unit 1chemistry study guide AP

Unit 1  Chemistry Study Guide

What characterizes a prokaryotic cell?
Why do experiments need a control?
Why do scientists use the scientific method to study environmental problems?
List the hierarchy of organization for living things & for classification.
Why is evolution the "biological theme that ties together all the others"?
If neon has an atomic number of 10, how many valence electrons does it have & what does this tell you about this element?
List properties of all life forms.
In which kingdom would you find the E. coli bacterium?
What must be done before a hypothesis is proven to be true?
What composes all living things?
How do isotopes differ from each other?
If an element has its valence electron shell filled, what is true about its reactivity?
How are molecules formed?
How are ionic bonds formed?
How do polar covalent bonds form?
What type of weak bond exists between water molecules?
What type of bond forms from unequal sharing of electrons between atoms?
How does carbon-12 differ from carbon-14?
What type of bond forms between 2 atoms that are equally electronegative?
What determines the reactive properties of an atom?
The sum of protons & neutrons in an atom?
Determine the number of valence electrons for carbon & hydrogen.
Determine the number of neutrons for sulfur.
How can you tell if an atom has the same valence as carbon?
What happens to ionic bonds in water?
Name 2 isotopes of hydrogen.
Sketch the electron configuration of oxygen & neon.
When reactions continue with no effect on the concentration of reactants & products, what is this called?
When do Van der Waal interactions occur?
What would be the pH for acids, bases, neutral solutions?
What type of bond occurs when the partial negative charge of one water molecule is attracted to the partial positive charge of another water molecule?
What property of water is probably the most important for the functioning of organisms at the molecular level?
In which type of solutions would there be a greater concentration of hydroxyl ions — acids or bases?
In which type of solutions would there be a greater concentration of hydrogen ions — acids or bases?
What is the difference in hydrogen ion concentration between a solution with a pH of 3 and a solution with a pH of 5?
Explain how the formation of ice during cold weather helps to temper the transition to winter.
Be able to explain how to make a 1 Molar solution of glucose.
Which end of the water molecule is electronegative?
What determines the cohesiveness of water?
If a compound contains hydroxyl groups, is it water soluble?
Which element is the most abundant in the dry weight of humans?
What type of isomers have variations in their arrangement around a double bond?
How do glucose & fructose differ?
What type of bonds do carbon atoms form?
Be able to recognize these functional groups — carbonyl, sulfhydryl, methyl, phosphate, amino, carboxyl, & hydroxyl.
What functional group is found in alcohols like glycerol?
Which monomer makes the macromolecule it forms an organic acid?
Draw the structural isomers for butane.
What lipid makes up biological membranes?
How are alpha helix proteins stabilized?
What  chemical reaction is used to synthesize macromolecules like polypeptides & starch?
How are DNA & RNA different?
Sketch a fatty acid.
What is the basic structure of a steroid?
Is polymerization anabolism or catabolism?
Show how a dipeptide is formed.
What causes the tertiary structure of proteins?
What are the 2 forms at the secondary level of protein structure? How do they differ?
What reaction must occur to break a peptide bond?
What structural feature allows DNA to replicate itself?
What does it mean if the 2 strands of DNA are complementary?
Which macromolecule yields the greatest amount of energy?
Describe a nucleotide.
Name the purines & pyrimidines.