- Gamete Production
1. Define meiosis.
2. What is the symbol for the diploid number of chromosomes in a cell?
3. What is the symbol for the monoploid or haploid number of chromosomes in a cell?
4. Is meiosis sexual or asexual reproduction?
5. How many times does a cell divide during Meiosis?
6. What are the divisions of meiosis called?
7. During meiosis, sex cells divide to form ____________.
8. Name the 2 gametes.
9. How many chromosomes do gametes have compared to a normal body or somatic cell?
10. If a human body cell has 46 chromosomes, how many chromosomes do the gametes (egg and sperm) have?
11. Where does meiosis occur in the body in males? in females?
12. Testes and ovaries are known as ____________.
13. Meiosis in males is called _____________ and produces ________ cells.
14. Meiosis in females is called _____________ and produces ________ cells.
15. a. Make a sketch of a diploid (2n=46) sperm cell in Meiosis I and Meiosis II.
b. Make a sketch of a diploid (2n=46) egg cell in Meiosis I and Meiosis II.
16. Name the 1st stage of meiosis.
17. When are chromosomes (DNA) replicated?
18. Each duplicated chromosome consists of a pair of _________ __________.
19. What attaches sister chromatids to each other?
20. What two structures in the center of a cell are visible at the beginning of Interphase I?
21. Name the 4 stages of Meiosis I.
22. What is the longest phase of meiosis? What pwercent of the division time is this?
23. During Prophase I, what happens to chromosomes?
24. __________ occurs after chromosomes condense.
25. Explain synapsis.
26. What is a tetrad?
27. A tetrad is made of ________ sister and two, nonsister ____________.
28. Sketch a tetrad.
29. What is meant by homologous chromosomes?
30. Homologous chromosomes form a ________ during Prophase I.
31. Homologs carry _________ controlling the ________ inherited traits.
32. What is a locus?
33. What is true about the loci of genes on homologous chromosomes?
34. Humans have _______ pairs of homologous chromosomes.
35. What are autosomes?
36. What is the last pair of chromosomes called?
37. What is the chromosome pair for a female? a male?
38. Sketch a tetrad and show the location of two different genes on the chromatids.
39. Define crossing over.
40. Crossing over creates __________ in the chromosomes.
41. The sites where crossing over occurs are called __________.
42. Crossing over occurs between __________ chromatids.
43. Sketch a tetrad with crossing over occurring. Label the chiasmata.
44. Sketch a tetrad where crossing over occurred and shade the sections of the chromosomes that were exchanged causing variation.
45. Compare the size of an X and a Y chromosome.
46. Spindle and aster fibers form from centrioles during _______________ in humans.
47. What is the shortest meiotic stage?
48. What happens to the tetrads during Metaphase I?
49. When the chromosome pairs of the tetrad separate, they move ____________ to the opposite poles of the cell.
50. This random separation of homologs is called ______________ ___________.
51. What effect does independent assortment have on cells?
52. Give the formula for determining the number of variations in cells.
53. If 2n=6, how many combinations are possible?
54. How many different combinations of sperm are possible in a human male?
55. What happens to homologous chromosomes during Anaphase I?
56. Do sister chromatids separate? Explain.
57. How many chromosomes are at the poles in telophase I?
58. In humans, the haploid number is _________.
59. ____________ occurs at the end of Telophase I forming _______ new daughter cells.
60. Is DNA replicated again before Meiosis II?
61. Name the stages of Meiosis II.
62. What occurs during Prophase II?
63. Where are the sister chromatids during Metaphase II?
64. During what stage do sister chromatids separate from each other?
65. During Telophase II, the _____________ and nucleolus reform.
66. _______________ occurs again at the end of Telophase II forming __________ new daughter cells.
67. The 4 new cells at the end of Telophase II are _____________ or 1n cells.
68. In spermatogenesis, the newly formed gametes are called ____________.
69. In Oogenesis, the newly formed gametes are called ____________.
70. What is another name for variation?
71. Why is variation important?
72. Which individuals are most likely to survive & reproduce in a population?
73. What is this process known as?
74. Name the 3 sources of genetic variation that occur in sexual reproduction and tell when EACH occurs.
75. If a diploid cell is 2n=20, what will be the 1n number of the daughter cells?
76. How many daughter cells will there be at the end of meiosis?
77. What is a karyotype?
78. Where are the autosomes found on a karyotype?
79. Where are the sex chromosomes found?
80. How does a karotype of a Down Syndrome child look?
81. What is a zygote?
82. What process produces zygotes? What cells join or fuse?