall. The earthworm has no gills or lungs. Gases are exchanged between the circulatory system and the environment through the moist skin.

 

External Earthworm Anatomy

 

What is the external anatomy of an earthworm?

 

The external body of an earthworm is well adapted for living in the soil, similar to the external structure of other insects. The front or head of the worm is called the anterior. The very first section of the anterior contains the mouth and prostomium. The prostomium is a kind of lip which is located on the front of the mouth. Earthworms lose moisture and breathe via their skin. They have light-sensitive cells across their external structure, which are scattered around the skin. These cells give earthworms the ability to detect changes in lighting, and these cells are also sensitive to chemicals and touch. The body is separated in segments which resemble rings. Each segment has a number of bristly hairs attached to it, which helps the earthworm to move around. On mature earthworms, you will find a saddle or glandular ring called a clitellum. When an earthworm has mated, the clitellum will secrete a sack of eggs. The final segment of an earthworm contains the anus which is where waste is secreted. 

 

Dissection Guide:


1. Put on safety goggles, gloves, and a lab apron.

2. Place earthworm in the dissecting tray & rinse off the excess preservative. Identify the dorsal side, which is the worm’s rounded top, and the ventral side, which is its flattened bottom. Turn the worm ventral side up, as shown in the earthworm anatomy diagram below.

3. Use a hand lens as you observe all parts of the worm, externally and internally. Locate the conspicuous clitellum, a saddle-like swelling on the dorsal surface.  The clitellum produces a mucus sheath used to surround the worms during mating and is responsible for making the cocoon within which fertilized eggs are deposited.  The anterior of the animal is more cylindrical than the flattened posterior and is the closest to the clitellum.  The ventral surface of the earthworm is usually a lighter colour than the dorsal surface.  The mouth is located on the ventral surface of the first segment while the anus is found at the end of the last segment. Find the anterior end by locating the prostomium (lip), which is a fleshy lobe that extends over the mouth. The other end of the worm’s body is the posterior end, where the anus is located.

4. Locate the clitellum (the reproductive organ), which extends from segment 33 to segment 37. Look for the worm’s setae, which are the minute bristle-like spines located on every segment except the first and last one. Run your fingers over the ventral surface of the earthworm’s body.  You should be able to feel bristle-like setae used for locomotion

5. Refer again to the diagram of the ventral view of the worm to locate and identify the external parts of its reproductive system. Find the pair of sperm grooves that extend from the clitellum to about segment 15, where one pair of male genital pores is located. Look also for one pair of female genital pores on segment 14. There is another pair of male genital pores on about segment 26. Try to find the two pairs of openings of the seminal receptacles on segment 10.   Note: These openings are not easy to see.

 

Internal Earthworm Anatomy

 

What is the internal anatomy of an earthworm?

 

At the very front of an earthworm, you will find the pharynx. Earthworms push the pharynx from inside their mouths to grab hold of things. They pull food into their mouths and then soak it in saliva. As earthworms don’t have teeth, they have to use strong muscles called a gizzard, along with sand and soil, to grind up the food they are eating. Once the food has been fully ground up, it travels to the intestines where it is further broken down so that it can be absorbed. The majority of earthworms have five aortic arches which are like hearts and these move around their bodies. A large blood vessel runs across the top of the earthworm and this is called the dorsal blood vessel. This vessel contracts and pumps blood around to the aortic arches. There is a further blood vessel on the lower side of the earthworm which is called the ventral blood vessel. An earthworm has a very simple nervous system. A ventral nerve cord which runs the entire length of its body connects to the cerebral ganglion, which is an earthworm’s brain. Each segment is connected to the cord so that they can sense light and touch, and can move. Each segment is also wrapped in circular muscles, which contract to help the earthworm move. 

 

 

 

Continued: Dissection Procedure

 

Hint: Position your preserved earthworm dorsal side up and pin it down through the first segment and then again further back behind the clitellum.  Cut a slit in the dorsal surface near the posterior pin.  Using fine scissors extend the cut forward to the first segment.  Be careful not to cut too deep as to affect the internal organs.  Starting at the first segment, cut the septa (thin membranes) that internally divide the segments, so the skin can be laid flat.  Use additional pins to hold the integument open and expose the internal organs.  Continue to lay the skin back until you have uncovered a centimeter or so of the intestine.

6. Turn the worm dorsal side up. Using a scalpel and scissors, make a shallow incision in the dorsal side of the clitellum at segment 33. CAUTION: Scalpels and scissors are very sharp. Report any cuts to your teacher. Using the forceps and scalpel, spread the incision open, little by little. Separate each septum from the central tube using a dissecting needle, and pin down each loosened bit of skin. Continue the incision forward to segment 1.

7. Use the diagram below to locate and identify the five pairs of aortic arches, or hearts. Then find the dorsal blood vessel. Look for smaller blood vessels that branch from the dorsal blood vessel.

 

Digestive System

The earthworm is an example of a foraging herbivorous annelid, obtaining food by eating its way through the soil and extracting nutrients from the soil as it passes through the digestive tract.

Hint: Starting at the anterior end, locate the muscular pharynx (food ingestion).  This is followed by a tube-like esophagus which terminates in a crop (the wider organ) which serves as a storage stomach.  Posterior to the crop you will find the gizzard.  Gently press on the crop and gizzard to test their firmness.  While the crop is soft and thin, the gizzard is muscular (soil is ground up and churned within the gizzard).  The gizzard is followed by a long intestine in which both digestion and absorption occur.  Undigested material is voided through the anus.

8. Locate the digestive tract, which lies below the dorsal blood vessel. Refer to the diagram above to locate the pharynx, esophagus, crop, gizzard, and intestine.

9. To find organs of the nervous system, push aside the digestive and circulatory system organs. Use the diagram below to locate the ventral nerve cord. Trace the nerve cord forward to the nerve collar, which circles the pharynx. Find one pair of ganglia under the pharynx and another pair of ganglia above the pharynx. The ganglia above the pharynx serve as the brain of the earthworm.

10. The worm’s excretory organs are tiny nephridia. There are two in every segment. Use the preceding diagram to locate some nephridia.

11. Use the diagram below to locate and identify a pair of ovaries in segment 13. Look for two pairs of tiny testes in segments 10 and 11. To find these organs, you will again have to push aside some parts already dissected.

12. Dispose of your materials according to the directions from your teacher in your college or university.

13. Clean up your work area and wash your hands before leaving the lab.

Earthworm worksheet Earthworm facts

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