Preap Biochemistry Study Guide


Biochemistry Review 


1. Molecules with a slightly negative end and a slightly positive end are called ___________________  _____________________________.

2. A monomer of protein is called an __________________  __________________.

3. An attractive force between like particles is called ___________________________.

4. Organic molecules that catalyze reactions in living systems are ______________________.

5. The compound found in living things that supplies the energy in one of its chemical bonds directly to cells is ______________________.

6. Enzymes lower activation energy by___________ to the ____________________ and ______________________ bonds within the ________________________.

7. The monomers that make up nucleic acids are called __________________________.

8. The type of attraction that holds two water molecules together is called __________________________  __________________________.

9. The sharing of three pairs of electrons is called a ___________________  _____________.

10.  The structural building block that determines the characteristics of a compound is called the _____________________________  _______________________.

11.  Large carbon compounds are built from smaller molecules called ______________________________.

12.  What is the type of reaction that forms large molecules from smaller ones? _________________________________  _____________________________.

13.  What type of reaction breaks large molecules into smaller ones? _______________________

14.  What is the by product of a condensation reaction? __________________________

15.  The attractive force between unlike particles is called ____________________________.

16.  A compound that is stored as glycogen in animals and as a starch in plants is ____________________________________.

17.  Lipids are good energy storage molecules because they have many _________________-___________________ bonds.

18.  What are the components of many lipids? ________________________  ______________________

19.  What is the monomer of many polysaccharides? ______________________________

20.  What kind of reaction allows amino acids to become linked together? ________________________________  _____________________________.

21.  Nucleic acids function primarily to carry __________________________  ____________________ and direct _____________________  ______________________.

22. Tends not to react with water, “Water Fearing”  ________________________________

23. Attracted to water molecules, “Water Loving” _________________________________

24. Water is called a ___________________________  ___________________________.
DIRECTIONS: Read Chapter 3, Biochemistry, and Answer the questions below as completely and as thoroughly as possible. Answer the question in essay form (not outline form), using complete sentences. You may use diagrams or pictures to supplement your answers, but a diagram or picture alone without appropriate discussion is inadequate.

1. Describe the structure of a water molecule, and explain how the electrical charge is distributed over the molecule.

2. Describe the structure of amino acids and proteins.

3. What are the structural differences between monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides?

4. What is capillarity? Include defining Adhesion and Cohesion.

5. How does a condensation reaction differ from a hydrolysis reaction?

6. Give Three reasons why water is an effective solvent.

7. What is an organic compound?

8. What property allows carbon compounds to exist in a number of forms?

9. The presence of four electrons in the outermost energy level of a carbon atom enables
carbon atoms to form what THREE Things.

10. Living things contain many different proteins of vastly different shapes and functions.
What determines the shape and thus the function of a particular protein?

11. How does the structure of a phospholipid, linear molecules with a polar end and a
nonpolar end, relate to their function in the cell membrane?


Preap Articles


PreAP Biology Articles to Abstract

       An abstract is a summary or synopsis of an article in a journal or magazine.  The purpose of preparing an abstract is to acquaint you with scientific literature and to expose you to current topics in biology.

Special Instructions:

·         Articles to be abstracted must be at least two pages (text) in length.

·         Work cited must be included at the top of the abstract page.

·         Triple space between the citation & the start of your paper

·         Abstracts must be handwritten and at least two and a half pages in length.  (DO NOT WRITE ON THE BACK!)

  • Write your name and period at the top of the abstract.




MLA Style Periodical Citation:

Author. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine Date: Page(s).


Milton, Katherine. “Diet and Primate Evolution.” Scientific American August 1993: 86-94.



Abstracts DUE 1st  Wednesday of each month August – May.
(Two abstracts due in January – first & 3rd Tuesday.)

Preap Assignments Sem2

Updated May 2007

Third Nine Weeks

Week of January 8 assignments:
Read & outline chapter 10 on Nucleic Acids; PowerPoint: Nucleic Acids & protein Synthesis; chapter 10 outline due

Week of January 14 assignments:

Chapter 10 study guide; Lab: Strawberry DNA; Chapter 10 TEST on Nucleic Acids; Read & outline chapters 8 & 12 on genetics

Week of January 21 assignments: 

PowerPoint on genetics; Monohybrid crosses & ratios; Chapter 8 outline due

I have a Dream!  Martin Luther King Holiday

Week of January 28 assignments:
Lab: Karyotyping; Work genetics problems; Notes on genetic disorders; genetics review; TEST on chapters * & 12 genetics; Read chapters 13 & 14 on evolution

Week of February 4 assignments:
Cover section 14.1 and chapter 15 on Charles Darwin & natural selection; Lab: Natural Selection in Peanuts

Week of February 11 assignments:  Interims
study guide on evolution; TEST on chapters13 & 14 Evolution; Read & outline chapter 18 on Taxonomy; PowerPoint notes on taxonomy; Peanut lab write up due

Week of February 18 assignments:
Practice taxonomic keying; Complete taxonomy notes; Chapter 18 TEST on Taxonomy; Read & outline chapters 24 & 25 on bacteria & viruses

Monday Holiday — President’s Day!

Parent-Teacher Conference!

Week of February 25 assignments: 
Notes on Bacteria & Viruses; Assign Virus model to build; Chapter 24 outline due

Week of March 3 assignments:
Notes on Sponges & Cnidarians; Assign Invertebrate drawings; study guide & take online quiz; Continue Koch’s lab

Week of March 10 assignments: 

Complete Virus notes; Virus model due; Chapter 25 outline due; TEST on Bacteria & Viruses; Handout & worksheet on plant unit

Week of March 17 assignments:
Cover nonvascular plants, angiosperms, & gymnosperms

Spring Break March 26 – 30!

End of Third Nine weeks

  Pre -AP Biology        Biology I

Fourth Nine Weeks

Week of March 24 assignments: Monday, Teacher Professional development!

Plant worksheet due; review for plant test; *UNIT TEST on Plants; Assign ecosystem collage; Start answering ecology unit worksheet

Week of March 31 assignments:

Work on and finish ecology unit worksheet; review for ecology test; TEST on Ecology; Read & outline chapter 35 on Sponges & Cnidarians

Good Friday, April 4th!


Week of April 7 assignments:    

Ecosystem Collage due!; Notes on Sponges & Cnidarians; study guide; Test on Chapter 35 Sponges & Cnidarians; read & outline chapter 36 on Round & Flat worms

Week of April 14 assignments:
Notes on worms; Chapter 36 outline due; read & outline chapter 37 on Mollusks & Annelids; notes on mollusks & annelids

Week of April 23 assignments:  Interims 

Biology End-of-Course Exam on Monday, April 16-17th!

Dissect earthworm; *TEST on chapters 36 & 37 Worms & Mollusks; Read & outline chapters 38 & 39 on Arthropods & Insects; Start notes on arthropods

Week of April 30 assignments:
Notes on Insects; review for arthropod test; TEST on chapters 38 & 39 Insects & other Arthropods; read & outline Chapter 40 on Echinoderms

Week of May 7 assignments:
Notes on Echinoderms; Dissect starfish; TEST on Chapter 40 Echinoderms; Read & outline chapters 41 & 42 on fish & amphibians; Assign vertebrate/invertebrate project

Week of May 14 assignments:
Notes on fish & amphibians; fish & amphibian outlines due; read & outline chapter 43 on reptiles

Click frog for jokes

Week of May 9 assignments:   Graduation May 25!
Notes on reptiles, birds, and mammals; Read chapters 44 & 45 on birds  mammals; UNIT TEST on Vertebrates; Vertebrate/Invertebrate Project due!; semester Test review

Final Exams  Start  Next Week-   Don’t Forget to study!!!

Week of May 28 assignments:  

Semester Exams Tuesday, Wednesday, & Thursday; Textbooks due!

Final Exams  Start  –   Don’t Forget to study!!!

End of Fourth Nine weeks

  Pre -AP Biology        Biology I

Enjoy your summer!  

Preap Bacteria Notes


Bacteria Review  


1. The most numerous organisms on Earth are ____________________________________.

2. Type of bacteria that peptidoglycan is absent in cell walls _____________________________________________.

3. Type of bacteria that obtain energy from inorganic substances are __________________________________  _________________________________.

4. Type of bacteria that obtain nutrients from dead organisms ____________________________  ______________________________________.

5. Organisms that lack a cell nucleus are called ______________________________.

6.  Most prokaryotes are __________________________________organisms.

7.  Almost all prokaryotes are ____________________ than the smallest Eukaryotes.

8. Prokaryotes have _____________________________ that are different from those of Eukaryotes.

9. The bacteria can be divided into two Kingdoms: ______________________________ and

10. The ______________________________________ are a group of bacteria that live in Harsh Environments.

11. The prefix “ARCHEA” means ___________________________________.

12. Archaebacteria can be divided into Three Groups.  LIST AND DESCRIBE EACH GROUP:

A. _____________________  ____________________________________________

B. _____________________  ____________________________________________

C. _____________________  ____________________________________________

13. The Archaebacteria that produce methane are called _______________________________.

14. Archaebacteria that thrive in very salty conditions, such as the Dead Sea, are called
________________________________  ______________________________.

15. Archaebacteria that can live in extremely hot or acidic water are called ______________________________________________________.

16. The prefix “EU” means _________________________.

17. What is the important tool used for classifying Eubacteria  called ________________________  ____________________________.

18. During Gram Staining, depending on structure of their __________  ____________, the
bacteria’s cell walls absorbs either the _______________ or ________________dye.

19.Those bacteria that take on the purple color are called _________________
_________________________  ___________________________

20. Gram-positive Bacteria used to make antibiotics are called __________________________________.

21. Gram-positive bacteria cause many diseases in humans by producing _________________________
which are poisons to our bodies.

22. Bacteria that appear Pink after staining are called  _______________
________________________  ___________________________.

23. Gram-negative bacteria have an extra layer of ________________ on the outside
of the ____________  ____________ and appear ___________ after the Gram staining.

24. The lipid layer _______________ the purple stain from entering the cell wall.

25. Gram-negative bacteria do absorb the ____________ stain during the Gram-staining.

26. The extra layer of lipids also stops many ________________________ from entering the bacteria.

27.  Scientist think that gram-negative bacteria may have evolved from a
____________________________  _____________________________.

28.   ______________________ grow in the root nodules of such plants as soybean, clover, and alfalfa.

29. Rhizobacteria fix ______________________ from the atmosphere into a form that plants
and animals can use (this greatly helps both plants and animals).  They convert the gaseous
nitrogen into compounds such as __________________________  (NH3).

30.  Gram-negative bacteria are distinguished by an extra layer of _________________.

31.   _______________________ are Gram-negative bacteria that perform plant-like
____________________________ and release oxygen as a by-product.
32.   _____________________________ are much _________________ than many other

33. Organisms that obtain energy from oxidizing inorganic compound instead of sunlight are called _________________________________.

34. Whiplike structures used by bacteria for movements are called ______________________.

35.   Photoautotrophs are bacteria that use ______________________ as an energy source.

36.   Bacteria can be one of three different shapes:

A. _____________________________________________(Rod)

B. _____________________________________________(Sphere)

C. _____________________________________________(Spiral)

37.  Bacteria usually gain part of their ____________________ from their shape.

38. Two major differences between groups of bacteria are their source of ____________________
and weather or not they use ________________ for cellular respiration.

39.   Most bacteria are _______________________; they get their energy by consuming (eating) organic molecules.

40.   Some are __________________ that make their own food from ________________.

41.   ____________________________ obtain their food from inorganic compound instead of sunlight.

42.  _________________________ use sunlight for energy.

43.   Organisms that use oxygen during cellular respiration are called ________________ Organisms
that do not use oxygen are called __________________________.  Typically they get their energy through _________________________________.

44. Bacteria called ______________  __________________ cannot live without oxygen.

45.   Bacteria called ____________  _______________ cannot live in the presence of oxygen.

46.   Bacteria called ________________  __________________ can use oxygen when it is available,
but do not depend on it.

47. Most bacteria reproduce by a process called _________________ __________________.

48. Binary fission is a process in which the __________________________ replicate,
after which the ________________ divides.

49. Binary fission is a type of _____________________ reproduction.

50. Some bacteria contain smaller pieces of circular DNA called  ________________________.

51. Bacteria can exchange genes by one of three special means: _________________________, __________________________, or _____________________________.

52. The process of exchanging genetic material through cell to cell contact is called

53. Hair like structures on the surface of bacteria are called ______________________.

54. The process by which bacteria cells pick up and incorporate DNA from dead bacteria cells is called _________________________________.

55. Using a virus to transfer DNA from one bacterial cell to another is called _____________________________.

56. When living conditions become _____________________, some bacteria from special
dehydrated cells called ___________________________________.

57. Bacteria that form ___________________ have an advantage for ____________________.

58. Bacteria the feed on and that break down dead organic material are called ______________________________.

59. Type of bacteria that produces many antibiotics__________________________.

60. Type of bacteria that produces endotoxins ___________________________  ___________________________.

61. Bacteria that can only survive in the absence of oxygen are called _______________________  ____________________________.

62. Gram-negative bacteria appear ________________ when they undergo the Gram-stain procedure.

63. Type of  bacteria that performs nitrogen fixation is _________________________.

64. Type of bacteria that peptidoglycan is present in cell walls _________________________________.

65. What bacteria are thought to be responsible for establishing the Earth’s oxygen-rich atmosphere? ____________________________________

66. Bacteria cells typically lack ____________________________________.

67. Bacterial disease of the intestines are usually transmitted by contaminated __________________________  or __________________________.

68. What are the Three Mechanism of action of an antibiotic?

DIRECTIONS: Answer the questions below as completely and as thoroughly as possible. Answer the question in essay form (not outline form), using complete sentences. You may use diagrams to supplement your answers, but a diagram alone without appropriate discussion is inadequate.

1. Describe the capsule of a bacterium and its function.

2. Identify the most common shapes of Eubacteria and Describe each.

3. Compare and Contrast Archaebacteria with Eubacteria.

4. Identify Three Ways that bacteria are used to produce substances for human use.

5. Describe the significance of cyanobacteria in the formation of the Earth’s atmosphere.

6. List the various structures of the bacterial cell, and Describe their function.

7. Explain the laboratory technique Gram stain and Explain what it is used for.

8. Define the term genetic recombination as it applies to bacteria, and Describe Three ways that genetic
recombination occurs in bacteria.

9. Explain how chemoautotrophs differ from photosynthetic autotrophs.

10. Explain how the terms bacteria, Eubacteria, and Archaebacteria, relate to one another.

11. Describe Three Types of movement among bacteria.

12. List the characteristics that are used to classify bacteria.

13.  Explain how chemoautotrophs harvest energy from the environment.

14.  Describe Two Ways bacteria cause disease.

15.  Explain why antibiotic resistance among bacteria is increasing.

16. List one distinguishing characteristic of each of the three main groups of Archaebacteria.