DNA & Protein Synthesis Chapter 10 Worksheet


    DNA & Protein Synthesis


Section 10-1 DNA

1. What does DNA stand for?

2. What is DNA’s primary function?

3. What is the function of proteins?

4. What are the repeating subunits called that make up DNA?

5. Name the 3 parts of a DNA nucleotide.

6. Sketch and label a DNA nucleotide.

7. Name the 4 nitrogen bases on DNA.

8. What is the difference between a purine & a pyrimidine?

9. Name 2 purines.

10. Name 2 pyrimidines.

11.Who is responsible for determining the structure of the DNA molecule & in what year was this done?

12. The model of DNA is known as a ____________________________ because it is composed of two ___________________ chains wrapped around each other.

13. What makes up the sides of a DNA molecule?

14. What makes up the “steps” of a DNA molecule?

15. How did Rosalind Franklin contribute to determining the structure of DNA?

16. What type of bonds holds the DNA bases together? Are they strong or weak bonds?

17. What makes up the “backbone” of the DNA molecule?

18. On DNA, a ____________________ base will always pair with a __________________ base.

19. What is the most common form of DNA found in organisms?

20. How many base pairs are in a full turn or twist of a DNA molecule?

21. Name the complementary base pairs on DNA.

22. How many hydrogen bonds link cytosine & guanine? adenine & thymine?

23. How does the nucleotide sequence in one chain of DNA compare with the other chain of DNA?

24. Why must DNA be able to make copies of itself?

25. Define DNA replication.

26. What is the first step that must occur in DNA replication?

27. What acts as the template in DNA replication?

28. What is a replication fork?

29. What enzymes help separate the 2 strands of nucleotides on DNA? What bonds do they break?

30. What is the function of DNA polymerases?

31. ____________________ are joined to replicating strands of DNA by ________________ bonds.

32. If the sequence of nucleotides on the original DNA strand was A – G – G – C – T – A, what would be the nucleotide sequence on the complementary strand of DNA?

33. Does replication of DNA begin at one end and proceed to the other? Explain.

34. Why does DNA replication take place at many places on the molecule simultaneously?

35. When replication is complete, how do the 2 new DNA molecules compare to each other & the original DNA molecule?

36. Is DNA replicated (copied) before or after cell division?

37. Sketch & label DNA replication. (Figure 10-5, page 188)

38. What is the error rate in DNA replication? What helps lower this error rate to 1 in 1 billion nucleotides?

39. What is a mutation?

40. Name several things that can cause DNA mutations.


Section 10-2 RNA


41. What sugar is found on DNA?

42. What base is missing on RNA, & what other base replaces it?

43. Uracil will pair with what other on DNA?

44. Is RNA double or single stranded?

45. Name the 3 types of RNA and tell the shape of each.

46. Which type of RNA copies DNA’s instructions in the nucleus?

47. Which type of RNA is most abundant?

48. What does tRNA transport?

49. What 2 things make up ribosomes?

50. Define transcription.

51. In what part of a cell are proteins made?

52. What is RNA polymerase & tell its function.

53. What are promoters?

54. Where does RNA polymerase bind to the DNA it is transcribing?

55.What makes the beginning of a new gene on DNA in eukaryotes?

56. What do promoters mark the beginning of on prokaryotic DNA?

57. When a promoter binds to DNA, What happens to the double helix?

58. Are both strands of DNA copied during transcription?

59. As RNA polymerase moves along the DNA template strand, what is being added?

60. What bases pair with each other during transcription?

61. What is the termination signal?

62. What happens when RNA polymerase reaches the termination signal?

63. What are the products of transcription called?

64. Transcripts are actually ____________________________ molecules.

65. In transcription, ________________________’s instructions for making a protein

are copied by _______________________.

66. Which RNA molecules are involved in the synthesis (making) of a protein?

67. What happens to the newly made mRNA molecule following transcription in the nucleus?


Section 10-3 Protein Synthesis


68. What makes up proteins, what are the subunits called, & what bonds them together?

69. How many different kinds of amino acids make up proteins?

70. What determines how protein polypeptides fold into 3-dimensional structures?

71. Why does a protein need a 3-dimensional structure?

72. What is the genetic code & why is it important?

73. What is a codon & what does each codon code for?

74. How many codons exist?

75. Name the amino acid coded for by each of these codons:

a. UUA

b. AUU

c. UGU

d. AAA

e. GAG

f. UAA

76. What codon starts protein synthesis?

77. What codons stop protein synthesis?

78. Proteins are synthesized (made) at what organelle in the cytosol?

79. Sketch and label a tRNA molecule & tell its function.

80. Define translation & tell how it starts.

81. Where are amino acids found in a cell & how are they transported?

82. What is an anticodon & where is it found on tRNA?

83. What codon on mRNA would bind with these anticodons: (use table 10-1, page 194)

a. AAA

b. GGA

c. UAC

d. CGU

84. What are ribosomes made of and in what 2 places can they be found in a cell?

85. What is the difference between proteins made by free ribosomes & those made by attached, membrane proteins on the ER?

86. How many binding sites are found on the ribosomes and what does each site hold?

87. To start making a protein or _________________________________, a ribosome attaches to the ______________________________ codon on the __________________ transcript.

88. The start codon, AUG, pairs with what anticodon on a tRNA molecule?

89. What amino acid does the start codon always carry?

90. What type of bonds are the ones that attach amino acids to each other in a growing polypeptide?

91. __________________________ are linked to make proteins as a ______________________ moves along the mRNA transcript.

92. What ends translation?

93. Can more than one ribosome at a time translate an mRNA transcript? Explain.

94. What determines the primary structure of a protein?

95. What would the translation of these mRNA transcripts produce?



Floating Leaf Disk Assay


The Floating Leaf Disk Assay for Investigating Photosynthesis

Brad Williamson




Trying to find a good, quantitative procedure that students can use for exploring photosynthesis is a challenge. The standard procedures such as counting oxygen bubbles generated by an elodea stem tend to not be “student” proof or reliable. This is a particular problem if your laboratory instruction emphasizes student-generated questions. Over the years, I’ve found that the floating leaf disk assay technique to be reliable and understandable to students. Once the students are familiar with the technique they can readily design experiments to answer their own questions about photosynthesis. I plan to add to this page as I have time to elaborate on the technique and provide suggestions for modifications.




1.                Sodium bicarbonate (Baking soda)

2.               Liquid Soap

3.               Plastic syringe (10 cc or larger)—remove any needle!

4.               Leaf material

5.               Hole punch

6.               Plastic cups

7.               Timer

8.               Light source




Buffer Solutions

Colored Cellophane or filters

Leaf material of different ages

Variegated leaf material

Clear Nail polish







  1. Prepare 300 ml of bicarbonate solution for each trial.
    1. The bicarbonate serves as an alternate dissolved source of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. Prepare a 0.2% solution. (This is not very much—it’s about 1/8 of a teaspoon of baking soda in 300 ml of water.) Too much bicarbonate will cause small bubbles (CO2)to form on the surface of the leaf which will make it difficult to sink the leaf disk.
    2. Add 1 drop of dilute liquid soap to this solution. The soap wets the hydrophobic surface of the leaf allowing the solution to be drawn into the leaf. It’s difficult to quantify this since liquid soaps vary in concentration. Avoid suds. If your solution generates suds then dilute it with more bicarbonate solution.


  1. Cut 10 or more uniform leaf disks for each trial

    1. Single hole punches work well for this but stout plastic straws will work as well
    2. Choice of the leaf material is perhaps the most critical aspect of this procedure. The leaf surface should be smooth and not too thick. Avoid plants with hairy leaves. Ivy, fresh spinach, Wisconsin Fast Plant cotyledons—all work well. Ivy seems to provide very consistent results. Any number of plants work. My classes have found that in the spring, Pokeweed may be the best choice.
    3. Avoid major veins.


  1. Infiltrate the leaf disks with sodium bicarbonate solution.
    1. Remove the piston or plunger and place the leaf disks into the syringe barrel. Replace the plunger being careful not to crush the leaf disks. Push on the plunger until only a small volume of air and leaf disk remain in the barrel (< 10%).

    1. Pull a small volume of sodium bicarbonate solution into the syringe. Tap the syringe to suspend the leaf disks in the solution.


    1. Holding a finger over the syringe-opening, draw back on the plunger to create a vacuum. Hold this vacuum for about 10 seconds. While holding the vacuum, swirl the leaf disks to suspend them in the solution. Let off the vacuum. The bicarbonate solution will infiltrate the air spaces in the leaf causing the disks to sink. You will probably have to repeat this procedure several times in order to get the disks to sink. You may have difficulty getting the disks to sink even after applying a vacuum three or four times. Generally, this is usually an indication that you need more soap in the bicarbonate solution. Some leaf surfaces are more water repellent than others are. Adding a bit more soap usually solves the problem.


  1. Pour the disks and solution into a clear plastic cup. Add bicarbonate solution to a depth of about 3 centimeters. Use the same depth for each trial. Shallower depths work just as well.

    1. This experimental setup includes a control. The leaf disks in the cup on the right were infiltrated with a water solution with a drop of soap—no bicarbonate.


  1. Place under the light source and start the timer. At the end of each minute, record the number of floating disks. Then swirl the disks to dislodge any that are stuck against the sides of the cups. Continue until all of the disks are floating.

    1. The control is on the left in each image. In the experimental treatment, on the right, leaf disks are rising and floating on the surface.


  1. Sample results:


Time (minutes)Disk Floating


  1. The point at which 50% of the leaf disks are floating is the point of reference for this procedure. By interpolating from the graph, the 50% floating point is about 11.5 minutes. Using the 50% point provides a greater degree of reliability and repeatability for this procedure.


1st Semester Test Review 2004-05


First Semester Review  2004-05      


What are the smallest units that can carry on life functions called?
Living things are composed of ______________.
Give an example of a scientific observation.
What is a hypothesis?
What 3 things compose an atom?
Matter is made of ________________.
When atoms gain energy, what happens to electrons?
Do  cells contain a few or thousands of different kinds of enzymes?
__________________ reactions are important in organisms because they allow the passage of energy from one molecule to another.
What is a polar molecule?
Water molecules break up other polar substances. Give an example of such a polar molecule.
What happens to ionic compounds in water?
Which is not a carbohydrate —– glycogen, steroids, cellulose, or sugars?
Amino acids are the monomers for making ________________.
Is ice an example of an organic molecule?
The type & order of the amino acids determines the ___________ of a protein.
Very active cells need more of which organelle?
What organelle is the packaging & distribution center of the cell?
What membrane surrounds the nucleus?
What is the function of mitochondria. Sketch their shape.
Where is chlorophyll found in plants?
Diffusion takes place from ________________ concentration to ___________.
If a cell has a high water content, will it lose or gain water?
Ink dispersing in a beaker is an example of ________________.
Very large molecules enter cells by a process called ________________.
Endocytosis and exocytosis occur in ______________ directions across a cell membrane.
What is photosynthesis?
Where do the dark reactions of photosynthesis take place?
When chlorophyll absorbs light energy ATP is made and what other energy carrying molecule?
When chlorophyll absorbs light energy, what happens to its electrons?
_______________ molecules are responsible for the photosystems.
Electrons that have absorbed energy & moved to a higher energy level enter what chain?
When cells break down food molecules, energy is temporarily stored in what molecule?
When muscles do not get enough oxygen, what acid forms during exercise?
If you are growing bacteria in a culture and lactic acids starts to form, the bacteria are not getting enough of what gas?
The 2 stages of cellular respiration are _____________ & oxidative respiration.
Citric acid forms in which cycle during cellular respiration?
ATP molecules are formed inside what cellular organelle?
What is the study of life called?


2006 1st Semester Test Guide

First Semester Test 2006 Study Guide


1. What is the study of life called?

2. Instructions for traits passed from parent to offspring?

3. Keeping things stable or the same in cells?

4. Smallest units that can carry on life?

5. All living things require _________ for metabolism.

6. All living things are made of __________.

7. Salamanders with curved tails in polluted water are an example of which part of the scientific method?

8. The smallest part of carbon with all the same properties is called?

9. Where are electrons found in an atom & what is their charge?


10. When electrons gain energy they move to _____________________.

11. How many covalent bonds can carbon form?

12. Compounds may form from the transfer or __________ of electrons.

13. What happens to ionic compounds when placed in water?


14. Ionic bonds form from the ____________ of electrons.

15. Covalent bonds form from the ___________ of electrons.

16. What element do all organic compounds contain?

17. Give several examples of carbohydrates.



18. In what from do animals store glucose?

19. What are the monomers for proteins?

20. Is the following model a carbohydrate, lipid, or protein?

21. Sketch a fatty acid chain found in lipids.

22. What type of fatty acids contains double bonds?

23. Name the 2 nucleic acids.

24. When the volume of a cell increases, what happens to the surface area?



25. How does a prokaryotic cell differ from a eukaryotic cell?



26. What’s the job of the plasma membrane?


27. Parts of cells performing specific functions are called?

28. The ER sends proteins & lipids it makes to the __________ to be modified.

29. The Golgi ships & receives cell products in transport ___________.

30. In what organelle is ATP produced?

31. Ribosomes make ____________.

32. All eukaryotic cells have a ___________ containing the genetic material.

33. Diffusion occurs in what direction?

34. What is osmosis?

35. Ink dissolving in water is an example of _____________.

36. Riding of cell wastes in sacs is called _____________.

37. What is the effect of placing a plant into a hypertonic solution?


38. What is the ultimate energy for life on Earth?

39. Grana are suspended in the _________ of chloroplasts.

40. ____________ absorbs light energy for plants.

41. What happens to chlorophyll’s electrons when they absorb sunlight?

42. What is the source of oxygen in photosynthesis?

43. What gas is a byproduct of photosynthesis?

44. What type of skeleton do insects have?

45. The Calvin cycle occurs in what process?

46. The breaking down of food to release energy is called?

47. __________ builds up in heavily exercised muscles.

48. Name the 3 parts of cellular respiration.


49. How many chromosomes are in a human egg or sperm cell?

50. DNA compacts itself by wrapping around ____________.

51. How do insects help crops?


Writing Lab Notebook Reports



General Instructions:

  1. All labs must be written in pencil and be submitted to the teacher in a spiral notebook.
  2. Always use third person (NO personal pronouns — me, I, you, we, etc.) when writing all parts of a lab report. (USE HE, SHE, THEY, THEIR, THEM, ETC.
  3. The following things should be written clearly in marker on the front cover — “Subject” Lab Notebook, teacher name, student name, period.
  4. Number each page of the spiral notebook in the lower right hand corner.
  5. On Page 1, write the subject, year, student name, class period, and teacher name.
  6. Page 2 should have “Table of Contents” written at the top and two columns, one for “Page” and the other for “Lab Title”.
  7. Begin writing the first lab on page 3 of you notebook. DO NOT WRITE ON THE BACK OF YOUR PAPER!
  9. TITLE and UNDERLINE each section & then begin writing on the NEXT LINE!

Your lab report should be written using the following format: (Be sure to left align & underline headings)

Title (center on top line; on the right of line 2, put date & lab #)
The title should indicate clearly & concisely the subject and scope of the report.

Introduction – 20 points (PARAGRAPH FORM)

  • The introduction should give background information about the experiment.
  • It should also state the purpose of the investigation.
  • This section will be two or more paragraphs in length.

Hypothesis – 20 points (SINGLE SENTENCE)

  • The hypothesis should be a single statement telling the exact thing you are trying to prove in your experiment.
  • NEVER write this statement using “first person”. Write the hypothesis in past tense (third person.)

Materials – 5 points (SINGLE SENTENCE)

  • This section should be written in sentence form and name all of the materials and equipment used.
  • Be sure to include specific amounts and concentrations of chemicals used.
  • Start the statement, “The materials used include _____, _____, etc.”

Methods (Procedure)- 5 points (STEPS; NUMBER)

  • This section includes the step-by-step procedures used.
  • The procedure should be so thorough that someone else could use your listed materials and procedures to conduct the same experiment and get the same results.

Results (Data & Questions) – 20 points

  • All data should be collected and organized in a logical order. Results should be illustrated as charts, tables, graphs, &/or diagrams. All graphs should include a title, the independent variable labeled on the horizontal axis, and the dependent variable labeled on the vertical axis.
  • All lab questions and answers should be included also with this section. ( NUMBER & UNDERLINE the questions & then write, but DON’T UNDERLINE the answers)

Error Analysis

  • Include any important factors that you think may have actually affected your results.

Discussion and Conclusion – 30 points

Discussion is the most important part of your report, because here, you show that you understand the experiment beyond the simple level of completing it.!!

  • This is where you give a detailed account of what happened in the experiment.
  • Explain all observations and results in your experiment.
  • Analyze and interpret why these results were obtained.
  • Be sure to tell the significance or meaning of the results.
  • Restate the original hypothesis and explain whether the experiment succeeded. If the hypothesis was not correct, you should analyze why the results were not as predicted.
  • Explain experimental errors that appear in the results.


Additional help with Conclusions


Click here for Notebook paper Layout of Lab