Ecology Quiz

%CODE1%

Ecology
  1. Which two biomes are the most similar with regard to rainfall?
    tundra & taiga
    tundra & desert
    rain forest & savanna
    temperate forest & prairie
  2. Which biome is characterized by a layer of permafrost?
    taiga
    savanna
    chaparral
    tundra
  3. Biodiversity is greatest in which biome?
    taiga
    polar
    rain forest
    savanna
  4. The eastern portion of the United States is dominated by what biome?
    temperate forest
    desert
    taiga
    prairie
  5. In which biome of Africa would you find lions, giraffes, and elephants?
    savanna
    chaparral
    desert
    tropical rain forest
  6. All the different species of an ecoystem are referred to as the:
    biome
    community
    population
    abiotic factors
  7. Which of the following would represent an ecosystem?
    A lake
    A fish tank
    A prairie
    all of these
  8. All the nonliving parts of an ecosystem are referred to as:
    the community
    biotic factors
    abiotic factors
    biomes
  9. Which of the following would be a biotic factor in an ecosystem?
    bacteria
    soil
    temperature
    rainfall
  10. The types and numbers of species in a given area is most greatly determined by the area’s:
    biotic factors
    precipitation
    climate
    biodiversity

Score =
Correct answers:

Evolution Quiz

%CODE1%

Evolution
    1. In biological terms, what is a species? a group of organisms that are similar in form and structure
      a group of organisms that can interbreed
      a group of organisms that share common features
      a group of organisms that have live in the same habitat
    2. What is the Scala Naturae? an idea proposed by Darwin that suggests that all organisms share a common ancestor
      an idea proposed by Plato that suggests organisms are all evolving toward an ideal form
      an idea proposed by Aristotle that suggests that all organisms fit into an orderly scheme
      an idea proposed by Wallace that suggests that organisms change over time
    3. Creationism is not accepted as a valid scientific theory because: it violates the scientific principle of natural causality
      it doesn’t offer a model to explain the diversity of life on earth
      it cannot be disproven
      all of these

    1. The picture of the finches is used to illustrate: phylogeny of finches
      change over time
      specialization of beaks for different diets
      natural selection
    2. Which of the following was not an observation made by Darwin on his voyages: penguins use wings to paddle instead of fly
      snakes have rudimentary hind limbs
      the earth is very old
      islands had species that did not exist on the mainland

    1. The image illustrates: vestigial structures
      homologous structures
      the fossil record
      natural selection
    2. Which of the following is an example of artificial selection: a panda’s thumb
      the breeding of dogs
      the galapagos finches
      a giraffe’s neck
    3. According to the theory of evolution by natural selection, which of the following is true: random mating is necessary for evolution to occur
      variation does not exist between members of the same species
      populations will change to better fit their environment
      individuals will adapt to their environment
    4. Which of the following are assumptions made with regards to the Theory of Evolution by Natural selection organisms compete with each other to survive
      variations exist among organisms
      not all organisms that are born survive to reproduce
      all of these

    1. The image illustrates which of the following: artificial selection
      acquired characteristics
      homologous structures
      vestigial structures
    2. A panda’s thumb is considered an evolutionary contrivance because: it is assembled from wrist bones, and imperfect
      it is perfectly structured to grab leaves
      it is an structure that has no use
      none of these
    3. Which of the following outcomes would you predict for a population of bacteria exposed to a new antibiotic. over many generations, the bacteria would become resistant to the antibiotic
      over a few generations, the bacteria would evolve into Archaebacteria
      over a few generations, the bacteria would become extinct
      over many generations, the bacteria would become more susceptible to the antibiotic
    4. Which of the following is an example of convergent evolution: whales and sharks have similar body designs
      bees and hummingbirds have similar body designs
      bats and birds have similar body designs
      all of these
    5. Why is evolution called the “unifying theory of biology” because it explains the diversity of life on the planet
      because it serves as a model to predict how organisms will change
      it serves as a model to interpret relationships between organisms on the planet
      all of these

  1. The image illustrates how peppered moths are related to other moths
    how peppered moths adapted to a changing environment
    how peppered moths became extinct
    how peppered moths became two species

Check Answers

Genetics Quiz

%CODE1%

Chromosomes & Genetics

1. A human being has _____ autosomes and ______ sex chromosomes
23, 1
22 pairs, 1 pair
23, 23
2, 2

2. A section of chromosomes that codes for a trait can be called a(n):
nucleotide
base-pair
gene
nucleus

3. Somatic cells of a human have ____ chromosomes and are called ____
10, haploid
92, diploid
23, haploid
46, diploid

4. A person who receives an extra chromosome, could have:
Heightened intelligence
Down Syndrome
Red eyes
Polygenic traits

5. Each chromosome consists of two identical:
genes
nuclei
chromatids
bases

6. If a person receives an X and a Y chromosome, that person is:
female
male
red eyed
mentally challenged

7. Two alleles for pea plant height are designated T (tall) and t (dwarf). These alleles are found on:
genes
sex chromosomes
ribosomes
homologous chromosomes

8. An animal has 40 chromosomes in its gametes, how many chromosomes would you expect to find in this animal’s brain cells?
1
20
40
80

9. A picture of a person’s chromosomes is called a(n):
karyotype
syndrome
chromatin
fingerprint

10. During which phase of mitosis is DNA replicated?
interphase
prophase
anaphase
telophase

Score =
Correct answers:

Genetics Practice Test

%CODE1%

Javascript not enabled

Name: 

Genetics Practice Test

 

 
Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 1.
Mendel prevented self-pollination of his plants by
a.
growing only one kind of plant.
b.
preventing crossing-over.
c.
removing the anthers of the plants.
d.
removing the stigmas of the plants.
 2.
The “father” of genetics was
a.
T. A. Knight.
c.
Gregor Mendel.
b.
Hans Krebs.
d.
None of the above
 3.
Mendel obtained his P generation by allowing the plants to
a.
self-pollinate.
c.
assort independently.
b.
cross-pollinate.
d.
segregate.
 4.
What is the probability that the offspring of a homozygous dominant individual and a homozygous recessive individual will exhibit the dominant phenotype?
a.
0.25
c.
0.66
b.
0.5
d.
1.0
 5.
True-breeding pea plants always
a.
are pollinated by hand.
b.
produce offspring each of which can have multiple forms of a trait.
c.
produce offspring each of which can have only one form of a trait.
d.
are heterozygous.
 6.
The first filial (F1) generation is the result of
a.
cross-pollination among parents and the next generation.
b.
crosses between individuals of the parental generation.
c.
crosses between the offspring of a parental cross.
d.
self-fertilization between parental stock.
 7.
Which of the following is the designation for Mendel’s original pure strains of plants?
a.
P
c.
F1
b.
P1
d.
F2
 8.
F2 : F1 ::
a.
P : F1
c.
F1 : P
b.
F1 : F2
d.
dominant trait : recessive trait
 9.
The passing of traits from parents to offspring is called
a.
genetics.
c.
development.
b.
heredity.
d.
maturation.
 10.
A genetic trait that appears in every generation of offspring is called
a.
dominant.
c.
recessive.
b.
phenotypic.
d.
superior.
 11.
homozygous : heterozygous ::
a.
heterozygous : Bb
c.
BB : Bb
b.
probability : predicting chances
d.
homozygous : BB
 12.
Mendel’s finding that the inheritance of one trait had no effect on the inheritance of another became known as the
a.
law of dominance.
b.
law of universal inheritance.
c.
law of separate convenience.
d.
law of independent assortment.
 13.
To describe how traits can disappear and reappear in a certain pattern from generation to generation, Mendel proposed
a.
the law of independent assortment.
b.
the law of segregation.
c.
the law of genotypes.
d.
that the F2 generation will produce only purple flowers.
 14.
The law of segregation explains that
a.
alleles of a gene separate from each other during meiosis.
b.
different alleles of a gene can never be found in the same organism.
c.
each gene of an organism ends up in a different gamete.
d.
each gene is found on a different molecule of DNA.
 15.
When Mendel crossed pea plants that differed in two characteristics, such as flower color and plant height,
a.
these experiments led to his law of segregation.
b.
he found that the inheritance of one trait did not influence the inheritance of the other trait.
c.
he found that the inheritance of one trait influenced the inheritance of the other trait.
d.
these experiments were considered failures because the importance of his work was not recognized.
 16.
The phenotype of an organism
a.
represents its genetic composition.
b.
reflects all the traits that are actually expressed.
c.
occurs only in dominant pure organisms.
d.
cannot be seen.
 17.
If an individual has two recessive alleles for the same trait, the individual is said to be
a.
homozygous for the trait.
b.
haploid for the trait.
c.
heterozygous for the trait.
d.
mutated.
 18.
An individual heterozygous for a trait and an individual homozygous recessive for the trait are crossed and produce many offspring. These offspring are likely to be
a.
all the same genotype.
b.
of two different phenotypes.
c.
of three different phenotypes.
d.
all the same phenotype.
 19.
Tallness (T) is dominant over shortness (t) in pea plants. Which of the following represents the genotype of a pea plant that is heterozygous for tallness?
a.
T
c.
Tt
b.
TT
d.
tt

In humans, having freckles (F) is dominant over not having freckles (f). The inheritance of these traits can be studied using a Punnett square similar to the one shown below.

 20.
Refer to the illustration above. The genotype represented in box 1 in the Punnett square would
a.
be homozygous for freckles.
b.
have an extra freckles chromosome.
c.
be heterozygous for freckles.
d.
have freckles chromosomes.
 21.
Refer to the illustration above. The genotype in box 3 of the Punnett square is
a.
FF.
c.
ff.
b.
Ff.
d.
None of the above
 22.
A trait that occurs in 450 individuals out of a total of 1,800 individuals occurs with a probability of
a.
0.04.
c.
0.50.
b.
0.25.
d.
0.75.
 23.
How many different phenotypes can be produced by a pair of codominant alleles?
a.
1
c.
3
b.
2
d.
4
 24.
Refer to the illustration above. The phenotype represented by box 1 is
a.
green, inflated.
c.
yellow, inflated.
b.
green, constricted.
d.
yellow, constricted.
 25.
Refer to the illustration above. The genotype represented by box 2 is
a.
GgIi.
c.
GI.
b.
GGIi.
d.
Gi.
 26.
2,000 yellow seeds : 8,000 total seeds ::
a.
1 : 6
c.
1 : 3
b.
1 : 8
d.
1 : 4

In rabbits, black fur (B) is dominant over brown fur (b). Consider the following cross between two rabbits.

 27.
Refer to the illustration above. The device shown, which is used to determine the probable outcome of genetic crosses, is called a
a.
Mendelian box.
c.
genetic graph.
b.
Punnett square.
d.
phenotypic paradox.
 28.
Refer to the illustration above. Both of the parents in the cross are
a.
black.
b.
brown.
c.
homozygous dominant.
d.
homozygous recessive.
 29.
Refer to the illustration above. The phenotype of the offspring indicated by box 3 would be
a.
brown.
b.
black.
c.
a mixture of brown and black.
d.
The phenotype cannot be determined.
 30.
Refer to the illustration above. The genotypic ratio of the F1 generation would be
a.
1:1.
c.
1:3.
b.
3:1.
d.
1:2:1.
 31.
What is the expected genotypic ratio resulting from a homozygous dominant ´ heterozygous monohybrid cross?
a.
1:0
c.
1:2:1
b.
1:1
d.
1:3:1
 32.
What fraction of the offspring resulting from a heterozygous ´ heterozygous dihybrid cross are homozygous recessive for both traits?
a.
9/16
c.
3/16
b.
1/4
d.
1/16
 33.
What is the expected genotypic ratio resulting from a heterozygous ´ heterozygous monohybrid cross?
a.
1:2:1
c.
1:2
b.
1:3:1
d.
1:0
 34.
What is the expected phenotypic ratio resulting from a homozygous dominant ´ heterozygous monohybrid cross?
a.
1:3:1
c.
2:1
b.
1:2:1
d.
1:0
 35.
Refer to the illustration above. The phenotype represented by box 1 is
a.
round, yellow.
c.
wrinkled, yellow.
b.
round, green.
d.
wrinkled, green.
 36.
Refer to the illustration above. The genotype represented by box 2 is
a.
RRYY.
c.
RrYy.
b.
RrYY.
d.
rrYy.
 37.
Refer to the illustration above. Which of the following boxes represents the same phenotype as box 7?
a.
3
c.
5
b.
4
d.
6
 38.
An organism that has inherited two of the same alleles of a gene from its parents is called
a.
hereditary.
c.
homozygous.
b.
heterozygous.
d.
a mutation.
 39.
In pea plants, yellow seeds are dominant over green seeds. What would be the expected genotype ratio in a cross between a plant with green seeds and a plant that is heterozygous for seed color?
a.
1:3
c.
4:1
b.
1:2:1
d.
1:1
 40.
codominance : both traits are displayed ::
a.
probability : crosses
b.
heterozygous : alleles are the same
c.
homozygous : alleles are the same
d.
Punnett square : chromosomes combine
 41.
The difference between a monohybrid cross and a dihybrid cross is that
a.
monohybrid crosses involve traits for which only one allele exists, while dihybrid traits involve two alleles.
b.
monohybrid crosses involve self-pollination, while dihybrid crosses involve cross-pollination.
c.
monohybrid crosses involve one trait; dihybrid crosses involve two traits.
d.
dihybrid crosses require two Punnett squares; monohybrid crosses need only one.
 42.
What fraction of the offspring resulting from a heterozygous ´ heterozygous dihybrid cross are heterozygous for both traits?
a.
9/16
c.
3/16
b.
1/4
d.
1/16
 43.
A cross of two individuals for a single contrasting trait is called
a.
monohybrid.
c.
dominant.
b.
dihybrid.
d.
codominant.
 
Completion
Complete each statement.
 44.
The transferring of pollen between plants is called ____________________.

 45.
Mendel produced true-breeding strains of pea plants through the process of ____________________.

 46.
When two members of the F1 generation are allowed to breed with each other, the offspring are referred to as the ____________________ generation.

 47.
In heterozygous individuals, only the ____________________ allele achieves expression.

 48.
The statement that the members of each pair of alleles separate when gametes are formed is known as the _________________________.

 49.
Different forms of a particular gene, which Mendel called factors, are now called ____________________.

 50.
The cellular process that results in the segregation of Mendel’s factors is ____________________.

 51.
The portion of a DNA molecule containing the coded instructions that result in a particular characteristic of an organism is called a(n) ____________________.

 52.
An organism’s ____________________ refers to the set of alleles it has inherited.

 53.
The likelihood that a specific event will occur is called ____________________.

 54.

Refer to the illustration above. The box labeled “X” represents the phenotype ____________________.

 55.
A fractional probability of 1/2 is the same as a decimal probability of ____________________.

In pea plants, tallness (T) is dominant over shortness (t). Crosses between plants with these traits can be analyzed using a Punnett square similar to the one shown below.

 56.
Refer to the illustration above. The parents shown in the Punnett square are likely to have offspring with a genotype ratio of ____________________.

 57.
Refer to the illustration above. Box 2 and box ____________________ in the Punnett square represent plants that would be heterozygous for tallness.

 58.
Refer to the illustration above. The phenotype of the plant that would be represented in box 4 of the Punnett square would be ____________________.

 59.
Refer to the illustration above. The genotype of both parents shown in the Punnett square above is ____________________.

 60.
A situation in which both alleles for a trait are expressed in a heterozygous offspring is called ____________________.

 61.
A pattern of heredity in which a heterozygous individual has a phenotype that is intermediate between the phenotypes of its two homozygous parents is called _________________________.

 62.
A table used to determine and diagram the results of a genetic cross is called a ____________________.

 63.
In genetics, lowercase letters are usually used to indicate ____________________.

 
Problem
 64.
In tomato plants, tallness is dominant over dwarfness and hairy stems are dominant over hairless stems. True-breeding (homozygous) plants that are tall and have hairy stems are available. True-breeding (homozygous) plants that are dwarf and have hairless stems are also available. Design an experiment to determine whether the genes for height and hairiness of stem are on the same or different chromosomes. Explain how you will be able to determine from the results whether the genes are on the same chromosome or different chromosomes, and whether they are close to each other or far apart if they are on the same chromosome. Write your answer in the space below.

 65.

A scientist crossed true-breeding tall and hairy-stemmed tomato plants with true-breeding dwarf and hairless-stemmed tomato plants. He found that all of the F1 plants produced as a result of this cross were tall and hairy-stemmed. He then allowed the F1 plants to pollinate each other and obtained 1000 F2 plants. Of these 1000 F2 plants, he observed the following numbers of four different phenotypes:

557 tall and hairy-stemmed plants 192 dwarf and hairy-stemmed plants
180 tall and hairless-stemmed plants 71 dwarf and hairless-stemmed plants

Write your answers to the following in the space below or on a separate sheet of paper.

a.      Which height characteristic is dominant, tallness or dwarfness?
b.      Which stem characteristic is dominant, hairiness or hairlessness?
c.      What are the genotypes of the original, true-breeding parents? (Be sure to indicate what the symbols you use stand for.)
d.      What are the genotypes of the F1 hybrid plants? (Be sure to indicate what the symbols you use stand for.)
e.      What are the genotypes of the four types of plants found in the F2 generation? (Be sure to indicate what the symbols you use stand for.)
f.      What were the expected numbers of plants of each type in the F2 generation? (Round off to the nearest whole numbers.)
g.      Why did the observed numbers of plants of each type in the F2 generation differ from the expected?
h.      How could this experiment have been changed to obtain numbers of plants of each type in the F2 generation that were closer to the expected numbers?

 
Essay
 66.
How might you go about determining the genotype of a red-flowering plant where red is dominant over white? Write your answer in the space below.

 67.
Describe pollination in pea plants. Write your answer in the space below.

 68.
In what ways did Mendel’s methods help ensure his success in unraveling the mechanics of heredity? Write your answer in the space below.

 69.
What conclusions did Gregor Mendel reach based on his observations of pea plants? Write your answer in the space below.

 70.
Describe Mendel’s observation regarding independent assortment. Write your answer in the space below.

 71.
What are three ways to express the probability of an event that occurs 500 times out of 2,000 total trials? Write your answer in the space below.

 72.
Describe how genotype and phenotype are related, and give an example. Write your answer in the space below.

 73.
Explain what is meant by homozygous and heterozygous, and give an example of each. Write your answer in the space below.

 74.
All of the offspring resulting from a cross between a red snapdragon and a white snapdragon are pink. What is a possible explanation for this? Write your answer in the space below.

 

   

Biomes of the World

%CODE1% Biomes of the World

 

T S O V C D A R P R L V T T S
Q S L U E I E B E G A L U D R
X T E S S M T T I V D E N B T
N A E R U E A O V O I M D H K
Z R U S O W R J I N T O R E R
T M N T H F C O H B R I A R E
S O L S N H N A V C E B C B C
C P E R F K Q I R I T A F I U
N R S A V A N N A N N Y C V D
F E N I R A M F D R I M U O O
G R A S S L A N D Z A V O R R
S U O U D I C E D G N J O E P
O H Z G L J Y X I B Y X F R W
U C T C T N Y A Q B A J S U E
X N B S O O T D E K P T N B X

Find each term and then number and define it on the back of this sheet.

 

ABIOTIC BIOME BIOTIC
CARNIVORE CONSUMER DECIDUOUS
DESERT FRESHWATER GRASSLAND
HERBIVORE INTERTIDAL MARINE
OMNIVORE PRODUCER RAINFOREST
SAVANNA TAIGA TUNDRA

 

 

 


 

 

Exit mobile version