Chapter 17 AP Objectives


Chapter 17    From Gene to Protein
The Connection Between Genes and Proteins
1.Explain why dwarf peas have shorter stems than tall varieties.
2.Explain the reasoning that led Archibald Garrod to first suggest that genes dictate phenotypes through enzymes.
3.Describe Beadle and Tatum’s experiments with Neurospora and explain the contribution they made to our understanding of how genes control metabolism.
4.Distinguish between the “one geneÐone enzyme” hypothesis and the “one geneÐone polypeptide” hypothesis and explain why the original hypothesis was changed.
5.Explain how RNA differs from DNA.
6.Briefly explain how information flows from gene to protein.
7.Distinguish between transcription and translation.
8.Compare where transcription and translation occur in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes.
9.Define codon and explain the relationship between the linear sequence of codons on mRNA and the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide.
10.Explain the early techniques used to identify what amino acids are specified by the triplets UUU, AAA, GGG, and CCC.
11.Explain why polypeptides begin with methionine when they are synthesized.
12.Explain what it means to say that the genetic code is redundant and unambiguous.
13.Explain the significance of the reading frame during translation.
14.Explain the evolutionary significance of a nearly universal genetic code.
The Synthesis and Processing of RNA
15.Explain how RNA polymerase recognizes where transcription should begin. Describe the promoter, the terminator, and the transcription unit.
16.Explain the general process of transcription, including the three major steps of initiation, elongation, and termination.
17.Explain how RNA is modified after transcription in eukaryotic cells.
18.Define and explain the role of ribozyme.
19.Describe the functional and evolutionary significance of introns.
The Synthesis of Protein
20.Describe the structure and functions of tRNA.
21.Explain the significance of wobble.
22.Explain how tRNA is joined to the appropriate amino acid.
23.Describe the structure and functions of ribosomes.
24.Describe the process of translation (including initiation, elongation, and termination) and explain which enzymes, protein factors, and energy sources are needed for each stage.
25.Describe the significance of polyribosomes.
26.Explain what determines the primary structure of a protein and describe how a polypeptide must be modified before it becomes fully functional.
27.Describe what determines whether a ribosome will be free in the cytosol or attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
28.Describe two properties of RNA that allow it to perform so many different functions.
29.Compare protein synthesis in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes.
30.Define point mutations. Distinguish between base-pair substitutions and base-pair insertions. Give examples of each and note the significance of such changes.
31.Describe several examples of mutagens and explain how they cause mutations.
32.Describe the historical evolution of the concept of a gene.