unit 7 diversity of organisms ap study guide

Diversity of Organisms
Study Guide

Be able to:

Describe at least 3 alternatives to a five-kingdom taxonomic system.

Explain Oparin and Haladane’s model of abiotic synthesis of organic molecules.

Explain Miller and Urey’s model of abiotic synthesis of organic molecules.

List the three main groups of archaeal bacteria, describe their distinguishing characteristics, and give an example of each group.

Describe the four modes of bacterial nutrition, explain each mode, and give an example of a bacterium using each method.

Describe three mechanisms used by motile bacteria to help them move and give an example of a bacterium that uses each method.

Describe the structure and function of prokaryotic cell walls.

Explain how prokaryotic flagella work and why they are not homologous to eukaryotic flagella.

List characteristics that distinguish archaeal bacteria from other bacteria.

Explain the differences among obligate aerobes, facultative anaerobes, and obligate anaerobes.

List the five major groups of bacteria, describe their mode of nutrition, give some characteristic features and an example of each group.

Explain how the organization of the prokaryotic genome differs from that of eukaryotic cells.

Describe how the genus Streptomyces are commercially useful. 

Distinguish between endotoxins and exotoxins and give an example of a bacteria that produces each toxin.

List Koch’s four postulates.

Distinguish among these three symbiotic relationships — mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.

Explain how endospores are formed and why they are such a problem for the canning industry.

What prokaryote is responsible for the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States.

List the major characteristics of protists.

Compare the autogenous and endosymbiontic hypotheses for the origin of eukaryotes.

Explain why protists are considered to be a polyphyletic group of organisms.

Outline the life cycle of Plasmodium. 

Explain how accessory pigments are used to classify algae.

Distinguish between macronuclei and micronuclei.

List the five candidate kingdoms of protists and describe a major feature of each group.

Tell the pigments, cell wall components, storage products, type of reproduction, habitat, and number & position of flagella for these algal groups — Dinoflagellata, Bacillariophyta, Chrysophyta, Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta, and Chlorophyta.

List characteristics that distinguish fungi from other organisms in other kingdoms.

Describe sexual and asexual reproduction in these fungal groups — Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota.

Compare the life cycles of cellular and plasmodial slime molds and tell a major difference between them.

Explain why Deuteromycota are known as imperfect fungi.

Describe the basic body plan of a fungus,

Explain how fungi acquire nutrients.

Describe the anatomy of lichens and tell how they reproduce and their ecological importance.

Describe how the mutualistic relationship in Mycorrhizae is beneficial to both the fungus and the plant.