There are nearly 8,000 types of amphibians, including some of the most unusual and exciting creatures found on land and water.
About two million species of animals inhabit Planet Earth. More than that, scientists discover and categorize about 10,000 other new species every year. Animals are broken down into classes which include vertebrates and invertebrates, or animals with or without spines.
Amphibians belong to the vertebrate class along with birds, fish, mammals, and reptiles. All amphibians are cold-blooded, meaning they cannot generate body heat on their own. For that reason, they must rely on their environment to keep them cold or warm enough for survival.
Going further, most amphibians undergo a metamorphosis from a juvenile to an adult form. For example, frogs begin as tadpoles with gills and a tail. As they mature, they develop lungs. Over time, four legs replace most types of amphibians tails.
The Types of Amphibians
Amphibian species include three subgroups or orders. Firstly, there is the Order Anura which includes about 6,500 species of frogs and toads.
Secondly, the Order Caudata or Urodela includes about 680 species of newts and salamanders. Thirdly, Order Apoda or Gymnophiona, includes about 200 species of caecilians.
Frogs and Toads
Frogs and toads typically have short bodies, webbed fingers and toes, and no tails. And, they usually have bulging eyes.
Newts and salamanders
Newts and salamanders look similar to lizards and have short legs, skinny bodies, and long tails. Surprisingly, salamanders and newts have the remarkable ability to re-grow lost limbs and tails.
Caecilians don’t have any legs and resemble worms or snakes. That is because they mostly live underground, or in the substrate under streams. As a result, they have strong skulls and pointed noses to help them burrow through mud and dirt.
Fun Facts About Types of Amphibians
Amphibians are an evolutionary link between water-dwelling animals such as fish and land-dwelling animals such as mammals. Let’s be honest, they are some of the most fascinating animals on Planet Earth.
For example, amphibians have extremely primitive lungs. However, they have thin, moist skin that absorbs limited amounts of oxygen. So, you could say some types of amphibians breathe through their skin.
Another exciting fact about them, amphibians are carnivores and predators. But, they cannot chew their food. So, they swallow their prey whole.
Amphibians are also one of the planet’s most endangered animal species. It is believed that nearly half of the world’s amphibians are threatened species. That’s due to a combination of factors, including habitat loss, pollution, and climate change.
10 Amazing Types of Amphibians
Amphibians include some of the most amazing and unusual vertebrates found on earth. Much like their ancestors, most of them stick close to water.
We gathered a collection of photos of 10 of the most exciting types of amphibians currently roaming the earth, below. Then, we included a brief introduction to each one.
The axolotl is a type of salamander that is native to central Mexico. Unlike many other types of amphibians, axolotl larvae do not undergo metamorphosis when they reach maturity. As a result, they retain their gills, and tails, and are entirely aquatic throughout their life cycle.
2. Fire Salamander
Fire salamanders are native to the forests of central and southern Europe. These types of amphibians stay near to ponds and streams, which they rely on for breeding. Another cool fact, they are active both night and day.
3. Golden Toad
The golden toad was native to the tropical mountain regions of Costa Rica, known as montane cloud forests. Sadly, golden toads are one of many types of amphibians thought to be extinct since they have not been seen since 1989.
4. Green Tree Frog
Green tree frogs are native to New Guinea and Australia. Their colors range from brown to green, depending on the surrounding air temperature. These are one of the most abundant types of amphibians dwelling in trees.
Hellbenders are native to wetlands of Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. However, they are sometimes located in smaller numbers in the surrounding states. Sadly, hellbenders join other types of amphibians on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
6. Luristan Newt
These black and white spotted newts are native to the Luristan Province of Iran. While they look like cows, they are clearly amphibians. The Luristan newt is listed as “critically endangered” on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. However, they are currently protected under Iranian law.
7. Poison Dart Frog
The poison dart frog is native to the subtropical and tropical regions of South America. They can also be found in Central America. Bright colored dart frogs are extremely poisonous. However, dart frogs with cryptic or dull coloring have nominal toxicity. In fact, some are not toxic at all.
8. Red-Eyed Tree Frog
The red-eyed tree frog is native to the Neotropical rainforests of Mexico and Central America. In addition to their bulging red eyes, these tree frogs have webbed orange feet and blue and yellow flanks. Luckily, due to their large number, they are listed as “least concerned” by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
9. Endemic Tailed Caecilian
The endemic tailed caecilian is native to the tropical regions of Sri Lanka. Resembling a giant earthworm, endemic tailed caecilians range in size from 9 inches to nearly 16 inches. Additionally, the endemic tailed caecilian is listed as vulnerable by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
10. Tiger Salamander
The tiger salamander is native to the mountainous and lowland regions of the United States and Mexico. Unlike other types of amphibians, they tend to avoid water. Additionally, they can grow to lengths of 12 inches and larger.
What We Learned About the Types of Amphibians
We hope you enjoyed our article and accompanying photos of amazing and unique types of amphibians.
You have seen our favorite types of amphibians. Now we want to know about your faves. Using the comments section, let us know any unusual types of amphibians you would like to see included in future articles.
Earthworms play essential roles in many ecosystems. They help introduce oxygen to the soil and mix it up. As they tunnel through the ground, they enrich the soil and push it toward the surface where it’s easier for plants to get to the nutrients. You can see the organs that help these worms do their jobs by dissecting an earthworm.
Safety is critical in all aspects of our lives. It may seem trivial in a controlled environment like a school biology lab, but it’s not, and all safety rules should be followed. They are in place to protect you and your classmates, so don’t skip any regulations just because you think it will be ok or those rules don’t seem to apply to your circumstances. The basic common-sense rules are:
Wear safety gear when necessary like goggles, gloves, and aprons.
Most preserved specimens contain formaldehyde, so wash them first.
Do not play with lab equipment or instruments such as scalpels and scissors.
Do not eat any parts of your specimen. Yes, there is an apparent reason for this rule.
Your lab should have the rules and safety measures available plus your instructor will go over them with you. Don’t assume the only rules are the ones we list here. The type of lab and type of specimen determine the rules. Ask for a copy of the rules if you don’t see one posted in the lab. Your teacher should be close by most of the time to help you guide you as well.
Always wear safety goggles and gloves. If you have to carry a sharp instrument, hold it with the pointed end pointing down and away from your body. Don’t rush or run while holding a scalpel or scissors. Never carry a knife or scissors by any part other than the handle. Scalpels are razor sharp, and it only takes a split second for them to cut you open.
Keep your station clean and tend to any spills immediately unless they pose a breathing hazard. Dispose of any blades, gloves, aprons, and specimens according to the established rules in your lab. Your teacher will probably explain all the rules to you, but don’t wait to ask if you aren’t sure what to do. Teachers are there to help educate you and keep you safe.
Earthworm Dissection Guide
Earthworms are great for helping you understand simple organisms and basic anatomy. They’ll help you get a grasp on lab safety before you progress to larger specimens like pigs or frogs. As a bonus, they’re small and soft, so handling them is much more comfortable as well.
The first step is to examine the exterior of the earthworm. Earthworms are segmented works, so they look like a long stack of small rings. They don’t have a head or any limbs, but they do have a fascinating exterior anatomy to study. The anterior end of the earthworm is a little fatter than the posterior. When you locate the anterior end of the work, pin it to the dissecting pan or tray.
Earthworms are annelids which means their bodies are composed of multiple ring-like sections or segments. This part may not be on your teacher’s list, but it’s always interesting to count the segments while you study the exterior anatomy of the earthworm. While you count, notice the small setae on the ventral surface. These little bristles help the worms move through the dirt with ease.
Each segment along the worm’s exterior has small pores. These pores excrete the sticky film you find when you run your finger along a live worm. You may need a magnifying glass or small microscope to see them. It depends on the size of your earthworm specimen and your eyesight as well.
From the anterior end of the worm, count your way down to segment fourteen. Typically, this is where the oviducts are located. The oviducts release the eggs when the worm reproduces. The exciting part is the next segment after the oviducts; it contains the sperm ducts. Earthworms have both male and female reproductive organs.
Further down the worm at segment 31 is the clitellum. It secretes a sticky mucus that binds two earthworms together while the mate. It develops a cocoon to hold the eggs and sperm after mating is finished. Earthworms are simple worms, but fantastic at the same time. Their exterior anatomy is fascinating to study.
Earthworms are hermaphroditic which means they have both female and male reproductive organs. Eggs come from the ovaries inside segment fourteen, sometimes thirteen. It can be hard to count the segments on small worms. Worms have testes which can form in segments near the oviducts. Study these segments and see if you can find the reproductive organs on your specimen.
When worms mate, they get stuck together briefly to help keep the reproductive organs aligned. Sperm from both worms travels into the other worms seminal receptacle. The clitellum creates the cocoon which moves along the outside of the worm to collect the semen and the eggs. The eggs are fertilized outside the worm in the cocoon.
By now, you should have a good understanding of the exterior anatomy of your earthworm specimen. Remove the pin from the anterior end of the earthworm and place it on its ventral side, then put the pin back in the anterior end of the worm. The ventral side of the worm is a little flatter than the dorsal side, and it may be a lighter color.
Carefully and slowly make a shallow incision using your scalpel from the anterior end of the work to the clitellum. Never cut toward your body or fingers. Be extra careful and keep the incision shallow, so you don’t cut into the worm’s digestive system and internal organs. Use your forceps to spread the worm open and pin the sides of its body to your dissection pan or tray.
The inside of the worm should be exposed now. You may want to lightly sprinkle water over the worm to keep it from drying out while you study the inside of it. The interior part of the walls is called the septa. See if you can tell the difference. If possible, ask your teacher to point them out and help you see the different layers.
Now, the internal digestive organs should be exposed and available for study. Starting with the mount on the anterior end of the worm, locate the organs. The first organ you see is the pharynx. The worm’s esophagus protrudes from the pharynx. About halfway down your incision are the crop and gizzard. Skip the other organs for now and find those two.
The crop is essentially a stomach. It stores food until the food is moved to the gizzard which grinds it up. The food leaves the gizzard and goes into the intestine, much like it does in humans, and travels to the anus. Along the way, the worm’s intestines absorb nutrients from the food the gizzard crushed and ground up. Earthworms don’t eat dirt. The consume organic materials found in the soil.
Make your way back up to the crop. If you look above the crop on the anterior side, you’ll find five pairs of aortic arches. This is the worm’s version of a heart. The hearts are located around the esophagus, and they connect to the dorsal blood vessel. That’s the worm’s version of an artery. Most earthworms can take direct damage to half their aortic arches and live.
Move your attention back to the pharynx at the anterior end of the worm. Locate the cerebral ganglia beneath the pharynx on the dorsal side. You may need to use your forceps to move some organs around to get a good look at it. The ventral nerve starts at the cerebral ganglia and runs the length of the worm. It may be hard to see if it is too small.
They are simple creatures speaking purely on their anatomy, but how their bodies and mating works are truly amazing. If you have time, go back over this tutorial again and study the worm longer. When you finish exploring, make sure you clean your workstation and dispose of your specimen correctly. Dispose of your lab gear according to the lab rules. Wash your hand thoroughly with soap and water.
Some Final Notes
Earthworms are vital to the health of our soil. The improve drainage, help stabilize the land, and add nutrients to the ground. Worms feed on organic materials they find in the dirt. Their bodies use the nutrients they need and deposit what’s left back into the soil as waste. Fortunately for plants, that waste is usually nitrogen-rich along with other nutrients plants need to grow.
Their worm tunnels help loosen the soil which aids plants in root development. We could go on and on about the benefits of earthworms. If you follow our guide to dissecting earthworms and read our interesting facts along the way, we’re sure you’ll be able to dissect an earthworm specimen safely. You may even appreciate these simple creatures a little more when you are done.
Choose one of the following activities to turn in at the conclusion of the unit study of vertebrates.
Watch and record a 60 minute program on a vertebrate group. Write a summary of the program, create a worksheet to be answered from the video, and supply a key for the worksheet answers.
Create a portfolio of pictures and descriptions of the most dangerous sharks in the world. Write a report on sharks to include with your portfolio and tell what can be done to avoid shark attack and what should be done if an attack occurs.
Research the migration pattern of one of the following — gray whale, caribou, Arctic wolf, or a species of bats. Include a map of the animal’s migration route, season when the migration occurs, and a description of the animal’s feeding and mating habits.
Construct, on poster board, a phylogenetic tree for a vertebrate group (fish, amphibian, reptile, bird, or mammal). Include pictures of the organisms on your tree and write a short paper describe the evolution of this group.
Construct a scrapbook of 20 pictures of one mammal order. Pictures may not be Xeroxed or computer generated! Include the name and a brief description with each picture.
Make a three-dimensional collage of one group of marine vertebrates. The shape of the collage must illustrate something from the marine environment or a marine organism. Include a brief description of the marine environment and organisms you chose for your collage.
Make a photographic album of pictures of birds. (Pictures will not be returned!) Include the common and scientific name & a brief description of each bird.
Read the book, Silent Spring, by Rachel Carson and write a book report.
Build a model of the digestive tract of an herbivore such as a cow. Be sure to include the dentition and an explanation of how this animal’s digestive tract is adapted to its diet.
Construct a display of the hearts of these 3 vertebrate groups — fish, amphibian, bird or mammal. Use modeling clay to make cross-sections of the hearts showing chambers and valves. Identify all parts of the hearts on your display.
Terrestrial isopods are land dwelling crustaceans, commonly known as sowbugs or pillbugs (or rollypollys). They are related to lobsters, crabs, and shrimp and terrestrial isopods breath with gills. While they look similar, sow bugs are different from pill bugs. Pill bugs will curl into a ball when threatened whereas sow bugs will attempt to flee.
Ethology is the study of animal behavior. Many behaviors involve movement of the animal within its environment. In this exercise, you will investigate some innate (instincts) behaviors of isopods. Orientation is a process by which animals position themselves with respect to spatial features of their environments. Taxis involves the turning of an animal’s body relative to a stimulus – either toward or away. Kinesis is a random turning or movement of an animal in relation to a stimulus.
isopods, behavior chamber, paper towels, water
Procedure – Orientation of Isopods in Response to Moisture
Cut paper towels to fit into the bottom of BOTH sides of your behavior chamber.
Moisten one side with tap water while keeping the other side dry.
Transfer 5 isopods to each side of the chamber (total of 10).
Count and record the number of animals on each side of the chamber every 30 seconds for ten minutes.
Record your data in the data table.
# in Wet
# in Dry
1. Based on your observations, do isopods prefer a moist or dry environment.
2. Would this movement be taxis or kinesis? Explain your answer.
3. Suggest a reason why this behavior might be advantageous to an isopod
4. Select one of the following factors and design an experiment to test for your hypothesis.
cold pack, warm pack
lamps, flashlights, dark construction paper, aluminum foil
low pH (HCl), high pH (NaOH)
soil, sand, sandpaper, bark, paper, cedar chips, gravel