Chapter 8 Membrane Structure Objectives



Chapter 8   Introduction to Metabolism
Metabolism, Energy, and Life

1.        Explain the role of catabolic and anabolic pathways in cellular metabolism.

2.        Distinguish between kinetic and potential energy.

3.        Explain why an organism is considered an open system.

4.        Explain the first and second laws of thermodynamics in your own words.

5.        Explain why highly ordered living organisms do not violate the second law of thermodynamics.

6.        Write and define each component of the equation for free-energy change.

7.        Distinguish between exergonic and endergonic reactions in terms of free energy change.

8.        Explain why metabolic disequilibrium is one of the defining features of life.

9.        List the three main kinds of cellular work. Explain in general terms how cells obtain the energy to do cellular work.

10.       Describe the structure of ATP and identify the major class of macromolecules to which ATP belongs.

11.       Explain how ATP performs cellular work.

Enzymes Are Catalytic Proteins

12. Describe the function of enzymes in biological systems.

13. Explain why an investment of activation energy is necessary to initiate a spontaneous reaction.

14. Explain how enzyme structure determines enzyme specificity.

15. Explain the induced-fit model of enzyme function.

16. Describe the mechanisms by which enzymes lower activation energy.

17. Explain how substrate concentration affects the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.

18. Explain how temperature, pH, cofactors, and enzyme inhibitors can affect enzyme activity.

The Control of Metabolism

19. Explain how metabolic pathways are regulated.

20. Explain how the location of enzymes in a cell may help order metabolism