isolation from blood, hair, skin cells, or other genetic evidence left at the
scene of a crime can be compared with the DNA of a criminal suspect to determine
guilt or innocence. This is due to the fact that every person has a different
sequence. Scientists use a small number of sequences of DNA that are known to
vary among individuals, and analyze those to get a possibility of a match.
DNA is isolated, cut using restriction enzymes and sorted by size by gel
electrophoresis. DNA is placed in a gel and an electrical charge is applied to
the gel. The positive charge is at the top and the negative charge is at the
bottom. Because DNA has a slightly negative charge, the pieces of DNA will be
attracted to the bottom. The smaller pieces move more quickly towards the bottom
than the larger pieces. The DNA can then be analyzed.
In this simulation you will examine crime scene evidence to determine who is responsible for eating the Queen's special imported Lindbergher Cheese (yes, the stinky cheese). You will model the process of electrophoresis and DNA fingerprinting.
ROYAL GUARD INCIDENT REPORT
Method of Entry: Unknown, no evidence of force on doors or windows.
Narrative: The cheese was allegedly stolen from the Queen's sitting room the night before the grand ball. The cheese was listed as a gift from the Manchurian diplomat. Officer Li Gase dusted for fingerprints and found none on the table or doors, the maid claimed that they had been wiped clean earlier. The wheel of cheese was on a platform in the sitting room, and half of it had been eaten. We took pictures of the half eaten cheese and sent it to the lab for further tests. Edna N. Zime, the lab technician said that saliva samples could be taken from the teeth imprints of the cheese that was left behind.
Suspect Number: 1
Suspect Number 2
Suspect Number 3
Suspect Number 4
Crime Lab Data
Narrative: After receiving the package with the plastic bag marked Crime Scene, the DNA was extracted. Because the sample was so mall, the DNA was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction. We isolated the DNA from the four suspects and compared them to the crime scene DNA using DNA restriction analysis.
Results: See attached DNA
1. Turn your paper strips (DNA sequences) so that the side with the bases is facing you. The restriction enzyme cuts at every point it finds C C G G, always cutting between the C and the G. Label the back of the slips with the suspect number so that you don't get them confused after cutting. Use scissors to cut the DNA sequence at the C C G G points.
2. Count the number of base pairs (bp) in each piece of DNA that you created. Record the base pair number on the back side of the DNA fragment.
3. Make an enlarged chart like the one shown. Your teacher will give you paper for this. Use a ruler to ensure that the lengths are uniform.
4. Tape your DNA fragments to the chart, using the base pair numbers as a guideline for fragment placement.
5. Compare the crime scene DNA to the suspects and indicate on your chart, which suspect is guilty of eating the cheese.
1. On your chart, label the positive (+) and the negative (-) ends. Circle the suspect's DNA who matches the DNA at the crime scene and write the name of the suspect.
2. For each of the following tasks performed in the activity, describe what they are actually simulating.
Cutting the DNA into fragments:
Taping the DNA onto the large paper:
3. For each word below, describe how it relates to DNA Fingerprinting:
Polymerase Chain Reaction: