Chapter 21 AP Objectives


Chapter 21    Genetic Basis of Development
From Single Cell to Multicellular Organism
1.List the animals used as models for developmental biology research and provide a rationale for their choice.
2.Distinguish between the patterns of morphogenesis in plants and in animals.
Differential Gene Expression
3.Describe how genomic equivalence was determined for plants and animals.
4.Describe what kinds of changes occur to the genome during differentiation.
5.Describe the general process by which the ewe Dolly and the first mice were cloned.
6.Describe the characteristics of stem cells. Explain their significance to medicine.
7.Distinguish between determination and differentiation. Explain why determination precedes differentiation.
8.Describe the molecular basis of determination.
9.Describe the two sources of information that instruct a cell to express genes at the appropriate time.
Genetic and Cellular Mechanisms of Pattern Formation
10.Describe how Drosophila was used to investigate the basic aspects of pattern formation (axis formation and segmentation).
11.Explain how maternal genes affect polarity and development in Drosophila embryos.
12.Describe how gradients of morphogens may specify the axes of developing Drosophila embryos.
13.Describe how homeotic genes define the anatomical identity of the segments of a developing organism.
14.Describe how the study of nematodes contributed to an understanding of the role of induction in development.
15.Describe how apoptosis functions in normal and abnormal development.
16.Describe how the study of tomatoes has contributed to the understanding of flower development.
17.Describe how the study of Arabidopsis has contributed to the understanding of organ identity in plants.
18.Provide evidence of the conservation of homeobox patterns.