Chapter 46 AP Obj Animal Reproduction



Chapter 46   Animal Reproduction
Overview of Animal Reproduction
1.Distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction.
2.List and describe four mechanisms of asexual reproduction.
3.Describe several adaptive advantages of asexual reproduction. Discuss the conditions that may favor the occurrence of asexual reproduction.
4.Explain the advantages of periodic reproduction. Describe factors that may control the timing of reproductive events.
5.Describe an example of an animal life cycle that alternates between asexual and sexual reproduction.
6.Define parthenogenesis and describe the conditions that favor its occurrence. Note examples of invertebrate and vertebrate species that use this form of reproduction.
7.Explain how hermaphroditism may be advantageous in sessile or burrowing animals that have difficulty encountering a member of the opposite sex.
8.Distinguish between male-first and female-first sequential hermaphroditism. Note the adaptive advantages of these reproductive systems.
Mechanisms of Sexual Reproduction
9.Describe mechanisms that increase the probability that mature sperm will encounter fertile eggs of the same species in organisms that use external fertilization.
10.Explain the function of pheromones in mate attraction.
11.Compare reproductive systems using internal and external fertilization on the basis of the relative number of zygotes and protection of the embryos.
12.List and describe various methods of egg and embryo protection.
13.Compare the reproductive systems of a polychaete worm, a parasitic flatworm, an insect, a common nonmammalian vertebrate, and a mammal.
Mammalian Reproduction
14.Using a diagram, identify and give the function of each component of the reproductive system of the human male.
15.Using a diagram, identify and give the function of each component of the reproductive system of the human female.
16.Describe the two physiological reactions common to sexual arousal in both sexes.
17.Describe the four phases of the sexual response cycle.
18.Compare menstrual cycles and estrous cycles.
19.Describe the stages of the human female reproductive cycle.
20.Explain how the uterine cycle and ovarian cycle are synchronized in female mammals. Note in detail the functions of the hormones involved.
21.Describe human oogenesis.
22.Describe spermatogenesis and the structure and function of mature sperm.
23.Describe three major differences between oogenesis and spermatogenesis.
24.Describe human menopause. Describe a possible evolutionary explanation for human menopause.
25.Describe the influence of androgens on primary and secondary sex characteristics and behavior.
26.Compare the patterns of hormone secretion and reproductive events in male and female mammals.
27.Define conception, gestation, and parturition.
28.Compare the length of pregnancies in humans, rodents, dogs, cows, and elephants.
29.Describe the changes that occur in the mother and the developing embryo during each trimester of a human pregnancy.
30.Explain the role of embryonic hormones during the first few months of pregnancy.
31.Describe the stages of parturition.
32.Describe the control of lactation.
33.Describe mechanisms that may help prevent the motherÕs immune system from rejecting the developing embryo.
34.List the various methods of contraception and explain how each works.
35.Describe techniques that allow us to learn about the health and genetics of a fetus.
36.Explain how and when in vitro fertilization, zygote intrafallopian transfer, and gamete intrafallopian transfer may be used.


Chapter 47 AP Obj Animal Development



Chapter 47    Animal Development
The Stages of Embryonic Development in Animals
1.Compare the concepts of preformation and epigenesis.
2.List the two functions of fertilization.
3.Describe the acrosomal reaction and explain how it ensures that gametes are conspecific.
4.Describe the cortical reaction.
5.Explain how the fast and slow blocks to polyspermy function sequentially to prevent multiple sperm from fertilizing the egg.
6.Describe the changes that occur in an activated egg and explain the importance of cytoplasmic materials to egg activation.
7.Compare fertilization in a sea urchin and in a mammal.
8.Describe the general process of cleavage.
9.Explain the importance of embryo polarity during cleavage. Compare the characteristics of the animal hemisphere, vegetal hemisphere, and gray crescent in amphibian embryos.
10.Describe the formation of a blastula in sea urchin, amphibian, and bird embryos. Distinguish among meroblastic cleavage, holoblastic cleavage, and the formation of the blastoderm.
11.Describe the product of cleavage in an insect embryo.
12.Describe the process of gastrulation and explain its importance. Explain how this process rearranges the embryo. List adult structures derived from each of the primary germ layers.
13.Compare gastrulation in a sea urchin, a frog, and a chick.
14.Describe the formation of the notochord, neural tube, and somites in a frog.
15.Describe the significance and fate of neural crest cells. Explain why neural crest cells have been called a “fourth germ layer.”
16.List and explain the functions of the extraembryonic membranes in reptile eggs.
17.Describe the events of cleavage in a mammalian embryo. Explain the significance of the inner cell mass.
18.Explain the role of the trophoblast in implantation of a human embryo.
19.Explain the functions of the extraembryonic membranes in mammalian development.
The Cellular and Molecular Basis of Morphogenesis and Differentiation in Animals
20.Describe the significance of changes in cell shape and cell position during embryonic development. Explain how these cellular processes occur. Describe the process of convergent extension.
21.Describe the role of the extracellular matrix in embryonic development.
22.Describe the locations and functions of cell adhesion molecules.
23.Describe the two general principles that integrate our knowledge of the genetic and cellular mechanisms underlying differentiation.
24.Describe the process of fate mapping and the significance of fate maps.
25.Describe the two important conclusions that have resulted from the experimental manipulation of parts of embryos and the use of fate maps.
26.Explain how the three body axes are established in early amphibian and chick development.
27.Explain the significance of SpemannÕs organizer in amphibian development.
28.Explain what is known about the molecular basis of induction.
29.Explain pattern formation in a developing chick limb, including the roles of the apical ectodermal ridge and the zone of polarizing activity.
30.Explain how a limb bud is directed to develop into either a forelimb or a hind limb.


Chapter 48 AP Obj Nervous Systems



Chapter 48     Nervous Systems
An Overview of Nervous Systems
1.Compare and contrast the nervous systems of the following animals and explain how variations in design and complexity relate to their phylogeny, natural history, and habitat: hydra, sea star, planarian, insect, squid, and vertebrate.
2.Name the three stages in the processing of information by nervous systems.
3.Distinguish among sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons.
4.List and describe the major parts of a neuron and explain the function of each.
5.Describe the function of astrocytes, radial glia, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells.
The Nature of Nerve Signals
6.Define a membrane potential and a resting potential.
7.Describe the factors that contribute to a membrane potential.
8.Explain why the membrane potential of a resting neuron is typically around 260 to 280 mV.
9.Explain the role of the sodium-potassium pump in maintaining the resting potential.
10.Distinguish between gated and ungated ion channels and among stretch-gated ion channels, ligand-gated ion channels, and voltage-gated ion channels.
11.Define a graded potential and explain how it is different from a resting potential or an action potential.
12.Describe the characteristics of an action potential. Explain the role of voltage-gated ion channels in this process.
13.Describe the two main factors that underlie the repolarizing phase of the action potential.
14.Define the refractory period.
15.Explain how an action potential is propagated along an axon.
16.Describe the factors that affect the speed of action potentials along an axon and describe adaptations that increase the speed of propagation. Describe saltatory conduction.
17.Compare an electrical synapse and a chemical synapse.
18.Describe the structures of a chemical synapse and explain how they transmit an action potential from one cell to another.
19.Explain how excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) affect the postsynaptic membrane potential.
20.Define summation and distinguish between temporal and spatial summation. Explain how summation applies to EPSPs and IPSPs.
21.Explain the role of the axon hillock.
22.Describe the role of signal transduction pathways in indirect synaptic transmission.
23.Describe the specific properties of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and biogenic amines.
24.Identify and describe the functions of the four amino acids and several neuropeptides that work as neurotransmitters.
25.Explain how endorphins function as natural analgesics.
26.Describe the roles of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide as local regulators.
Vertebrate Nervous Systems
27.Compare the structures and functions of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
28.Distinguish between the functions of the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system.
29.Describe the embryonic development of the vertebrate brain.
30.Describe the structures and functions of the following brain regions: medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, cerebellum, thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebrum.
31.Describe the specific functions of the reticular system.
32.Explain how the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) function as a mammalian biological clock.
33.Relate the specific regions of the cerebrum to their functions.
34.Distinguish between the functions of the left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum.
35.Describe the specific functions of the brain regions associated with language, speech, emotions, memory, and learning.
36.Explain the possible role of long-term potentiation in memory storage and learning in the vertebrate brain.
37.Describe our current understanding of human consciousness.
38.Explain how research on stem cells and neural development may lead to new treatments for injuries and disease.
39.Describe current treatments for schizophrenia.
40.Distinguish between bipolar disorder and major depression.
41.Describe the symptoms and brain pathology that characterize Alzheimer’s disease. Discuss possible treatments for this disease.
42.Explain the cause of Parkinson’s disease.


Chapter 32 AP Objectives


Chapter 32     Introduction to Animal Evolution
What Is an Animal?
1.List the five characteristics that combine to define animals.
2.Describe the role of Hox genes in animal development.
The Origins of Animal Diversity
3.Describe the evidence that suggests animals may have first evolved about a billion years ago.
4.Explain the significance of the Cambrian explosion. Describe three hypotheses for the cause of the Cambrian explosion.
5.Outline the major grades of the animal kingdom based on symmetry, embryonic germ layers, the presence or absence and type of coelom, and protostome or deuterostome development.
6.Distinguish between radial and bilateral symmetry. Explain how animal symmetry may match the animal’s way of life.
7.Distinguish among the acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, and coelomate grades. Explain the functions of a body cavity.
8.Distinguish between the following pairs of terms:
a. diploblastic and triploblastic
b. spiral and radial cleavage
c. determinate and indeterminate cleavage
d. schizocoelous and enterocoelous development
9.Compare the developmental differences between protostomes and deuterostomes, including:
a. pattern of cleavage
b. fate of the blastopore
c. coelom formation
10.Name five major features of animal phylogeny that are supported by systematic analyses of morphological characters and recent molecular studies.
11.Distinguish between the ecdysozoans and the lophotrochozoans. Describe the characteristic features of each group.



Chapter 40 AP Intro to Systems Objectives



Chapter 40     Introduction to Animal Structure & Function
Functional Animal Anatomy: An Overview
1.Define bioenergetics.
2.Distinguish between anatomy and physiology. Explain how functional anatomy relates to these terms.
Body Plans and the External Environment
3.Explain how physical laws constrain animal form.
4.Explain how the size and shape of an animal’s body affect its interactions with the environment.
5.Define tissue.
6.Distinguish among collagenous fibers, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers.
7.From micrographs or diagrams, correctly identify the following animal tissues, explain how their structure relates to their functions, and note examples of each type.
a. Epithelial tissue
b. Connective tissue
i.  Loose connective tissue
ii. Adipose tissue
iii. Fibrous connective tissue
iv. Cartilage
v.  Bone
vi. Blood
c. Muscle tissue
i.  Skeletal (striated) muscle
ii. Cardiac muscle
iii. Smooth muscle
d. Nervous tissue
i.  Neuron
Introduction to the Bioenergetics of Animals
8.Describe the basic sources of chemical energy and their fate in animal cells.
9.Define biosynthesis.
10.Define metabolic rate and explain how it can be determined for animals.
11.Distinguish between endothermic and exothermic animals.
12.Describe the relationship between metabolic rate and body size.
13.Distinguish between basal metabolic rate and standard metabolic rate. Describe the major factors that influence energy requirements.
14.Describe the natural variations found in the energy strategies of endotherms and ectotherms.
Regulating the Internal Environment
15.Distinguish between regulators and conformers for a particular environmental variable.
16.Define homeostasis. Describe the three functional components of a homeostatic control system.
17.Distinguish between positive and negative feedback mechanisms.
18.Define thermoregulation. Explain in general terms how endotherms and ectotherms manage their heat budgets.
19.Name four physical processes by which animals exchange heat with their environment.
20.Discuss the role of hair, feathers, and adipose tissue in insulation.
21.Explain the role of vasoconstriction and vasodilation in modifying the transfer of body heat with the environment.
22.Describe animal adaptations to facilitate evaporative cooling.
23.Describe thermoregulatory mechanisms utilized by endothermic invertebrates.
24.Explain how ectotherms and endotherms may acclimatize to changing environmental temperatures.
25.Explain the role of heat-shock proteins in helping cells to cope with severe temperature changes.
26.Define torpor, hibernation, estivation, and daily torpor.