Chemistry Powerpoint Worksheet

Chemistry PowerPoint Notes  

1. What makes up everything in the universe?  

2. Name 2 properties of all matter.  

 

3. Define mass.  

 

4. How does weight differ from mass?  

 

5.What are elements?  

 

6. Name the 4 elements that make up most of a living thing.  

 

7. What is used to represent an element?  

8. Name the smallest part of an element.  

9. What are the 2 main regions of an atom?  

10. Where is the nucleus of an atom found and what does it contain?  

11. What is the charge on a proton?              A neutron?  

12. All atoms of the same element have the ________ number of protons.  

13. The number of protons in an atom determines the _________________________.  

14. What is the charge on an electron?  

15. If you know the number of protons in an atom, how can you determine the number of electrons?  

 

16. Do all the atoms of the same element have the same number of neutrons?  

17. Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons are called ___________.  

18. The mass of an atom is centered in the ___________.  

19. The number of protons PLUS neutrons in an atom determines its ___________________.  

20. What atomic particle has a negative charge?  

21. Why isn’t the mass of an electron used to determine the atomic mass of an element?  

 

22. Where are electrons found?

23. Which electrons in an atom have the most energy?  

24. How many energy levels are there & name them?  

25. How many electrons will each energy level hold?  

 

26. Elements are arranged on a __________________ by their atomic _____________.  

27. What are Periods & what do they tell you about elements?  

 

28.What are Families & what do they tell you about elements?  

 

29. Two or more elements combined together make a _____________.  

30. Chemical ______________ represent compounds.  

31. _____________ are the smallest part of a compound.  

32. ______________ in chemical formulas tell the number of atoms of each element.  

33. _____________ in a formula tell the number of molecules.  

34. Compounds have ____________ properties than its elements.  

35.  The outermost _______________ in elements determine if they will combine.  

36. Elements with ___________ outer energy levels are stable & won’t react.  

37. Why do elements tend to react with other elements?  

 

38. Chemical _____________ represent chemical reactions.  

39. ______________ appear on the right of the equation, while ___________ are on the left.  

40. Chemical bonds store ____________.  

41. How do covalent bonds form?

 

42. How do ions form?

 

43. Positive ions _________ electrons, while negative ions ___________ electrons.  

44.  Define energy.  

 

43. Give some examples of different forms of energy.  

44. Atoms are in constant ________________, which determines the atom’s ____________.  

45.  List the 3 main states of matter.  

46. _______________ energy must be added or removed to change the state of matter.  

47. In reactions the amount of product must ____________ the amount of reactants.  

48. Most of an organism’s energy comes from _____________ in foods.  

49. _______________ reactions release energy.  

50. Give an example of an exergonic reaction in cells.  

51. _________________ reactions store energy.  

52.  Give an example of an endergonic reaction in cells.  

53. Most reactions in cells are _________________.  

54.  _________________ energy is the energy needed to start a reaction.  

55. Catalysts _____________ the amount of activation energy needed.  

56. Catalysts in organisms are called ______________ and are usually ______________.  

57. Enzymes act on ____________ which join at the _______________ site.  

58. Can enzymes be reused?  

59. Redox reactions stands for _________________________ reactions.  

60. The oxidized substance _____________ electrons & becomes _____________ charged.  

61. The reduced substance _____________ electrons & becomes _____________ charged.  

62. Define solution.

 

63. The _____________ is dissolved in the ____________ in a solution.  

64. _______________ is the universal solvent.  

65. A solution becomes _____________ when no more solute will dissolve.  

66. ______________ solutions have water as the solvent & are important to ______________.  

67. What is the dissociation of water?

 

68. Write the equation for this.

 

69.  OH is the ______________ ion, while H+ is the ______________ ion.  

70. Acids produce _____________ ions, while bases have an excess of ________ ions.  

71. The _______ scale measures the concentration of H+ ions and goes from ____________.  

72. From 0 to 7 are ___________, a pH of 7 is __________, & above 7 to 14 are _________.  

73. _____________ are used in the body to control pH and keep it near a pH of ______ or neutral.  

 

Catalase Peroxide Lab

 

 

Enzyme Rate of Catalase

 

 

Introduction:

Enzymes are molecular substances found in cells.  Enzymes act as catalysts and most are proteins.  Enzymes bind temporarily to one or more of the reactants of the reaction they catalyze. In doing so, they lower the amount of activation energy needed and thus speed up the reaction.
 Not only do enzymes economize energy usage, but also provide a variety of other functions. Cells uses an enzyme (catalase) to rid itself of a poisonous substance (hydrogen peroxide). The rate at which this occurs depends on the amount of catalase that is available. In this lab we are going to measure the time it takes for a disc of filter paper, soaked with different concentrations of enzyme, to make its way to the top of a plastic vial filled with peroxide.  Rate of enzyme activity = distance (depth of hydrogen peroxide in mm)/time (in sec).

Catalase catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.  One molecule of catalase can break 40 million molecules of hydrogen peroxide each second.

catalase
2H2O2 —–> 2H2O + O2

Objectives:

Students will prepare various dilute solutions from a 100% enzyme solution.
Students will determine how enzyme concentration affects reaction rate.

 

Materials:

6 medicine cups for dilutions, *catalase stock solution, clear plastic vial, forceps, 18 filter paper disks, Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2), paper towel, apron, safety glasses, watch with second hand, marker, metric ruler, calculator

* The enzyme has been prepared for you as follows: 50g of peeled potato was mixed with 50 ml cold distilled water and crushed ice and homogenized in a blender for 30 seconds. This extract was filtered through cheesecloth and cold distilled water was added to a total volume of 100 ml. Extract concentration is arbitrarily set at 100 units/ml. ENZYME SHOULD BE KEPT ON ICE AT ALL TIMES!!

Procedure:

  1. Make a series of dilutions of the enzyme catalase using the following table.

 

Final Quantity NeededConcentration of Final SolutionmL of CatalasemL of Water
10 ml100%c100
10 ml80%82
10 ml60%64
10 ml40%46
10 ml20%28
10 ml0%010

 

 

  1. Use a marking pencil and mark the enzyme solutions as follows: 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, 20%, and 0%.
  2.  Fill a clear vial with 20 mL of hydrogen peroxide.
  3. Using your forceps, pick up one filter paper disk and submerge it in the 100% enzyme solution for 5 seconds. Continue to hold the disk with the forceps.
  4. Using your forceps, pick up one filter paper disk and submerge it in the 100% enzyme solution for 5 seconds. Continue to hold the disk with the forceps.
  5. Remove the disk from the solution and blot it dry, for five seconds, using your paper towel.
  6. Drop the disk in the hydrogen peroxide and measure the time it takes for the disk to rise up from the bottom. Begin timing as soon as the disk touches the surface of the hydrogen peroxide.
  7. Use the metric ruler to measure the distance the disk sinks into the hydrogen peroxide. multiply by two to determine the entire distance the disk traveled. Enter the time and distance the disk traveled in the column for Trial 1 in the data table below.

 

 

% Catalase

Time in seconds

Distance in millimeters

Reaction Rate mm/s
Trial 1Trial 2Trial 3Avg.Trial 1Trial 2Trial 3Avg.
100
80
60
40
20
0

 

  1. Repeat the above steps for the remainder of the solutions. Remember to use clean filter paper each time you use a different solution. Enter the times and distances for trial 2 and 3 in their appropriate columns.

Analysis & Conclusion:

1. Which concentration of catalase had the fastest reaction time?

2. Which concentration of catalase had the slowest reaction time?

3. What is catalase & why is it important to cells in your body?

 

 

4. How did you know that catalase was present in the above compounds?

 

5. What 2 substances form when catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide?

 

6. What type of organic compound is catalase?

7. Produce a line graph of the above data. Use the enzyme concentration as the independent variable and the reaction rate as the dependent variable.

Graph Title:__________________________________________________

Legend:

8.  Based on the graph and overall slope of the line, what can you conclude about the effect of enzyme concentration on reaction rate?

 

 

 

Catalase Bi Sample Lab 2

 

 

Enzyme Rate of Reaction for Catalase

 

Introduction:
Life would not be possible without chemical reactions. Chemical reactions are responsible for speeding up the process. A chemical reaction is the process of breaking chemical bonds, forming new bonds or both. The four things that can speed up a chemical reaction is heat, increasing the concentration of reactants, decreasing the concentration of products, and enzymes. Enzyme is a catalase, most the time a protein. Enzymes can control the rate of a reaction, and they also lower activation energy. Enzymes are important in regulating chemical pathways, synthesizing materials needed by cells, releasing energy, and transferring information. Enzymes are involved in digestion, respiration, vision, movement, and thought. There are several things that can affect the function of enzymes like temperature, the pH, and the amount of reactant or product. Simple cells may have as many as 2000 different enzymes, each one catalyzing a different reaction. In this particular lab, your hands act as the enzyme “Catalase”. This enzyme, which is found in your cells, splits hydrogen peroxide, a byproduct made by your cells during cellular respiration,  into water and oxygen.

 

Hypothesis:
If  time is increased, then more hydrogen peroxide molecules will be split into water and oxygen

 

Materials:
The materials used in this lab were pencils, scissors, envelope, 100 paper hydrogen peroxide molecules, and a watch with a second hand so that a person would be able to keep time for the person tearing the strips.

 

Methods:
Take a paper template and cut out 100 hydrogen peroxide molecules. Place the cut out pieces into an envelope. Then have a person act as a catalase and take one piece of the paper molecules out of the envelope at a time and rip it in two and  place the pieces back into the envelope. Have a person hold the envelope person, while another student keeps track of the “tearing” time intervals (10, 20, 30 ,60, and 60 seconds). Count how many molecules are  ripped at the end of each time interval and record this number in your data table. When all time intervals and counts are completed, use the formula below to figure the reaction rate for catalase. Record this rate in  your data table.
M2 – M1 = reaction rate
T2 – T1

Results:

 

 

Time in seconds

 

Ripped Hydrogen Peroxide Molecules

 

Rate of reaction

 

0-10

3.3
 

10-30

10.35
 

30-60

24.47
 

60-120

63.65
 

120-180

1241.02

 

1. What is an enzyme? What are its functions in living things?
Enzymes are proteins in living systems. Enzymes can control the rate of a reaction, and they lower activation energy.

 

2. Name several things things that can affect the function of an enzyme?
Temperature, the amount of reactant or product and the pH.

3. Write the chemical equation for the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by the enzyme catalase.
hydrogen peroxide + catalase yields water + oxygen

4. An enzyme’s efficiency increases with greater substrate concentration, but only up to a point. Why?
all of the active sites of the enzymes become filled with hydrogen peroxide molecules

 

5. If you were allowed to continue this lab and rip hydrogen peroxide molecules for 240 and 300 seconds. What would happen to the rate of reaction and why would this happen?
It would increase.

 

6. What can you say about the length of time and the rate of the reaction?
The less time, the more the reaction rate is lowered, and the more time, the more the reaction rate is higher.

 

7. What would happen to the rate of reaction if you remove the water  and oxygen molecules as soon as they are produced?
It would be faster.

 

Error Analysis:
All pieces must be returned to the envelope each time interval to correctly simulate what occurs within a cell.

 

Discussion and Conclusion:
As the time intervals increased, the reaction rate of catalase increased also. In a living cell, more hydrogen peroxide would be broken down by catalase over a longer period of time.

Catalase Lab Sample 1

 

 

Enzyme Rate of Reaction for Catalase

 

Introduction:
Enzymes are an important part of life that regulate chemical reactions with in the body. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions in four different ways, one way is heat, another is increasing the rate of reactants, the third way is decreasing the amount of products and the fourth way is enzymes, which speed up reaction without themselves being used up. Enzymes are also involved in digestion, respiration, reproduction, vision, movement, thought, and also in the productions of other enzymes. Simple cells may have as many as 2000 enzymes with each one catalyzing a different reaction. An enzyme can speed up a reaction making it 10, 000,000,000 times faster. An enzyme is a catalyst. A catalyst is a chemical that reduces the amount of activation interim needed for a reaction. Without enzymes a reaction would take much longer than if it had and enzyme. Enzymes also the control the rate and direction of the reaction.
Without catalysts chemical reactions would take much longer that the average human life expectancy. So that would mean that in 76 years only a couple chemical reactions would take place. Since our bodies have enzymes though hundreds of chemical reactions a day. If our bodies didn’t have catalysts our bodily cells couldn’t function. Some bacteria, however, possess a defense mechanism which can minimize the harm done by the two compounds. These resistant bacteria use two enzymes to catalyze the conversion of hydrogen peroxide  back into diatomic oxygen and water. One of these enzymes is catalase and its presence can be detected by a simple test. The catalase test involves adding hydrogen peroxide to a cultures sample or an agar slant.

 

Hypothesis:
The reaction rate of catalase splitting hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen will increase over time.

Materials:
The materials used consisted of 100 paper H2O2 molecules, a data table, paper, pencil, calculator, scissors, watch with a second hand, and an enzyme rate of reaction catalase worksheet.

Methods:
Cut out 100 hydrogen peroxide paper molecules. Double check to make sure there are only 100 paper molecules and place them in an envelope. Then one person will keep track of the time while another person acts as a catalase and tears the paper hydrogen peroxide molecules in half. The torn paper molecules should be returned to the envelope each time. Another person times the person acting as the catalase.  The time intervals in which the paper molecules are to be ripped are 10 seconds, 20 seconds, 30 seconds, and two different 60second periods of time. The results should be  recorded in a data table. The reaction rate for catalase is figured using the formula:
M2 – M1 = Reaction Rate
T2  –  T1

 

Results:

 

 

Time in Seconds Ripped H2O2 MoleculesRate of Reaction
0-105.5
10-3013.4
30-6031.6
60-12061.5
120-18091.5

 

1. What is an enzyme? What are its functions in living things?
chemicals that reduce the amount of activation energy needed for reactions to occur; they are proteins in cells that control metabolic reactions

 

2. Name several things that can affect the functioning of an enzyme.
temperature, pH, and the amount of reactant or product

 

3. Write the chemical equation for the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by the enzyme catalase.
H2O2   +   Catalase –>  H2O  + O2

 

4. An enzyme’s efficiency increases with greater substrate concentration, but only up to a point. Why?
once all active sites are filled, the enzyme’s reaction rate won’t continue increasing

 

5. If you were allowed to continue this lab and rip hydrogen peroxide molecules for 240 and 300 seconds, what would happen to the reaction rate and why would this happen?
there would be more molecules ripped because of the increased amount of time

 

6. What can you say about the length of time and the reaction rate?
The more time available, the faster the reaction will occur.

 

7. What would happen to the reaction rate if you removed the water and oxygen molecules as soon as they were produced?
The rate of reaction would go even faster

 

Error Analysis:
The counting of the time  may have been off a couple of seconds.

 

Discussion and Conclusion:
The data shows that the more time there is, the more hydrogen peroxide molecules will be ripped. The catalase in the lab ripped about 6 molecules every 5 seconds. The same thing occurs in a cell as more hydrogen peroxide is produced, catalase speeds up breaking down this waste into water and oxygen.

 

Bioenergetics Powerpoint Worksheet

Bioenergetics
ppt Questions

Energy

1. What is bioenergetics?

 

2. All organisms require ____________ to perform their functions.

3. Name the 2 main kinds of energy.

4. What is kinetic energy?

 

5. Give 2 examples of kinetic energy.

 

6. What is potential energy?

 

7. Potential energy is stored in ____________ __________.

Two Types of Energy Reactions

8. What is an endergonic reaction?

 

9. Give an example of an endergonic reaction.

 

10. What serves as the energy for photosynthesis?

11. During photosynthesis, the light energy is stored in the chemical bonds of what sugar?

12. What are the two raw materials (reactants) for photosynthesis?

13. What is an exergonic reaction?

 

14. Give an example of an exergonic reaction.

15. Where does the energy for cellular respiration come from?

 

16. Energy released during cellular respiration that can be used by cells is called _________.

Metabolic Reactions of Cells

17. Define metabolism of cells.

 

18. From what compound do animals get their energy (ATP) to do cellular work?

19. Name the 2 types of metabolism.

 

20. Explain anabolic pathways and give an example.

 

 

21. Explain catabolic pathways and give an example.

 

 

22. The energy that drives catabolic pathways in organisms comes from breaking _____________ ___________ and producing the energy molecule ___________.

Cellular Energy – ATP

23. Name the 3 components that make up ATP.

     a.

     b.

     c.

24. How many phosphate groups are in ATP?

25. The last two phosphate groups on ATP are bonded with ___________ ___________ bonds.

26. Which phosphate bond contains the MOST energy?

27. Give the formula for a phosphate group.

28. Name the process that breaks the bonds of ATP to release energy.

29. How often does phosphorylation occur in cells?

 

30. What enzyme weakens the last phosphate bond so it can be broken?

31. Organisms use ___________ to break down energy-rich __________ to release the potential  energy stored in its bonds.

32. Energy released from the chemical bonds of glucose are trapped & stored in ________ until a cell needs energy.

33. What does ATP stand for?

34. How much ATP do cells use?

 

35. What coupled reactions make ATP and then release its energy.

 

36. Is hydrolysis exergonic or endergonic?

37. Is energy stored or released during hydrolysis?

38. Is dehydration exergonic or endergonic?

39. Is energy stored or released in dehydration?

40. When ATP is broken down to release energy, what two things form?

 

41. During hydrolysis of ATP, a molecule of ___________ is added to split the ________ phosphate bond.

42. What happens to the energy released from the hydrolysis of ATP?

 

43. During dehydration of ATP, a molecule of ___________ is removed to join a free phosphate and __________ making more ATP again.

44. Where is the energy stored in the dehydration process to form ATP?

 

Review

45. How many high-energy phosphate bonds does ATP have?

46. Is photosynthesis anabolic or catabolic?

47. Is photosynthesis exergonic or endergonic?

48. The breakdown of ATP is due to hydrolysis or dehydration?

49. Water is added or removed in the breakdown of ATP?

50. Which of the following are coupled reactions in organisms:

     a. hydrolysis – dehydration?

     b. Anabolism – Catabolism?

     c. Endergonic – Exergonic?