Sample 6a Transformation Lab



Lab 6A – Bacterial Transformation & Ampicillin Resistance



Bacterial transformation occurs when a bacterial cell takes up foreign DNA and incorporates it into its own DNA. This transformation usually occurs within plasmids, which are small circular DNA molecules separate from its chromosome. There can be 10 to 200 copies of the same plasmid within a cell. These plasmids may replicate when the chromosome does, or they may replicate independently. Each plasmid contains from 1,000 to 200,000 base pairs. Certain plasmids, called R plasmids, carry the gene for resistance to antibiotics such as ampicillin, which is used in this lab.

Plasmids function in transformation in two different ways. They can transfer genes that occur naturally within them, or they can act as vectors for introducing foreign DNA. Restriction enzymes can be used to cut foreign DNA and insert it into the plasmid vectors. The bacteria used in this lab were Escherichia coli (E. coli). It was ideal for this transformation study because it can be easily grown in Luria broth or on agar, and it has a relatively small genome of about five million base pairs.

Transformation is not the only method of DNA transfer within bacteria. Conjugation is a DNA transfer that occurs between two bacterial cells. A bridge is formed between the two cells and genetic information is traded. In transduction, a virus is used to transfer foreign DNA into a bacterial cell.

The transformed E. coli with the ampicillin resistance gene will be able to grow in the ampicillin plates, but the non-transformed E. coli will not.

The materials needed for this lab were 2 sterile test tubes, 500 μL of ice cold 0.05M CaCl2, E. coli bacteria cultures, a sterile inoculating loop, a sterile micropipette, 10 μL of pAMP solution, a timer, ice, a water bath, 500 μL of Luria broth, a spreading rod, 4 plates: 2 ampicillin+ and 2 ampicillin – , and an incubator.


One sterile tube was labeled “+” and the other “-“. A sterile micropipette was used to transfer 250 μL of ice cold 0.05M CaCl2 to each tube. A large colony of E. coli was transferred with an inoculating loop to each tube. The suspension was then mixed by repeatedly drawing and emptying a sterile micropipette. 10μL of pAMP solution was added to the cell suspension in the tube marked “+” and mixed by tapping the tube. Both tubes were immediately put on ice for 15 minutes and then soaked in a 42° C water bath for 90 seconds. The tubes were then returned to ice for another 2 minutes.

After the heat shock, 250 μL of Luria broth were added to each tube. The tubes were mixed by tapping. Two plates of ampicillin + agar were labeled LB/AMP+ and LB/AMP-. The two plates of ampicillin- agar were labeled LB+ and LB-. 100 μL of the cell suspension in the “+” tube were placed on the LB+ and the LB/AMP+ plates. 100μL of the cell suspension in the “-” tube were added to the LB- and the LB/AMP- plates. These were spread with a spreading rod that was sterilized by passing it over a flame after each use. The plates were allowed to sit for several minutes and then incubated over night inverted at 37° C.







(Positive Control)



(Positive Control)


LB/AMP+ (Experimental)


LB/AMP- (Experimental)


Bacterial Growth

lawnlawn3 coloniesNo growth


1. Compare and contrast the number of colonies on each of the following pairs of plates. What does each pair of results tell you about the experiment?
LB+ and LB- Both of these plates had a lawn of bacteria. This proves that the bacteria are capable of growing on the agar and that there was nothing preventing growth beside the ampicillin.

LB/AMP- and LB/AMP+ The LB/AMP- had no growth, but the LB/AMP+ had small growth. This shows that the bacteria was transformed and developed a resistance to ampicillin.

LB/AMP+ and LB+ The LB/AMP+ had less growth than the LB+. This shows that the transformation was not completely effective and only transformed some of the most competent bacterial cells.


2.  Total mass of pAMP used = 0.05 μg


Total volume of cell suspension = 510 μL


Fraction of cell suspension spread on the plates = 0.196


Mass of pAMP in cell suspension = 0.0098


Number of colonies per μg of plasmid = 0.0294

3. What factors might influence the transformation efficiency? Explain the effect of each you mention.
Transformation efficiency could be affected by the size of the colony added to the solution. In a larger colony the efficiency would increase because there would be more receptive cells. Another factor would b the amount of pAMP added. The more pAMP added, the higher the efficiency. The amount of Luria broth added could also affect efficiency. If the amount of Luria broth was increased, the efficiency would decrease.


Error Analysis:
This lab had several steps, each giving the potential for error. All of the measurements had to be precise and accurate, and the heat shock timing was also a very complicated procedure. Error in this lab could have been caused by the concentration of the CaCl2 due to the fact that most of it was frozen.


Discussion and Conclusion:
The bacteria treated with the pAMP solution developed a resistance to ampicillin and were able to grow on the ampicillin+ plate. Those that were not treated with the pAMP were not able to grow on this medium. The plates with no ampicillin served as a control to show how the bacteria would look in normal conditions. Transformation is never fully effective, Only cells that are competent enough are able to take up the foreign DNA. Therefore, the ampicillin + plates showed less growth than the control plate.

Pzsol Viruses



Answer Key:


1) virus
2) virology
3) stanley
4) mosaic
5) crystallization
6) metabolism
7) antiviral
8) nonliving
9) capsid
10) glycoprotein
11) genome
12) transcriptase
13) envelope
14) spikes
15) nanometer
16) replicate
17) protein
18) nucleic
19) hiv
20) immunodeficiency
21) icosahedron
22) helix
23) host
24) adenovirus
25) retrovirus
26) viroid
27) prion
28) intracellular
29) bacteriophage
30) escherichia
31) collar
32) tail
33) lytic
34) virulent
35) assembly
36) lysis
37) attachment
38) lysogenic
39) temperate
40) prophage
41) injection
42) inactivated
43) attenuated
44) smallpox
45) measles
46) influenza
47) jungles


Pzsol Worms


Answer Key:

1)platyhelminthesphylum of flatworms
2)threenumber of body layers in worms
3)bilateralsymmetry f flatworms
4)dorsalupper body surface of worms
5)ventrallower body surface of worms
6)ectodermoutermost cell layer of worms
7)mesodermmiddle cell layer of worms
8)endoderminnermost cell layer of worms
9)acoelomatesolid body in flatworms
10)coelombody cavity
11)gastrovasculargut with a single opening in flatworms
12)absorptionhow flatworms exchanges gases with their environment
13)anteriorhead or front end of a flatworm
14)cephalizationanterior end with sensory structures concentrated there
15)parasiteworms that live on or inside the body of their host
16)turbellariaclass of flatworms containing the freshwater planarian
17)pharynxextendable feeding tube on the underside of planarians
18)mucussecreted by planarians to glide across
19)flameexcretory cells in worms that filter wastes
20)gangliaclusters of nerve cells in worms
21)hermaphroditesworms that make both eggs & sperm
22)trematodaclass of flatworms containing flukes
23)suckersfound on the ends of flukes to attach to hosts
24)tegumenttough outer covering on flukes
25)cestodaclass containing tapeworms
26)scolexanterior end of a tapeworm with hooks & suckers
27)proglottidsreproductive sections of a tapeworm’s body
28)nematodaphylum for roundworms
29)tapershape of both ends of a roundworms body
30)cuticleprotective noncellular layer of roundworms
31)ascarisroundworm found in pig & horse intestines
32)hookwormsintestinal parasitic roundworm with cutting plates in it’s mouth
33)trichinosisdisease that result from eating infected undercooked pork
34)pinwormsmost common parasitic roundworm of children in the U.S.
35)rotiferaphylum of worms with a crown of cilia surrounding the mouth
36)mastaxmuscular organ of rotifers to break down food
37)pseudocoelomatesrotifers & nematodes are examples


Quiz Bacteria





Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false.
Gram-negative bacteria have a thick layer of peptidoglycan that stains purple.
Bacteria lack nuclei and therefore also lack genetic material.
Bacterial cells have membrane-bound organelles and chromosomes.
Bacterial cells are usually much larger than eukaryotic cells.
Bacteria are incapable of movement themselves; they can only get to new locations by growing toward them or by forming endospores and being carried in air or water.
Some bacteria cannot survive in the presence of oxygen.
When bacteria undergo nonreproductive genetic recombination, their bacterial chromosome is altered.
Certain antibiotics have become ineffective against certain strains of bacteria. These bacteria have developed a resistance, which may be passed on from one generation of bacteria to the next.
The photoautotrophic bacteria are the only bacteria that are indirectly beneficial to humans.

Complete each sentence or statement.
Spiral bacteria are called ____________________.

Spherical bacteria are called ____________________.

Rod-shaped bacteria are called ____________________.

The procedure used to distinguish between two types of bacterial cell wall structures is called ____________________.

Protective structures that some bacteria may form under harsh conditions are ____________________.

The cell walls of Gram-negative eubacteria are composed of a combination of polysaccharide and polypeptide called ____________________.

Bacteria that obtain their energy by removing electrons from inorganic molecules, rather than obtaining energy from the sun, are called ____________________ bacteria.

In general, organisms that obtain their energy from sunlight are called ____________________.

Bacteria that are heterotrophic and feed on dead organic matter are called ____________________.

A(n) ____________________ is a substance that can be obtained from bacteria or fungi and can be used as a drug to fight pathogenic bacteria.

Many bacteria are ____________________ and play an important role in recycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, while other bacteria are ____________________ and assemble organic compounds from carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and other elements.


Check Your Work     Reset

Quiz Viruses





Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false.
Although viruses do not consist of cells, biologists consider them to be living because they are capable of reproduction.
Wendell Stanley made the important discovery that viruses are not cellular.
Viruses consist of RNA or DNA surrounded by a coat of protein.
Prions are the smallest known particles that are able to replicate.
A virus can only reproduce by controlling a cell.
People can contract the influenza virus more than once because the virus tends to mutate rapidly, avoiding the actions of the immune system.
Smallpox is caused by bacteria.
Chickenpox and shingles are caused by the same virus.
The viruses that have been linked to human cancers are usually transmitted through the air.

Complete each sentence or statement.
The protein coat of a virus is called a(n) ____________________.

Most viruses occur in the shape of a(n) ____________________ or a(n) ____________________.

A virus that transcribes DNA from an RNA template is called a(n) ____________________.

An enzyme called ____________________ manufactures DNA that is complementary to a virus’s RNA.

____________________ are bacterial viruses with a polyhedral head and a helical tail.

All viruses reproduce by taking over the reproductive machinery of a ____________________.

Viruses that infect a host cell and have their nucleic acid replicated but do not harm the host cell are in a ____________________ cycle.

A viral DNA molecule formed from an RNA virus is called a(n) ____________________.

The virus that causes AIDS is called ____________________.

Some viruses are thought to induce ____________________, a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell division.

An example of an emerging virus is the  ____________________ virus.


Check Your Work     Reset

Puzzle – Bacteria




4. bacteria that require oxygen

6. stain used to dye bacteria so they can be classified

10. example of a photsynthetic, cyanobacterium that causes eutrophication 12. number of chromosomes in bacteria

14. rod shaped bacteria

19. bacteria living in very salty environments

20. corkscrew shaped bacteria that may cause disease such as syphillis

22. example of an enteric bacteria living in the human intestines

27. bacteria that live in very hot, acid environments such as hot springs

28. bacteria that gram stain purple

30. live in swamps and in sewage and produce methane gas

31. long whip-like tails for movement in some bacteria

32. term used to refer to most bacteria

34. prefix used when bacteria grow in chains

36. process where two bacteria join and exchange genetic material

38. found in the cell walls of archaebacteria



1. dormant stage of gram negative bacteria to help them survive harsh environments

2. bacteria that can carry on photosynthesis

3. bacteria that do not need oxygen

5. organisms without a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles

7. kingdom containing more ancient bacteria

8. short hairs on the cell wall of some bacteria for attachment

9. bacteria that feed on dead and decaying material

11. spherical shaped bacteria 13. kingdom containing most bacteria

15. sticky sugars on the capsule of some bacteria for attachment

16. process where a single bacterium divides to make two identical bacteria

17. type of environment in which archaebacteria live

18. bacteria found in soil that produce antibiotics 21. poisons made by some bacteria

23. outer covering of polysaccharides that protects some bacteria & helps them attach

24. bacteria that live in the intestines of some animals to aid digestion

25. protein-carbohydrate in the cell walls of eubacteria

26. used to classify bacteria

29. bacterial produced substances that stop the growth of other microorganisms

33. showed evidence that bacteria have existed for 3.5 billion years

35. prefix used when bacteria grow in grapelike clusters

37. bacteria that gram stain red to pink

39. example of a nitrogen-fixing bacteria that lives on the roots of plants

40. corkscrew shaped bacteria


Fungi Puzzle


Find each term and then number and define it on the back of this paper.









Puzzle – Virus




Unscramble and then define the following words:



1) usivr__________________________
2) loyirvog__________________________
3) estalyn__________________________
4) omaics__________________________
5) trcsiionzyllata__________________________
6) loabeimsmt__________________________
7) iavnirtla__________________________
8) oivgnnlin__________________________
9) pcasid__________________________
10) ycileonrgtop__________________________
11) genome__________________________
12) naspiecasrttr__________________________
13) nlveepoe__________________________
14) skisep__________________________
15) nrateonme__________________________
16) aiertlcep__________________________
17) tieronp__________________________
18) eicucnl__________________________
19) ivh__________________________
20) mdcicoynimfieenu__________________________
21) shoiocdraen__________________________
22) xlhie__________________________
23) stho__________________________
24) onrvuesaid__________________________
25) ervrsriuto__________________________
26) riviod__________________________
27) niopr__________________________
28) cltrneuillaar__________________________
29) rheaiaobgtepc__________________________
30) schaieehcri__________________________
31) locrla__________________________
32) atil__________________________
33) cytil__________________________
34) riveutln__________________________
35) lsmysbae__________________________
36) silsy__________________________
37) eacntmttha__________________________
38) ociyenlsg__________________________
39) tmterepea__________________________
40) ophregpa__________________________
41) jiectonni__________________________
42) cidaetinvat__________________________
43) ttadtueena__________________________
44) psmaloxl__________________________
45) asmlees__________________________
46) nenzalfiu__________________________
47) nugjlse__________________________



Protist Unrevised Notes B1



Algae and Fungal-like Protists



  •  Algae are autotrophic protists that have chloroplasts and produce their own carbohydrates by photosynthesis
  • In the past, algae was classified in the plant Kingdom, however, algae lack tissue differentiation and have no true roots, stems, or leaves
  • The reproductive structures of algae also differ from those of plants, because they form gametes in single-celled gametangia, or gamete chambers
  • Often times, algal cells contain pyrenoids, organelles that synthesize and store starch.


  • The body portion of an alga is called a thallus; the thallus is usually haploid
  • Four types of algae are recognized: unicellular, colonial, filamentous, and multicellular
    ·        Unicellular algae have a structure that consists of a single cell; most unicellular algae are aquatic organisms that compose the phytoplankton, a population of photosynthetic organisms that forms the foundation of aquatic food chains.
    ·        Colonial algae, such as Volvox, have a structure that consists of groups of cells acting in a coordinated manner.
    ·        Some of the cells in colonial algae become specialized; this allows them to move, feed, and reproduce efficiently.
    ·        Filamentous algae, such as Spirogyra, have a slender, rod-shaped thallus composed of rows of cells joined end to end; other species of filamentous algae have specialized structures that anchor the thallus to the ocean bottom.
    ·        Multinuclear algae often have a large, complex thallus; Macrocystis is among the largest multicellular algae.

·        Algae are classified into 7 phyla, based on color, type of chlorophyll, form of food-storage substance, and cell wall composition.

·        Many species of algae reproduce sexually and asexually
·    Sexual reproduction in algae is often triggered by environmental stress
·        During asexual reproduction, the algae first absorbs its flagellum, then the haploid cell divides mitotically up to three times, and from two to eight haploid flagellated cells called zoospores develop within the parent cell, lastly, the asexual reproductive cells break out of the parent cell, disperse, and eventually grow to full size.
·        Sexual reproduction begins by haploid cells dividing mitotically to produce either “plus” or “minus” gametes.
·        A plus gamete and a minus gamete come into contact with one another and shed their cell walls, then they fuse and form a diploid zygote, which develops a thick protective wall; this resting stage of a zygote is called a zygospore.
·        A zygospore can withstand bad environmental conditions; during the bad environmental condition, the thick wall opens and the living zoospore emerges.

Reproduction in Multicellular Algae
·        The male unicellular gametangium, called an antheridium, produces sperm and the female unicellular gametangium, called an oogonium, produces an egg.
·        The antheridium releases sperm into the surrounding water, where they swim to the female egg and enter through small spores.
·        After fertilization, the resulting zygote is released from the female egg and forms a thick-walled, resting spore; the diploid undergoes meiosis, forming zoospores that are released into the water; the zoospore settles and divides to form a rootlike holdfast, and the others divide and form a new filament.
·        The leaflike algae Ulva has a sexual reproductive cycle that is characterized by a pattern called alternation of generations; a life cycle that exhibits alternation of generations has two distinct multicellular phases- a haploid, gamete-producing phase called a gametophyte and a diploid, spore-producing phase called a sporophyte.
·        The adult sporophyte has reproductive cells called sporangia, which produce haploid zoospore by meiosis.

Algal-Like Protists

Phylum Chlorophyta
·        The phylum Chlorophyta contains more than 7,000 identified species of organisms called green algae and members of this phylum have an amazing number of forms and reproductive methods and their body structures range from single cells and colonial forms to multicellular filaments and sheets.

Phylum Phaeophyta
·        The phylum Phaeophyta contains 1,500 species of organisms called brown algae; brown algae is mostly marine and plantlike organisms called seaweed’s and kelps, they are common along rocky coasts where ocean water is cool.
·        The brown algae contain chlorophylls a and c and a large amount of pigment called fucoxanthin, which give the algae its brown color.
·        The food brown algae produces are stored as laminarin, a carbohydrate with glucose units that are linked differently than those in starch.
·        All brown algae are multicellular; the largest brown alga is the Macrocystis.
·        The thallus is anchored to the ocean bottom by a rootlike holdfast; the stemlike portion of the alga is called the stipe and the leaflike region, modified to capture sunlight for photosynthesis is called the blade.
·        The cell walls of the Macrocystis contain alginate, an alginic acid that is used in cosmetics and various drugs, as food, and as a stabilizer in most ice creams.

Phylum Rhodophyta
·        The phylum Rhodophyta contains 4,000 species of organisms called red algae.
·        Red algae contain chlorophyll a and pigments called phycobilins, which play an important role in absorbing light for photosynthesis.
·        Phycobilins can absorb the wavelengths of light that penetrate deep into the water; they make it possible for red algae to live in depths where alga pigments cannot survive.
·        Certain species of red algae have cell walls that are coated with a sticky substance called carageenan, which is a polysaccharide.
·        Agar, which is used as a gel-forming base for culturing microbes, is also extracted from the cell wall of red algae.

·        The phylum Bacillariophyta contains 11,500 species of organisms called diatoms.
·        Diatoms are abundant in both freshwater and marine environments; the cell wall, called shells, of the diatoms contains two pieces that fit together like a box; each half is called a valve.
·        Centric diatoms have circular or triangular shells and are most abundant in marine environments.
·        Pennate diatoms have rectangular shells and are most abundant in freshwater ponds and lakes; some pennate diatoms by secreting threads that attach to the surface of the water.
·        Diatoms are an abundant component of phytoplankton and are important producers in freshwater and marine food webs, along with being an essential source of nutrients for microscopic heterotrophs, and they release an abundance of oxygen.
·        When diatoms die their shells sink and accumulate in large numbers, forming a layer of material called diatomaceous earth.

Phylum Dinoflagellata
·      The phylum Dinoflagellata contains 1,100 species of organisms called dinoflagellates.
·        Dinoflagellates are small, usually unicellular organisms, photosynthetic, but a few are colorless and heterotrophic, and they are the major producers of organic matter in marine environments.
·      Photosynthetic dinoflagellates usually have a yellowish green to brown color due to large amounts of pigments called carotenoids and chlorophylls a and c.
·      Some species of dinoflagellates, such as Noctiluca, can produce bioluminescence, a display of sparkling light often seen in the ocean water at night.
·      When other species produce toxins and red pigments that explode, a resulting phenomenon is the red tide.

Phylum Chrysophyta
·        The phylum Chrysophyta contains about 850 species of organisms called golden algae, which live in freshwater, but few are found in marine environments.
·        Most of the species placed in this phylum are some shade of yellow or brown due to the presence of large amounts of carotenoids.
·        Golden algae store much of their surplus energy as oil and are important in the formation of petroleum deposits.

Phylum Euglenophyta
·        The phylum Euglenophyta contains 1,000 species of flagellated unicellular algae called euglenoids.
·        Euglenoids show both plantlike and animal-like characteristics; they are plantlike in that they have chlorophyll and are photosynthetic and they are animal-like in that they lack a cell wall and are highly motile.
·        Euglena is abundant in freshwater, especially in water polluted by excess nutrients.
·        Euglena lacks a cell wall and therefore is able to change its shape as it swims about.

Fungal-like Protists

Slime Molds
·        Slime molds spend half their life in a mobile, amoeba-like feeding form, engulfing organic matter and bacteria, like protozoa.
·        Slime molds produce funguslike reproductive structures, which is why they were once classified as fungi.
·        Slime molds are typically found growing on damp soil, rotting logs, decaying leaves, or other decomposing organic matter in moist areas.
·        During reproduction, slime molds produce a spore-bearing structure called a fruiting body.

Phylum Acrasiomycota
·        The phylum Acrasiomycota comprises about 65 species of cellular slime molds.
·        Cellular slime molds live as individual haploid cells that move about like amoebas; each cell moves as an independent organism, creeping over rotting logs and soil or swimming in fresh water, ingesting bacteria and other food.
·        A pseudoplasmodium is a coordinated colony of individual cells that resembles a slug, and it leaves a slimy trail as it crawls over decaying logs, leaves, and twigs.
·        Eventually a pseudoplasmodium will settle and form a fruiting body where spore will develop, then once the fruiting body breaks open, and the wind disperses the spores to new locations.

Phylum Myxomycota
·        450 species of plasmodial slime molds compose the phylum Myxomycota.
·        During the feeding stage of its life cycle, a plasmodial slime mold is a mass of cytoplasm called a plasmodium, and it may be as large as several square meters.
·        Each plasmodium is multinucleate or it contains thousands of nuclei.
·        The spores of a plasmodium are resistant to adverse conditions; in favorable conditions, they crack open and give rise to haploid reproductive cells.

Water Molds
·        A water mold is a funguslike organism composed of branched filaments of cells.
·        Water molds are aquatic and are commonly found in bodies of freshwater.

Phylum Oomycota
·        The phylum Oomycota includes a number of organisms that are pathogenic to plants.
·        Blight is a disease of plants characterized by quickly developing decay and discoloring leaves, stems, and flowers.
·        Water molds reproduce asexually and sexually.
·        During asexual reproduction, they produce motile, flagellated reproductive zoospores, which accumulate to form a matlike mass.
·        During sexual reproduction, the cells of the water mold develops egg-containing and sperm-containing structures, then tubes grow between the two types of structures letting the sperm cells to fertilize haploid egg cells to form diploid zygotes.

Phylum Chytridiomycota
·        It is approximately 750 protists species in the phylum Chytridiomycota.
·        The chytrids are primarily aquatic protists characterized by gametes and zoospores with a single, posterior flagellum.



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  Exploring Protists



Domain Eukarya; Kingdom Protista

There are many types of protists, but organisms in this kingdom only have a few things in common:

They are eukaryotes – organisms that have cells with a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.  They typically live in aquatic or moist environments.Most protists are unicellular (made of only one cell) but they may live in colonies.  But there are some protists are are multicellular (containing more than one cell) 

1. Are protists prokaryotes or eukaryotes?

2. What is a eukaryote?

3. What type of environment would you typically find protists living?

4. Are all protists unicellular? yes or no

5. What are unicellular protists that live together in clusters called?

Obtaining Food / Nutrition / Energy

Protists have a few different methods of obtaining nutrition (food):

  • Some contain chloroplasts (green pigments) like plants, and are autotrophsAutotrophs can use photosynthesis to make their own food, for example Algae.
  • Then there are others that are heterotrophs and obtain their food by absorbing it from their surroundings, for example Paramecium.
  • But there are some that can do both autotrophic and heterotrophic methods of obtaining food, for example Euglena.


6. How do the heterotroph protists obtain their food?

7. How do the autotroph protists get their food? Name the process.

8. What is an example of a protist that can do both autotrophic and heterotrophic methods of obtaining food?

9. What is an example of a protist that absorbs their food?

10. What is an example of a protist that makes their own food?


Classifying Protists

Protists are classified by how they obtain food.  Protists are organized into three main groups:

  • Animal – like protists  (heterotrophs)
  • Plant/Algal – like protists  (autotrophs)
  • Fungal – like protists  (heterotroph decomposers)

11. How are protists classified?


Animal – Like Protists – Protozoa

Animal – like protists are often called Protozoa.  Scientists classify them by the way they move around.

  • Most are unicellular and microscopic.  You can see them using a compound light microscope.
  • They are classified as heterotrophs because they absorb their food using vacuoles for digestion.
  • These are typically found in freshwater, marine, and moist land habitats.

12. What are the animal-like protists often called?

13. How do they obtain their food / energy?

14. How are they classified?

15. Go to and DRAW and LABEL an amoeba.


Methods of Protozoa movement:

Ciliasmall hair-like projections all around the organism
Flagellalong, thin, whip-like structure
Pseudopodia“false feet” – temporary extensions of a cell’s cytoplasm that help them move around and change their shapes to absorb their food
Parasitesmove along with the host they invaded


16. What is the method of movement that uses a long, whip-like tail?

17. What is the method of movement that uses “false feet”?

18. What are cilia?

19. Go to and DRAW and LABEL the paramecium.


Types of Protozoa:

Phylum Sarcodina Phylum Ciliophora Phylum Zoomastingina Phylum Sporozoa
Common Name – Sarcodines Common Name – Ciliates Common Name – ZooflagellatesCommon Name – Sporozoan
Move by using Pseudopodia Move by using Cilia Move by using FlagellaAdults do not move
Example:  Amebas    Example: Paramecium Example: Trypanosoma
(causes African Sleeping Sickness)
Example: Plasmodium (causes Malaria)


20. What is an example of a protozoa that uses a flagella for movement?

21. What type of protist phylum uses cilia?


Plant/Algal – Like Protists 

Plant/Algal-like protists are eukaryotes that are similar to plants.  Scientists classify these protists by the color of their pigments.

  • They are autotrophic and use chlorophyll and other pigments to harvest and use energy from sunlight.  They produce oxygen for our environment.
  • They are not considered plants because they do not have true roots, stems or leaves and most have flagella for movement at some time in their life cycles.
  • The Giant Kelp or seaweed are also in this group of algae.
Green Algae Brown Algae Red Algae Diatoms DinoflagellatesGolden AlgaeEuglena

22. What are plant/algal-like protists similar to?

23. How are they classified?

24. How do they obtain food/energy?  autotroph or heterotroph?

25. What do they do for the environment?

26. Why are they not plants?

27. Why are diatoms and dinoflagellates so important? (Use the web to research this question)

28. Giant kelp are called what?

29. Red algae produce what substance used as a culture media in lab? (Use the web to research this question)


Fungal – Like Protists 


Fungal-like protists are multicellular eukaryotes that are absorptive heterotrophs.

  • The job of fungal-like protists are decomposers breaking down dead organic matter.  They improve the quality of dirt by putting nutrients back into the ground.
  • They are most commonly known as the slime molds or water molds.  Do not confuse these with the mold you see growing on food or bread.

30. Are fungal-like protists unicellular OR multicellular?

31. How do they obtain their food?

32. What is the job of the fungal-like protists?

33. Give two examples of a fungal-like protist.


Protists – Review

Click on the box you choose for the correct answer for each question.

34. Protists are

Prokaryote, water based organisms
Eukaryote, water based organisms
Prokaryote, land based organisms
Eukaryote, land based organisms


35. Animal-like protists are often called



36. Animal-like protists are classified by

The way they move.
What they eat.


37. Plant/Algal-like protists are



38. Plant/Algal-like protists are classified by

Color of Pigments


39. Fungal-like protists help the environment by

Decomposing organic matter
Producing oxygen
Producing carbon dioxide
Producing spores