Bacteria PPT Questions

Bacteria
ppt Q’s

Prokaryote & Eukaryote Evolution

1. What does our current evidence tell us about the evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

 

2. About how long ago did eukaryotes evolve from prokaryotes?

3. Name the 2 theories of cellular evolution.

 

4. Explain the infolding theory.

 

 

5. What does endosymbiosis mean?

 

6. Explain the endosymbiotic theory of cell organelle formation.

 

 

 

7. Name 2 organelles thought to have arisen in this way.

 

Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells

8. Label the parts of this prokaryotic cell.

9. Name several structures that are found in eukaryotic, but NOT prokaryotic cells.

 

 

10. What type of cells are the most numerous on Earth?

11. What are the most common type of prokaryotic cells?

12. How old are the earliest prokaryotic fossils?

Classification of Life

13. Name the 3 domains and the organisms found in each.

     a.

     b.

     c.

14. ______________ are found in harsh environments.

15. Give 3 examples of harsh environments in which Archaebacteria can be found.

 

16. What group is referred to as the true bacteria?

17. What photosynthetic member is in this group?

Characteristics of Bacteria 

18. What must be used to view prokaryotic cells?

19.What cell structures are lacking in prokaryotes?

20. Do bacteria have ribosomes like other types of cells?

21. Describe the genetic material of the bacteria.  be sure to tell where it is found.

 

22. What surrounds the cytoplasm of bacterial cells?

23.What surrounds the outside of all bacterial cells?

24. Cell walls of true bacteria contain ____________________.

25. Some bacteria have a sticky ____________ around the cell wall to attach to __________ or other bacteria.

26. Besides the circular chromosome, where else can DNA be found inside a bacterial cell?

27. What is the size of most bacterial cells?

28. Compare the size of bacteria to the tip of a pin.

 

29. ____________ of the bacterial cell membrane are called _______________.

30. What two cellular processes can take place in mesosomes?

 

31. At what pH do bacteria do best?

32. Most bacteria act as ________________. Why is this so important?

 

33. How can some bacterial be harmful?  Give an example.

 

34. name two other important uses for bacteria.

 

35. What does motile mean?

36. Motile bacteria may have one or more ______________ for movement.

37. Flagella attach to the bacteria by the ___________ ___________.

38. The basal body attaches to the cell through both the cell _________and the cell ___________.

39. What protein makes up bacterial flagella?

40. Tell how these types of bacteria differ from each other:

     a. Monotrichous

     b. Lophotrichous

     c. Amphitrichous

     d. Peritrichous

41. What type of bacteria is this?

42. What are bacterial pili?

 

43. How do pili compare to flagella in size?

44. Give three functions of pili.

     a.

     b.

     c.

 

Bacterial Shapes

45. Name and describe 5 shapes used to classify bacteria. 

     a.

     b.

     c.

     d.

     e.

46. What does each of these prefixes tell you about the bacteria’s shape:

     a. Diplo-

     b. Strepto-

     c. Staphylo-

47. Sketch the shape of these bacteria:

     a. Coccus

     b. Bacillus

     c. Spirillium

     d. Diplococcus

     e. Streptococcus

     f. Staphylococcus

     g. Diplobacillus

48. E. coli is classified as what shape bacteria?

Bacterial Kingdoms

49. How do the cell walls of Archaebacteria differ from the true bacteria?

50. How do the cell membranes differ?

51. Are the ribosomes the same?

52. Are the gene sequences the same?

53. Do Archaebacteria require oxygen?

54. How is there environment different from true bacteria?

 

55. What are they commonly called?

56. How many groups make up the ancient bacteria and name them?

 

57. Methanogens live in _____________ environments. What is lacking in this environment?

58. How do methanogens get their energy?

 

59. Name 3 environments in which methanogens are found.

 

 

60. How do methanogens help cows?

 

61. How did the methanogens get their name?

 

62. The __________ ___________ live in very salty environments.

63. How do they get their energy?

 

64. Name two bodies of water in which halophiles are found.

 

65. ______________ live in extremely hot environments.

66. Thermophiles that also live in acidic conditions are called _____________________.

67. Name 3 habitats in which thermophiles are found.

 

Kingdom Eubacteria

68.  Most true bacteria are ____________ and come in ________ basic shapes. Name the shapes.

 

69. Do eubacteria require oxygen?

70. How are they identified?

71. When was gram staining developed?

72. Describe Gram staining.

 

73. What colors do bacterial cell walls stain?

74. Describe the cell wall of Gram positive bacteria.

 

 

75. What color do they stain?

76. Can Gram positive bacteria be treated with antibiotics?

77.Name 5 Gram positive bacteria and tell how they’re used or what they may cause.

     a.

     b.

     c.

     d.

     e.

78. Describe the cell walls of Gram negative bacteria.

 

79. Are antibiotics effective against Gram negative bacteria?

80. Some photosynthetic Gram negative bacteria make ___________ instead of oxygen.

81. How do some Gram negative bacteria help plants?

82. Where can Rhizobacteria be found and what is their job?

 

83. _____________ are parasitic bacteria carried by ticks that may cause ___________ disease or _____________ _______________ _____________ fever.

84. Cyanobacteria are Gram ____________ and carry on ______________ to make food.

85. What is the common name for cyanobacteria?

86. What two main pigments do cyanobacteria contain?

87. What colors are cyanobacteria?

 

88. _______________ is a cyanobacterium that grows in chains.

89. Name the specialized structures on cyanobacteria that help fix nitrogen.

90. How do cyanobacteria cause eutrophication?

 

91. Spirochetes are Gram __________ bacteria that move by ___________.

92. Describe the motion of spirochetes.

93. Do all spirochetes need oxygen?

94. Spirochetes may be _______________, _______________, or symbiotic.

95. What are enteric bacteria? Give an example.

 

96. _______________ is an enteric bacterium that causes food poisoning.

97. How do chemoautotrophic bacteria get their energy?

 

Nutrition, Respiration, and Reproduction

98. Name and describe 4 modes of nutrition in bacteria.

     a.

     b.

     c.

     d.

99. Explain each of the following methods of respiration in bacteria.

     a. Obligate Aerobes-

 

     b. Obligate Anaerobes-

 

     c. Facultative Anaerobes-

 

100. Anaerobes carry on ______________ to release energy from food, while aerobes carry on ____________ _______________.

101. Bacteria reproduce asexually by what method?

102. Before the cell can divide, what must happen?

103. Is binary fission a slow or fast process?

104. How do the new cells compare with each other after binary fission? What are they called?

 

105. Bacteria can reproduce sexually by ________________.

106. Describe how conjugation occurs.

 

107. What is the function of pili in conjugation?

108. How do the new cells compare to each other after conjugation?

109. When can bacteria produce spores and why?

 

110. What are the spores called?

111. How long can an endospore survive?

112. Why are endospores such a problem in health care facilities and in the canning industry?

 

113. Bacteria can genetically change by _________________ and ____________________.

114. Disease-causing bacteria may become ______________ _____________ when they genetically change.

115. How do bacteria transform?

 

116. Describe transduction in bacteria and give an example of a product made by bacteria using this method.

 

Pathenogenic Bacteria

117. What are pathogens?

 

118. Pathogens may cause ____________.

119. What are toxins?

 

120. What is the difference between endotoxins and exotoxins?

 

121. Name a bacterium that produces each type of toxin.

     a. Endotoxin?

     b. Exotoxin?

 

 

Bacteria Study Guide Bi

 

Bacteria Study Guide

 

1. What are rod-shaped bacteria are called?

2. Bacteria are the only organisms characterized as____________________.

3. The earliest known group of living organisms on Earth was__________________.

4. Bacteria can be classified according to what three things?
A.
B.
C.

5. What does the  prefix “archea” mean?

6. Archaebacteria can be divided into 3 Groups.  Name and describe each group.
A.

B.

C.

 

7. The most numerous organisms on Earth are ________________.

8. Name the type of bacteria that does not have peptidoglycan  in its cell walls.

9. Name the type of bacteria that obtain energy from inorganic substances.

10. Name the type of bacteria that obtain nutrients from dead organisms.

11. Organisms that lack a cell nucleus and membrane-bound organelles are called ______________.

12. Most prokaryotes are ________________organisms.

13. Escherichia coli is an example of a bacterium that has short, thin, hairlike projections called __________. What is their function?

 

14. Bacteria lack true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles so they are classified as __________.

15. What is the procedure called that is used to distinguish between two types of bacterial cell wall structures ?

16. _______________ are protective structures that some bacteria may form under harsh conditions.

17. Spiral- shaped bacteria are known as what?

18. Almost all prokaryotes are ____________________ than the smallest Eukaryotes.

19. Prokaryotes have ___________________ that are different from those of Eukaryotes.

20. What are the 2 kingdoms of bacteria and briefly describe each?

 

 

21. ________________ is the process by which bacteria cells pick up and incorporate DNA from dead bacteria cells.

22. _____________ is the process of using a virus to transfer DNA from one bacterial cell to another.

23. When living conditions become ______________, some bacteria from special
dehydrated cells called__________________.

24. Bacteria that form ___________________ have an advantage for ____________________.

25. Bacteria the feed on and that break down dead organic material are called ___________.

26. _______________ is a type of bacteria that produces many antibiotics.

27. ________________ is a type of bacteria that produces endotoxins.

28. The ____________________ are a group of bacteria that live in harsh environments.

29. Bacteria that take on the purple color when stained are called what?

30. Gram-positive Bacteria used to make antibiotics are called _________________.

31. Gram-positive bacteria cause many diseases in humans by producing ____________ which are poisons to our bodies.

32. Bacteria that appear pink after staining are called  what?

33. Gram-negative bacteria have an extra layer of ________________ on the outside
of the ____________  ____________ and appear ___________ after the gram staining.

44. The lipid layer _______________ the purple stain from entering the cell wall.

35. The Archaebacteria that produce methane are called ____________________.

36. Archaebacteria that thrive in very salty conditions, such as the Dead Sea, are called what?

37. The prefix “eu” means __________________.

38. What is the important tool used for classifying Eubacteria  called?

 

39. During Gram staining, depending on structure of their __________  ____________, the
bacteria’s cell walls absorbs either the _______________ or ________________dye.

40. Gram-negative bacteria are distinguished by an extra layer of _________________.

41.  ______________ are Gram-negative bacteria that perform plant-like ___________________ and release oxygen as a by-product.

42.  ________________ are much __________ than many other prokaryotes.

43. Organisms that obtain energy from oxidizing inorganic compound instead of sunlight are called what?

44. Whiplike structures used by bacteria for movements are called __________________.

45. Photoautotrophs are bacteria that use ______________________ as an energy source.

46. Bacteria can be one of three different shapes:
A. _____________________________________________(Rod)
B. _____________________________________________(Sphere)
C. _____________________________________________(Spiral)

47. Gram-negative bacteria do absorb the ____________ stain during the Gram-staining process.

48. The extra layer of lipids also stops many _________________ from entering the bacteria.

49. Scientist think that gram-negative bacteria may have evolved from a_____________  ________________.

50.  ______________________ grow in the root nodules of such plants as soybean, clover, and alfalfa.

51. Rhizobacteria fix ______________________ from the atmosphere into a form that plants
and animals can use (this greatly helps both plants and animals).  They convert gaseous
nitrogen into compounds such as __________________________  (NH3).

52. Organisms that use oxygen during cellular respiration are called ________________. Organisms
that do not use oxygen are called __________________________.  Typically they get their energy through ________________________.

53. Bacteria called ______________  __________________ cannot live without oxygen.

54. Most bacteria reproduce by a process called ____________   _______________.

55. Binary fission is a process in which the __________________________ replicate,
after which the ________________ divides.

56. Binary fission is a type of ____________________ reproduction.

57. Some bacteria contain smaller pieces of circular DNA called  _________________.

58. Bacteria can exchange genes by one of three special means. Name these means.

A.

B.

C.

59. The process of exchanging genetic material through cell to cell contact is called
_______________.

60. Where are pili found? Do all bacteria have them?

 

61. Bacteria usually gain part of their ____________________ from their shape.

62. Two major differences between groups of bacteria are their source of ________________
and whether or not they use ________________ for cellular respiration.

63. Most bacteria act as  _______________________ getting their energy by consuming (eating) organic molecules.

64. Some are __________________ that make their own food from ________________.

65. ___________________ obtain their food from inorganic compound instead of sunlight.

66.  _________________________ use sunlight for energy.

67. Bacteria that can only survive in the absence of oxygen are called what?

68. Gram-negative bacteria appear ________________ when they undergo the Gram-stain procedure.

69. A type of  bacteria that performs nitrogen fixation is _________________________.

70. Bacteria called ____________  _______________ cannot live in the presence of oxygen.

71. Type of bacteria that peptidoglycan is present in cell walls __________________.

72. What bacteria are thought to be responsible for establishing the Earth’s oxygen-rich atmosphere?

73. Bacteria cells typically lack _________________________.

74. Bacterial disease of the intestines are usually transmitted by contaminated ____________  or ______________.

75. What are the 3 mechanism of action of an antibiotic?

 

 

76. The cell walls of Gram-negative Eubacteria are composed of a combination of polysaccharide and polypeptide called what?

77. Bacteria that obtain their energy by removing electrons from inorganic molecules, rather than obtaining energy from the sun, are called _____________________ bacteria.

78. In general, organisms that obtain their energy from sunlight are called _________________.

79. Bacteria that are heterotrophic and feed on dead organic matter are called _____________.

80. A(n) _________________ is a substance that can be obtained from bacteria or fungi and  can be used as a drug to fight pathogenic bacteria.

81. Many bacteria are ________________ and play an important role in recycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements,  while other bacteria are ___________________ and assemble organic compounds from carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and other elements.

82. A pathogen is an agent that is ________________________.

83. Bacteria cells such as E. coli transfer pieces of genetic material in a process called ____________________.

84. Archaebacteria that can live in extremely hot or acidic water are called _____________.

85. Spherical bacteria are called ________________.

86. Bacteria called ________________  __________________ can use oxygen when it is available,
but do not depend on it.

87. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert atmospheric _________________ into _________________.

88. Structurally, bacteria have one of two types of _______________  _______________.

89. Certain cyanobacteria, such as Anabaena, can fix nitrogen by using enzymes contained in specialized structures called what?

90. The oxidation of ammonia to nitrates that can be used by plants is called what?

TRUE OR FALSE

_____91. Bacterial cells have membrane-bound organelles and chromosomes.

_____92. Certain antibiotics have become ineffective against certain strains of bacteria. These bacteria have developed a resistance, which may be passed on from one generation of bacteria to the next.

_____93. Bacteria that can survive only in the absence of oxygen are called obligated aerobes.

_____94. The photoautotrophic bacteria are the only bacteria that are indirectly beneficial to humans.

_____95. Bacterial cells are usually much larger than eukaryotic cells.

_____96. Gram-negative bacteria have a thick layer of peptidoglycan that stains purple.

_____97. Ancient bacteria known as Archaebacteria are now extinct.

_____98. Although there are some bacteria that are heterotrophic, the vast majority are autotrophic.

_____99. Bacteria lack nuclei and therefore also lack genetic material.

_____100. Photosynthetic bacteria are present in leguminous plants and convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that is usable by the plant.

_____101. Gram-negative bacteria appear purple when they undergo the Gram-stain procedure.

_____102. Bacteria are incapable of movement themselves; they an only get to new locations by growing toward them or by forming endospores and being carried in air or water.

_____103. The bacterial cell wall prevents the passage of antibiotics and is only means by which bacteria can resists antibiotics.

_____104. Some bacteria cannot survive in the presence of oxygen.

_____105. The terms Eubacteria and Archaebacteria refer to members of a single kingdom.

_____106. When bacteria undergo nonreproductive genetic recombination, their bacterial chromosome is altered.

DIRECTIONS: Answer the questions below as completely and as thoroughly as possible. Answer the question in essay form (not outline form), using complete sentences. You may use diagrams or pictures to supplement your answers, but a diagram or picture alone without appropriate discussion is inadequate.

107. Describe the capsule of a bacterium and its function.

 

 

108. Identify the most common shapes of Eubacteria and describe each.

 

 

109. Compare and contrast Archaebacteria with Eubacteria.

 

 

110. Identify 3 ways that bacteria are used to produce substances for human use.

 

 

111. Describe the significance of cyanobacteria in the formation of the Earth’s atmosphere.

 

 

112. List the various structures of the bacterial cell, and describe their function.

 

 

113. Explain the laboratory technique Gram stain and explain why it is used.

 

 

114. Define the term genetic recombination as it applies to bacteria, and describe 3 ways that genetic recombination occurs in bacteria.

 

 

115. Explain how chemoautotrophs differ from photosynthetic autotrophs.

 

 

116. Explain how the terms bacteria, Eubacteria, and Archaebacteria, relate to one another.

 

 

117. Describe 3 types of movement among bacteria.

 

 

118. List the characteristics that are used to classify bacteria.

 

 

119.  Explain how chemoautotrophs harvest energy from the environment.

 

 

120.  Describe 2 ways bacteria cause disease.

 

 

121.  Explain why antibiotic resistance among bacteria is increasing.

 

 

122. List one distinguishing characteristic of each of the three main groups of Archaebacteria.

 

 

 

AP Lecture Guide 18 – Microbial Models

AP Biology: CHAPTER 18

MICROBIAL MODELS

1. What makes microbes good models to study molecular mechanisms?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

2. List several characteristics of viruses.

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

3. What are the two basic components of viruses? ___________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

4. Use the diagram to help explain typical viral reproduction.

 

5. Identify the cycle used by the virulent phage.

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

6. Compare the lytic and lysogenic cycles.

 

 

7. What is the role of the viral envelope?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

8. Outline the steps in the life cycle of the envelope viruses.

 

 

9. Review the life cycle of the HIV virus.

 

 

 

10. What is reverse transcriptase and why is it important in biotechnology?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

11. What is a vaccine?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

12. Where do emerging viruses come from?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

13. What is a viroid? Give some examples.

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

14. What is a prion and what do they do to the cells?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

15. List and describe the three basic shapes of bacteria used for classification.

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

16. Most bacteria are not pathogenic. Identify several important roles they play in the ecosystem

and human culture.

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

17. How do variations arise in bacteria considering they reproduce mostly by asexual means?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

18. Define bacterial transformation.

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

19. How does transduction differ from transformation?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

20. What is a plasmid and identify its role in bacterial conjugation?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

21. What is the major method utilized by bacteria to pass along resistance to antibiotics?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

22. What is a transposon?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

23. Describe potential problems caused by transposons.

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

24. E. coli use a regulatory system called an operon. Identify the components with their functions of the operon.

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

25. Use the diagram of the Tryp operon to outline how it regulated tryptophan levels.

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

26. Describe how the trp operon is a repressible operon.

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

27. Use the diagram of the lac operon to outline how it regulates glucose levels.

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

28. Does the diagram above represent the condition for the absence or presence of lactose?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

29. Describe what happens when lactose is absent.

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

30. How is the lac operon an inducible system?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

31. Summarize how the presence and absence of glucose influences the lac operon.

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

AP Lecture Guide 26 – Origin of Life

 

 

AP Biology: CHAPTER 26: ORIGIN OF LIFE

 

1. Start with the origin of the earth and identify the time frame, conditions, and evidence for

each of the following steps leading to current life forms on earth.

a. Origin of the earth ________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

b. Prokaryotes _____________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

c. Oxidizing atmosphere _____________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

d. Eukaryotic cells __________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

e. Multicellular life __________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

2. What was significant about the discovery of the iron oxide bands in the sedimentary layers.

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

3. Describe the theory of endosymbiosis. ___________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

4. Why did evolution seem to slow 750 to 570 million years ago?

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

5. What was special about the Cambrium Explosion?

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

6. Describe a few adaptations essential for the invasion of plants onto land.

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

7. Scientific Hypothesis for the origin of life

a. The first cells may have originated by chemical evolution on a young Earth

b. Abiotic synthesis of organic monomers is a testable hypothesis

c. Laboratory simulations of early-Earth conditions have produced organic polymers

d. RNA may have been the first genetic material

e. Protobionts can form by self-assembly

f. Natural selection could refine protobionts containing hereditary information

g. Debate about the origin of life abounds

8. Describe the hypothesized conditions on earth when life arose. _______________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

9. What did Louis Pasteur demonstrate with his experiment? ___________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

10. List the four stages for the formation of life.

a. _______________________________________________________________________

b. _______________________________________________________________________

c. _______________________________________________________________________

d. _______________________________________________________________________

11. What metabolic processes would you expect to see in protobionts?

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

12. Why is RNA now thought to be the first genetic code?

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

13. What did Oparin, Haldane, Miller and Urey accomplish?

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

14. What are some of the possible locations for the first life forms?

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

15. What is the basis of the classification system developed by Linneaus?

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

16. Why is taxonomy considered a work in progress?

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

17. What are two problems with the five kingdom system of classification?

a. ________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

b. ________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

18. How has the Domain System altered our view of taxonomy?

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

19. Which prokaryote is closer to the eukaryotes? List several reasons for your answer.

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

20. Place the following metabolic processes in an order that fits this hypothesis for the origin of

life: Photosynthesis, Aerobic Respiration, Fermentation, Nucleic Acid replication (RNA or

DNA), Membrane transport

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

21. Label the diagram to explain the Miller and Urey experiment to test the Abiotic Synthesis

hypothesis.

22. Label the diagram to indicate the major events, the time frame, and the geologic eras the

origin of life on Earth.

Virus Worksheet

 

 Viruses Worksheet  

Structure of Viruses

1. Are viruses living or nonliving?

2. How can viruses be useful?

 

3. What odes a virologist do for a living?

 

4. Construct a Venn diagram comparing viruses and cells.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. Explain how viruses were discovered and by whom.

 

 

6. Compare the size of viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotic cells.

 

 

7. What must be true for viruses to be able to replicate?

 

8. Name the two main parts of all viruses.

 

9. Discuss the hereditary material of viruses.

 

 

10. Compare & contrast capsids and envelopes of viruses.

 

 

11. Name 2 enveloped viruses that cause sexually transmitted disease.

12. What type of virus causes flu?

13. Where are glycoproteins found & what is there purpose?

 

14. What characteristics are used to group viruses?

 

15. How are these viruses grouped — retrovirus, adenovirus, and herpes virus?

 

 

16. Compare & contrast helical & icosahedral viral shapes & diseases.

 

 

17. Explain how RNA viruses replicate.

 

 

18. Do viruses contain enzymes? Explain.

 

19. Compare 7 contrast viroids & prions by constructing a Venn diagram.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Viral Replication

20. Why are viruses considered to be obligate intracellular parasites?

 

21. What is the best known bacteriophage, and what virus does it attack?

 

22. Sketch & label a bacteriophage and tell the function of each labeled part.

 

 

 

 

 

23. Name the steps of the lytic cycle & tell what happens to the host cell & virus at each stage.

 

 

 

 

 

24. What are temperate phages and how do they affect a cell?

 

 

25. Name the steps of the lysogenic cycle & tell what happens to the host cell & virus at each stage.

 

 

 

 

26. How does a prophage form?

 

27.Name a sexually transmitted virus that uses the lysogenic cycle to attack host cells.

28. Why is the influenza virus so hard to combat?

 

Viruses & Human Disease

29. Name some of the most common viral disease that attack humans.

 

30. How are shingles & chickenpox alike? How are they different?

 

31.What two methods are used to control viral diseases?

 

32. What is the CDC and what is its job?

 

33.What eradication program did the World Health Organization undertake in 1967, and what were the results?

 

34. What virus do we vaccinate our pets against each year?

35. How does AZT work?

 

36. What drugs prevent viruses from making capsids?

37. Why is rain forest clearing dangerous to humans?

 

38. Some lysogenic viruses can trigger certain types of _________________.

 


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