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Volume of Irregular Object Lab


Volume of an Irregular-shaped Object

The word mass is used to tell how much matter there is in something. Matter is anything you can touch physically. An electronic scale or triple beam balance can be used to tell the mass of an object. Volume is a measure of how much space an object occupies. When measuring the volume of a liquid, a graduated cylinder can be used.  Measurement is the collection of quantitative data (numbers). Measurements are not only numbers. They must always contain a unit of measurement. In the Metric System, the gram (g) is the basic unit of measurement for mass. The basic unit of measurement for the volume of liquids is the milliliter (ml). The density of an object can be determined by dividing the mass by the volume (D = M/V). From a density calculation, we may tell whether a substance will float or sink in another liquid. A less dense substance will float on one that is denser. An example is oil floating on water. Oil is less dense than the water.

For solids that have an irregular shape, the displacement method must be used to determine their volume. When using the displacement method, you must first measure the starting volume of the liquid. Then add the object and record the change in volume. This gives the volume of the irregularly-shaped object.


The density of objects can be determined by a method known as water displacement.


Triple beam or electronic balance
100 ml graduated cylinder
3 irregularly shaped objects


  1. Obtain 3 irregularly shaped objects that will sink in water.
  2. Estimate the mass & volume of each object. Record this on table 1.
  3. Use a triple beam balance or electronic scale to determine the mass in grams of each object. Record this on table 1.
  4. Fill a graduated cylinder halfway with tap water.
  5. Measure & record the volume of the water in the graduated cylinder. READ THE MENISCUS!
  6. Place one of the objects into the graduated cylinder, and measure and record the new volume.
  7. Subtract the initial volume from the final volume. The difference is the volume of the object.
  8. Record the difference in data table 1.
  9. Repeat steps 4 – 8 for the other three objects.
  10. To determine the density of each object, divide the actual mass of each object by its volume (determined by water displacement).
  11. Record the densities in data table 1.

Results & Data

Data Table 1

Object Estimated Mass
Estimated Volume
Actual Mass
Volume of H2O in graduated cylinder
Volume of H2O and object in graduated cylinder
Object’s Volume
(Subtract Column 5 from Column 6)
(Divide Column 4 by Column 7)







  1. How did you determine the object’s:

a. mass?

b. Volume?

c. density?

  1. Objects will sink if they are denser than water. Explain why ships made of steel float instead of sinking since steel is denser than water.

Word Document

Study of Biology pptQ


Study of Biology
ppt Questions

What is Biology?

1. Define biology.


2. What are organisms?

3. Name 5 groups of organisms.


4. Living things share common _______________.

5. What is the basic unit of life that makes up all organisms?

6. To survive, populations of organisms must be able to _____________ offspring.

7. All organisms have a _________ code carried in  a molecule called _______.

8. Organisms require ____________ such as food and need __________ for their activities.

9. Living things _________ to their environment.

10. Organisms must maintain what type of internal environments ?

11. What does evolve mean?


12. Do groups or individuals evolve?


13. All ____________ are made of cells.

14. Most cells are so __________, they can’t be seen without a microscope.

15. What is cytoplasm?


16. What surrounds all cells?

17. What is the function of the cell membrane?


18. Cells are complex and highly ___________.

19. What are organelles and give an example?


20. The simplest type of cells are known as ______________.

21. Describe prokaryotic cells.


22. Name one of the most common prokaryotes.

23. More complex cells are called ______________.

24. Eukaryotes have a true _________ and _________________ organelles.

25. Name 3 types of eukaryotic cells.

26. Organisms can be grouped by their __________ of cells.

27. Define unicellular organisms.

28. What are multicellular organisms?



29. When organisms reproduce they pass what on to their offspring?

30. Name 2 types of reproduction.

31. What type of reproduction involves 2 parents?

32. A fertilized egg is called a ___________.

33. Are sexually reproduce organisms genetically identical to their parents?

34. asexual reproduction involves a _____________ parent or _________.

35. In asexual reproduction, a single cell __________ to form two new cells.

36. How do asexually reproduced organisms genetically compare  to their parents?

Genetic Code

37. What carries the genetic code for all organisms?

38.DNA stands for ____________________ ___________.

39. Do all organisms have DNA?

40. What does DNA code for in a cell?

41. Why are proteins so important to cells?


Growth and Development 

42. Name the stages of development in the life of a frog.


43. Name two ways that organisms grow.

44. When organisms change into adults they ___________ and may change.

Requiring Food and Energy

45. What organisms can make their own food?

46. What is a photoautotroph and give an example.


47. What food making process is used by photoautotrophs?

48. What do chemoautotrophs use to get energy?

49. ___________ cannot make their own food.

50. How do heterotrophs meet their food requirements?

51. Name 3 groups of heterotrophs.

52. Explain the difference among herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores.



53. Define metabolism.


54. All metabolic processes require ____________.

55. What is the ultimate energy for all life on earth?

56. What metabolic process uses sunlight for energy?

57. Write the balanced overall equation for the photosynthesis process and label the reactants & products.



58. What metabolic process releases the chemical energy stored in food?

59. Write the balanced overall equation for cellular respiration .


60. Name several environmental factors that organisms respond to.


61. Give an example of an organism responding to their environment to promote survival.


62. Define homeostasis.


63. Give 3 examples of internal conditions in which organisms must maintain stability.


64. Why do populations evolve?


65. What record do we have that populations evolve?

Organization Levels

66. Name 3 nonliving levels into which life is organized.

67. At what level of organization does life begin?

68. Cells organize into ____________.

69. What makes up organs?

70. Organs working together become a ____________, and these working together make the entire _____________.

71. From simplest to most complex, list the levels of life above organism.

72. What is the most inclusive level of life?



Spongebob Safety Rules

 Sponge Bob Safety Rules
T. Trimpe 2003

The Bikini Bottom gang has been learning safety rules during science class. Read the paragraphs below to find the broken safety rules and number and underline each one. How many can you find? On the back of your sheet, write the number and the CORRECT safety procedure that should have been used.

SpongeBob, Patrick, and Gary were thrilled when Mr. Krabbs gave their teacher a chemistry set! Mr. Krabbs warned them to be careful and reminded them to follow the safety rules they had learned in science class. The teacher passed out the materials and provided each person with an experiment book. SpongeBob and Gary flipped through the book and decided to test the properties of a mystery substance. Since the teacher did not tell them to wear the safety goggles, they left them on the table.

SpongeBob lit the Bunsen burner, then reached across the flame to get a test tube from Gary . In the process, he knocked over a bottle of the mystery substance and a little bit splashed on Gary . SpongeBob poured some of the substance into a test tube and began to heat it. When it started to bubble he looked into the test tube to see what was happening and pointed it towards Gary so he could see. Gary thought it smelled weird so he took a deep whiff of it. He didn’t think it smelled poisonous and tasted a little bit of the substance.

They were worried about running out of time, so they left the test tube and materials on the table and moved to a different station to try another experiment. Patrick didn’t want to waste any time reading the directions, so he put on some safety goggles and picked a couple different substances. He tested them with vinegar (a weak acid) to see what would happen even though he didn’t have permission to experiment on his own. He noticed that one of the substances did not do anything, but the other one fizzed. He also mixed two substances together to see what would happen, but didn’t notice anything. He saw SpongeBob and Gary heating something in a test tube and decided to do that test. He ran over to that station and knocked over a couple bottles that SpongeBob had left open. After cleaning up the spills, he read the directions and found the materials he needed. The only test tube he could find had a small crack in it, but he decided to use it anyway. He lit the Bunsen burner and used tongs to hold the test tube over the flame. He forgot to move his notebook away from the flame and almost caught it on fire.

Before they could do another experiment, the bell rang and they rushed to put everything away. Since they didn’t have much time, Patrick didn’t clean out his test tube before putting it in the cabinet. SpongeBob noticed  that he had a small cut on his finger, but decided he didn’t have time to tell the teacher about it. Since they were late, they skipped washing their hands and hurried to the next class.


Safety Guidelines

Safety Guidelines
All Materials © Cmassengale


  1. Safety goggles/glasses & aprons must be worn at all times in the laboratory.
  2. Tie back long hair & secure lose clothing.  
  3. No horseplay is allowed in the lab.
  4. No food or drink is allowed in the laboratory.  
  5. Practice good “housekeeping” techniques.  Return items to proper places in good condition.  Avoid cluttering your work area.
  6. Never use chemicals from unlabeled containers.  Check each label before dispensing a chemical, & do not return a chemical to a bottle without the teacher’s permission.
  7. Unless told otherwise, treat all chemicals as poisonous or corrosive.  Wash hands immediately with plenty of water if chemical gets on them and always wash your hands before leaving lab.  
  8. No unauthorized lab work may be done, & a teacher must be present to do lab work.  
  9. Read & study each lab assignment before coming to lab.  Pay attention to safety notes in the lab manual and from the instructor.  Some common lab concerns:
    * Never pipette by mouth
    * Never use chipped or cracked glassware
    * Do not heat a closed system
    * Do not point heated containers at yourself or another person
    * Use a fume hood for noxious fumes
    * Place heated glass on wire gauze until cool
    * Do not use flammable material near open flame
    * Wear gloves when dispensing irritating chemicals
    * Dilute concentrated acids by adding acid to water
    * Turn off burners and water faucets when not in use & before leaving lab
    * Only heat glassware marked Kimex or Pyrex
    * Use glycerin and a twisting motion to insert glass tubing into stoppers
    * Use tongs, test tube holders, or heat-resistant gloves to handle hot glassware
    * Use pins to secure dissecting organisms to the dissecting tray before cutting with a scalpel
    * Wash hands before and after dissecting and keep hands away from your face
  10. Report all accidents immediately to the teacher.
  11. Know the location and proper use of all safety equipment in the lab.
  12. Know where all exits are from the lab.




Scientific Equipment


Scientific Equipment

All Materials © Cmassengale

Click HERE for Notebook Copy

Compound Light Microscope (LM)-used to enlarge an image Graduated Cylinder – used to measure the volume of liquids
Microscope Slide – supports an item being examined under the microscope Image result for cover slip Cover slip – covers specimen on a slide
Beaker, Glass, Cup, Chemistry, Flask, Laboratory Beaker – holds liquids while they are being stirred or heated Test Tube Brush – used to clean test tubes
Image result for evaporating dish Evaporating Dish – used for heating solids Image result for pinch clamps Pinch Clamps – used to control the flow of liquids through tubing
Image result for funnel Funnel – assists in transferring liquids to containers with smaller openings Striker – used to ignite a burner
Test Tubes – holds liquids for observation or testing Safety goggles – protects the eyes from damaging substances
Pipet pump – dispenses known volumes of liquids Eyedropper – used to transfer small amounts of liquids
Image result for forceps Forceps – used to hold or lift specimens Magnifying glass – enlarges the image of an object
Related image Crucible – containers used for “strong” heating Test Tube Rack – holds test tubes during observation or testing
Wash Bottle – used for rinsing solids out of a container Pipet – used for exact measurements of liquids
Image result for spatula drawing Spatula – chemical spoons used to transfer solids from their original container to a scale for weighing Image result for wire gauze Wire Gauze – adds additional support for containers held on tripods or O-rings
Crucible Tongs – used for picking up crucibles & crucible covers only Mortar & Pestle – used to grind solids into powders
Florence Flask – used to store liquids Erlenmeyer Flask -used to store solutions
Dissecting Pan – holds specimen being dissected test tube holder Test Tube Holder – holds test tubes while heating
an electronic balance Electronic Balance – used for weighing substances a proper lab burner flame Bunsen Burner – heat source
Thermometer – used to measure temperature Stopper – used to cap flasks containing liquids
Scalpel – used for cutting specimens being dissected Tubing – hose used for connecting glassware
Image result for petri dish Petri Dish – plate used to culture microorganisms a triple-beam balance Triple Beam Balance – used for weighing substances
O-Ring – used with ring stands to support heated vessels Volumetric Flask – used to mix precise volumes of liquids
Related image Watch Glass – used on top of beakers when heating Desiccators – used to remove moisture from substances

Scientific Laws


Scientific Laws, Hypotheses, and Theories



Scientific Theory versus “Just a theory” Layman’s term:

In layman’s terms, if something is said to be “just a theory,” it usually means that it is a mere guess, or is unproved. It might even lack credibility. But in scientific terms, a theory implies that something has been proven and is generally accepted as being true.

Scientific Meanings:

SCIENTIFIC LAW: This is a statement of fact meant to describe, in concise terms, an action or set of actions. It is generally accepted to be true and universal, and can sometimes be expressed in terms of a single mathematical equation. Scientific laws are similar to mathematical postulates. They don’t really need any complex external proofs; they are accepted at face value based upon the fact that they have always been observed to be true. Specifically, scientific laws must be simple, true, universal, and absolute. They represent the cornerstone of scientific discovery, because if a law ever did not apply, then all science based upon that law would collapse.  Some scientific laws, or laws of nature, include the law of gravity, Newton’s laws of motion, the laws of thermodynamics, Boyle’s law of gases, the law of conservation of mass and energy, and Hook’s law of elasticity.

HYPOTHESIS: This is an educated guess based upon observation. It is a rational explanation of a single event or phenomenon based upon what is observed, but which has not been proved. Most hypotheses can be supported or refuted by experimentation.

THEORY: A theory is more like a scientific law than a hypothesis. A theory is an explanation of a set of related observations or events based upon proven hypotheses and verified multiple times by detached groups of researchers. One scientist cannot create a theory; he can only create a hypothesis. Theories may be expanded or modified with further scientific evidence.

Development of a Simple Theory by the Scientific Method:

  • Start with an observation that evokes a question: Broth spoils when I leave it out for a couple of days. Why?
  • Using logic and previous knowledge, state a possible answer, called a Hypothesis: Tiny organisms floating in the air must fall into the broth and start reproducing.
  • Perform an experiment or Test: After boiling some broth, I divide it into two containers, one covered and one not covered. I place them on the table for two days and see if one spoils. Only the uncovered broth spoiled.
  • Then publish your findings in a peer-reviewed journal. Publication: “Only broth that is exposed to the air after two days tended to spoil. The covered specimen did not.”
  • Other scientists read about your experiment and try to duplicate it. Verification: Every scientist who tries your experiment comes up with the same results. So they try other methods to make sure your experiment was measuring what it was supposed to. Again, they get the same results every time.
  • In time, and if experiments continue to support your hypothesis, it becomes a Theory: Microorganisms from the air cause broth to spoil.



Scientific Method Notes


Scientific Method
All Materials © Cmassengale
How can we determine if something is a fact or an opinion? How can we determine an answer to a problem? The answer is use the scientific method.What is the Scientific Method? It is a series of steps used to help solve a problem.

  • Step 1. Make an Observation. After making an observation of the natural world, define the problem and make sure only one problem is being studied. ALL scientific experimentation starts with observation.
  • Step 2. Research the problem (question). Use all available resources to collect data on the subject being covered. Libraries, Internet, books, magazines, personal interviews, etc.
  • Step 3. Develop a hypothesis (educated guess). Make it a short definitive statement. It may be an “if” then” statement. The “if” part will become the hypothesis and the then part should be the results received at the end of the controlled experiment. Remember your hypothesis can be changed if the results do not support it.
  • Step 4. Develop a controlled experiment. A controlled experiment is an experiment that contains only one experimental variable. An experimental or independent variable is the thing being tested (what the scientist changes). Everything else in the experiment or all other variables must be the same. These variables are also called the controlled variables. Keeping these variables the same allows the experimenter to show that it was the experimental variable that caused the results. The dependent variable is what changes when the independent variable changes – the dependent variable depends on the outcome of the independent variable.  Data should be organized into charts, tables, or graphs.
  • Step 5. Analyze the data and come up with a conclusion. Data may be quantitative (numbers) or qualitative (appearance, properties, etc.).  The conclusion may or may not support the hypothesis. Additional experimentation must then take place to build documentation concerning the problem. If the hypothesis is proven wrong, change the hypothesis, not the data. Scientists must be unbiased.
  • WHAT FOLLOWS: Scientific research must be published, but first it must be reviewed by peers (other scientists) and verified for accuracy.  Research may result in a scientific theory or law.


Observation: Toaster stops working.
Question/Research: What is wrong with the toaster? (Read toaster Manual.)
Hypotheses: (1) It is unplugged. (2) The unit is burned out.
Experiments:  (1) Check the plug. (2) Take the toaster apart and look at the heating wires.
Results & Conclusion: If it was unplugged the first hypothesis is supported, if the wires inside are broken, then the second hypothesis is supported.



Pzz Intro to Biology


Introduction to Biology
Unscramble the following words & then tell their meaning: 



1) mosagrin __________________________
2) lobygio __________________________
3) nelllaiuurc __________________________
4) limrlulcautle __________________________
5) fdrionteitfanie __________________________
6) ahimetsosso __________________________
7) drooutienrpc __________________________
8) dryixiloouecnecb cdia __________________________
9) leuaasx __________________________
10) lniovoetu __________________________
11) yecolog __________________________
12) tmeysecsos __________________________
13) runatla scelnoiet __________________________
14) hhisotsnyepots __________________________
15) outtropah __________________________
16) rrooehhtpet __________________________
17) eedltovepnm __________________________
18) gnee __________________________
19) mtbeolisma __________________________