Section 11-1 Control of Gene Expression
1. Cells use ______________________ to build hundreds of different________________each with a unique ____________________________.
2. Are all proteins used by a cell at any one time? If not, how do cells control this?
3. Define gene expression.
4. When are proteins produced?
5. What is the genome?
6. What are the 2 steps of gene expression?
7. What 2 scientists determined how genes are expressed in prokaryotes?
8. What gene & in what organism did Jacob & Monod make their discoveries about gene expression?
9. Name the 3 regulatory elements on the DNA of the E. coli bacterium and tell the function of each.
10. What is an operon & what 3 things is it made up of?
11. What name did Jacob & Monod give their gene & why?
12. If lactose is not present, what attaches to the operator?
13. Define repressor protein and give its function.
14. Define repression.
15. What occurs if lactose is present in the E. coli in lactose metabolism?
16. What is an inducer?
17. What is an inducer for E. coli in lactose metabolism?
18. How does the genome of eukaryotes compare with that of prokaryotes?
19. Are operons found in eukaryotes?
20. Each eukaryotic cell contains a ___________________ set of genes, but only some genes
are ______________________ at a given time.
21. What controls much of the gene expression in eukaryotes?
22. What is euchromatin?
23. Some sections of chromatin always remain coiled preventing what process?
24. Name & define the 2 kinds of segments found behind the promoter in eukaryotes.
25. Where do the processes of transcription & translation take place in prokaryotes?
26. Where do these processes take place in eukaryotes?
27. Are introns and/or exons transcribed?
28. What is pre-mRNA and how is mRNA formed from this?
Section 11-2 Gene Expression and Development
29. Multicellular, sexually reproducing organisms begin life as a _____________________with all cells containing the same _______________________.
30. Genes may be turned ______________ and _____________as various ___________________ are needed by the cells.
31. What is cell differentiation?
32. Define morphogenesis.
33. What genes determine what anatomical structures an organism will develop during morphogenesis?
34. What is a tumor and what are the 2 main types?
35. Define benign tumor.
36. Are benign tumors dangerous? Explain.
37. What treatment do doctors use with benign tumors?
38. Define malignant tumor.
39. Malignant tumors are commonly known as ____________________________.
40. What is metastasis & what happens to the body when this occurs?
41. How are malignant tumors categorized?
42. Name & describe 4 types of malignant tumors.
43. Lung cancer & breast cancer are what type of tumors?
44. When do normal cells stop dividing? Do cancer cells respond the same way? Explain.
45. What trait of cancer cells facilitates the spread of cancer cells in the body?
46. What is a carcinogen & give 5 examples?
47. What causes most lung cancer?
48. What is the effect of mutagens on cells?
49. What are oncogenes?
50. Certain ____________________ can cause cancer in plants & animals.