Bacteria & Virus Study Guide

1. What were the earliest known living organisms?

2. Name 3 ways bacteria can be classified.


3. Name two structures found around the outside of ALL bacterial cells.

4. What is the shape of these bacteria — coccus, spirilla, & bacillus?

5. What is the only non-membrane bound organelle found in the cytoplasm of bacteria?

6. Bacteria have how many chromosomes?

7. Other than the cell membrane, name one thing that bacteria and eukaryotes have in common.

8. What is a pathogen?

9. Name 3 places where archaea can be found.

10. Viruses are only active when?

11. What can some bacteria form to survive harsh environmental conditions?

12. What two things make up a virus?

13. What color do Gram + bacteria stain?  Gram -?

14. Why are bacteria considered prokaryotes?

15. Give 3 reasons bacteria are considered nonliving.


16. What is the protective protein coat of a virus called?

17. Name 3 things used to classify viruses.


18. Do viruses have cellular parts?

19. Which are smaller, a bacterial cell or A VIRUS?

20. Can viruses be crystallized for study?

21. What virus did Wendell Stanley study & what plant did it attack?

22. What makes up the coat of a virus?

23. What makes up the core of a virus?

24. If viruses are too small to be seen with a light microscope, why did early scientists begin to study them?

25. What do you call viruses with the enzyme reverse transcriptase?

26. What makes up a viroid?

27. Describe the chromosome of a bacterial cell.

28. When a bacteriophage attacks a bacterium, what is injected into the cell? what remains outside the cell?

29. In what life cycle does viral DNA become integrated into the host cell’s DNA?

30.What human activity is responsible for the outbreak of many new viruses?

31. Viruses know which host cell to attack because of ___________ on the surface of the host cell.

32. Did viruses appear before or after living cells?

33. What structures are used by some bacteria for movement?

34. List a variety of conditions in which bacteria can live.


35. What are prions made of?

Bacteria & Virus Study Guide B1



Bacteria & Virus Study Guide

What color do Gram + bacteria stain?   Gram-?

How do bacterial cells differ from other types of cells?

How are chickenpox & shingles alike?

Why do people get the flu more than once?

What scientist discovered that viruses aren’t cellular?

Name several things used to classify viruses.

What are the 3 shapes for bacteria & give the name for each shape?

Can bacteria survive without oxygen? with oxygen?

How does the size of bacterial cells compare to the size of eukaryotic cells?

If a virus enters the Lysogenic cycle, can it change to the lytic cycle? Explain.

What 2 things make up a virus?

Why don’t antibiotics kill some bacteria?

What is necessary for a virus to reproduce?

Are viruses cellular?

Which bacteria are least responsive to antibiotics — Gram+ or Gram-?

What are prions?

What is a capsid?

How does forming an endospore help bacteria?

Describe the DNA of a bacterium.

What are pili?

What whiplike projections do some bacteria for movement use?

What occurs during conjugation?

What are retroviruses & what enzyme do they contain?

What is a viroid?

A protein coat & a nucleic acid core make up what typical structure?

In what cycle(s) does viral DNA get injected into host cells?

Is the Ebola virus linked to cancer?

Where would you find RNA in retroviruses?


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