AP Lecture Guide 22 – Descent with Modification

 

 

AP Biology: CHAPTER 22- DESCENT WITH MODIFICATION

 

1. Identify the three significant historical themes that set the stage for Darwinian evolutionary

theory.

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2. What were the two major points made in The Origin of Species?

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3. What were the conventional paradigms in the 1800’s when Darwin developed his theories?

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4. What was the contribution of Carolus Linnaeus to the evolutionary theories?

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5. How did the study of fossils help Darwin shape his theories?

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6. How did geological gradualism and uniformitarianism influence Darwin?

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7. Identify the two principles of Lamarck’s theory of evolution.

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8. How did the observations during his voyage on the Beagle influence Darwin’s theories?

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9. Why were the Galápagos Islands so important to Darwin’s observations?

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10. What are the elements for the formation of new species?

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11. What is the driving force behind the evolution of the 14 species of finches on the

Galapagos?

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12. What was Wallace’s role in the Theory of Natural Selection?

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13. What were the main points of The Origin of Species?

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14. Define Descent with Modification.

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15. How does the “tree analogy” represent the evolutionary relationships of creatures?

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16. Summarize the observations and inferences recognized as the backbone of evolution by

natural selection.

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17. Observations:

a. ______________________________________________________________________

b. ______________________________________________________________________

c. ______________________________________________________________________

d. ______________________________________________________________________

e. ______________________________________________________________________

18. Inferences:

a. ______________________________________________________________________

b. ______________________________________________________________________

c. ______________________________________________________________________

19. How did Darwin’s experience with artificial selection influence his theories of evolution?

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20. For each of the following, indicate how it is used as evidence of evolution by natural

selection.

a. Paleontology ____________________________________________________________

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b. Biogeography ___________________________________________________________

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c. Resistance to insecticides _________________________________________________

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d. Drug Resistance _________________________________________________________

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e. Homology ______________________________________________________________

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f. Homologous structures ___________________________________________________

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g. Vestigial organs _________________________________________________________

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h. Embryology ____________________________________________________________

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i. Biochemical similarity _____________________________________________________

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AP Lecture Guide 23 – The Evolution of Populations

 

 

AP Biology: CHAPTER 23- THE EVOLUTION OF POPULATIONS

 

1. How does the “modern synthesis” theory of evolution differ from Darwin’s Theory of Natural

Selection?

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2. Population genetics puts a mathematical approach to the study of microevolution. Define

each of the terms commonly used in population genetics.

a. population: _____________________________________________________________

b. gene pool: ______________________________________________________________

c. gene frequency: _________________________________________________________

3. What are the gene frequencies for the red and white flowers?

a. p = ____________________________________________________________________

b. q = ____________________________________________________________________

4. List the five condition that must be met by a populations to insure stability (no evolution).

a. ______________________________________________________________________

b. ______________________________________________________________________

c. ______________________________________________________________________

d. ______________________________________________________________________

e. ______________________________________________________________________

5. Assuming Hardy-Weinberg distribution of genes in a population, write the equation that

describes genotype frequencies.

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6. Define the following:

a. p2 = ___________________________________________________________________

b. 2pq = __________________________________________________________________

c. q2 = ___________________________________________________________________

7. Work out these practice problems. Find both the gene and genotype frequencies:

a. In Drosophilia, the allele for normal length wings is dominant over the allele for vestigial

wings. In a population of 1,000 individuals, 160 show the recessive phenotype.

b. The allele for the hair pattern called “widow’s peak” is dominant over the allele for no

“widow’s peak.” In a population of 1,000 individuals, 360 show the dominant phenotype.

8. What is the H-W assumption that is broken when genetic drift occurs? Explain

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9. How does genetic drift apply to each of the following? Give an example of each.

a. Founders effect: _________________________________________________________

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b. Bottleneck effect _________________________________________________________

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10. How do each of the following break H-W assumptions?

a. natural selection: ________________________________________________________

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b. gene flow: ______________________________________________________________

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c. mutation: _______________________________________________________________

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d. selective mating: _________________________________________________________

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11. Why is genetic variation important to evolution?

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12. How can populations vary along a geographic axis compared to isolated populations?

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13. What is the role of mutations to forming variation?

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14. What factors of sexual reproduction lead to variations within a population?

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15. How does diploidy preserve variation?

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16. What is “balanced polymorphism?”

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17. How can parasites contribute to balanced polymorphism?

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18. In a biological sense, what is fitness?

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19. Label the following graphs of variation in color with the type of selection.

 

 

20. What is the effect of sexual selection?

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21. For each of the following, give an example or describe what is meant by the statement.

a. Natural selection cannot fashion perfect organisms: _____________________________

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b. Evolution is limited by historical constraints: ___________________________________

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c. Adaptations are often compromises: _________________________________________

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d. Not all evolution is adaptive: _______________________________________________

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e. Selection can only edit existing variations: ____________________________________

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AP Genetics Problems

 

Genetics Problems

1. A rooster with gray feathers is mated with a hen of the same phenotype. Among their offspring, 15 chicks are gray, 6 are black, and 8 are white.

  • What is the simplest explanation for the inheritance of these colors in chickens?
  • What offspring would you predict from the mating of a gray rooster and a black hen?

2. In some plants, a true-breeding, red-flowered strain gives all pink flowers when crossed with a white-flowered strain: RR (red) x rr (white) —> Rr (pink). If flower position (axial or terminal) is inherited as it is in peas what will be the ratios of genotypes and phenotypes of the generation resulting from the following cross: axial-red (true-breeding) x terminal-white? What will be the ratios in the F2 generation?

3. Flower position, stem length, and seed shape were three characters that Mendel studied. Each is controlled by an independently assorting gene and has dominant and recessive expression as follows:

 

CharacterDominantRecessive
Flower positionAxial (A )Terminal (a )
Stem lengthTall (T )Dwarf (t )
Seed shapeRound (R )Wrinkled (r)

 

If a plant that is heterozygous for all three characters were allowed to self-fertilize, what proportion of the offspring would be expected to be as follows: (Note – use the rules of probability (and show your work) instead of huge Punnett squares)

  1. homozygous for the three dominant traits
  2. homozygous for the three recessive traits
  3. heterozygous
  4. homozygous for axial and tall, heterozygous for seed shape

4. A black guinea pig crossed with an albino guinea pig produced 12 black offspring. When the albino was crossed with a second one, 7 blacks and 5 albinos were obtained.

  • What is the best explanation for this genetic situation?
  • Write genotypes for the parents, gametes, and offspring.

5. In sesame plants, the one-pod condition (P ) is dominant to the three-pod condition (p ), and normal leaf (L ) is dominant to wrinkled leaf (l) . Pod type and leaf type are inherited independently. Determine the genotypes for the two parents for all possible matings producing the following offspring:

  1. 318 one-pod normal, 98 one-pod wrinkled
  2. 323 three-pod normal, 106 three-pod wrinkled
  3. 401 one-pod normal
  4. 150 one-pod normal, 147 one-pod wrinkled, 51 three-pod normal, 48 three-pod wrinkled
  5. 223 one-pod normal, 72 one-pod wrinkled, 76 three-pod normal, 27 three-pod wrinkled

6. A man with group A blood marries a woman with group B blood. Their child has group O blood.

  • What are the genotypes of these individuals?
  • What other genotypes and in what frequencies, would you expect in offspring from this marriage?

7. Color pattern in a species of duck is determined by one gene with three alleles. Alleles H and I are codominant, and allele i is recessive to both. How many phenotypes are possible in a flock of ducks that contains all the possible combinations of these three alleles?

8. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited disease caused by a recessive allele. If a woman and her husband are both carriers, what is the probability of each of the following?

  1. all three of their children will be of normal phenotype
  2. one or more of the three children will have the disease
  3. all three children will have the disease
  4. at least one child out of three will be phenotypically normal

(Note: Remember that the probabilities of all possible outcomes always add up to 1)

9. The genotype of F1 individuals in a tetrahybrid cross is AaBbCcDd. Assuming independent assortment of these four genes, what are the probabilities that F2 offspring would have the following genotypes?

  1. aabbccdd
  2. AaBbCcDd
  3. AABBCCDD
  4. AaBBccDd
  5. AaBBCCdd

10. In 1981, a stray black cat with unusual rounded curled-back ears was adopted by a family in California. Hundreds of descendants of the cat have since been born, and cat fanciers hope to develop the “curl” cat into a show breed. Suppose you owned the first curl cat and wanted to develop a true breeding variety.

  • How would you determine whether the curl allele is dominant or recessive?
  • How would you select for true-breeding cats?
  • How would you know they are true-breeding?

11. What is the probability that each of the following pairs of parents will produce the indicated offspring (assume independent assortment of all gene pairs?

  1. AABbCc x aabbcc —-> AaBbCc
  2. AABbCc x AaBbCc —–> AAbbCC
  3. AaBbCc x AaBbCc —–> AaBbCc
  4. aaBbCC x AABbcc —-> AaBbCc

12. Karen and Steve each have a sibling with sickle-cell disease. Neither Karen, Steve, nor any of their parents has the disease, and none of them has been tested to reveal sickle-cell trait. Based on this incomplete information, calculate the probability that if this couple should have another child, the child will have sickle-cell anemia.

13. Imagine that a newly discovered, recessively inherited disease is expressed only in individuals with type O blood, although the disease and blood group are independently inherited. A normal man with type A blood and a normal woman with type B blood have already had one child with the disease. The woman is now pregnant for a second time. What is the probability that the second child will also have the disease? Assume both parents are heterozygous for the “disease” gene.

14. In tigers, a recessive allele causes an absence of fur pigmentation (a “white tiger”) and a cross-eyed condition. If two phenotypically normal tigers that are heterozygous at this locus are mated, what percentage of their offspring will be cross-eyed? What percentage will be white?

15. In corn plants, a dominant allele I inhibits kernel color, while the recessive allele i permits color when homozygous. At a different locus, the dominant gene P causes purple kernel color, while the homozygous recessive genotype pp causes red kernels. If plants heterozygous at both loci are crossed, what will be the phenotypic ratio of the F1 generation?

16. The pedigree below traces the inheritance of alkaptonuria, a biochemical disorder. Affected individuals, indicated here by the filled-in circles and squares, are unable to break down a substance called alkapton, which colors the urine and stains body tissues. Does alkaptonuria appear to be caused by a dominant or recessive allele? Fill in the genotypes of the individuals whose genotypes you know. What genotypes are possible for each of the other individuals?

 
17. A man has six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot. His wife and their daughter have the normal number of digits (5). Extra digits is a dominant trait. What fraction of this couple’s children would be expected to have extra digits?

18. Imagine you are a genetic counselor, and a couple planning to start a family came to you for information. Charles was married once before, and he and his first wife had a child who has cystic fibrosis. The brother of his current wife Elaine died of cystic fibrosis. What is the probability that Charles and Elaine will have a baby with cystic fibrosis? (Neither Charles nor Elaine has the disease)

19. In mice, black color (B ) is dominant to white (b ). At a different locus, a dominant allele (A ) produces a band of yellow just below the tip of each hair in mice with black fur. This gives a frosted appearance known as agouti. Expression of the recessive allele (a ) results in a solid coat color. If mice that are heterozygous at both loci are crossed, what will be the expected phenotypic ratio of their offspring?

20. The pedigree below traces the inheritance of a vary rare biochemical disorder in humans. Affected individuals are indicated by filled-in circles and squares. Is the allele for this disorder dominant or recessive? What genotypes are possible for the individuals marked 1, 2, and 3.

 

 

Solutions

Genetic Problems Solutions Campbell Ch14

 

Genetics Problems Campbell
1. A man with hemophilia (a recessive , sex-linked condition has a daughter of normal phenotype. She marries a man who is normal for the trait. What is the probability that a daughter of this mating will be a hemophiliac? A son? If the couple has four sons, what is the probability that all four will be born with hemophilia?

Solution

 

2. Pseudohypertropic muscular dystrophy is a disorder that causes gradual deterioration of the muscles. It is seen only in boys born to apparently normal parents and usually results in death in the early teens. (a) Is pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy caused by a dominant or recessive allele? (b) Is its inheritance sex-linked or autosomal? (c) How do you know? Explain why this disorder is always seen in boys and never girls.

Solution

3. Red-green color blindness is caused by a sex-linked recessive allele. A color-blind man marries a woman with normal vision whose father was color-blind. (a) What is the probability that they will have a color-blind daughter? (b) What is the probability that their first son will be color-blind? (Note: the two questions are worded a bit differently.)

Solution

4. A wild-type fruit fly (heterozygous for gray body color and normal wings was mated with a black fly with vestigial wings. The offspring had the following phenotypic distribution: wild type, 778; black-vestigial, 785; black-normal, 158; gray-vestigial, 162. What is the recombination frequency between these genes for body color and wing type.

Solution

5. In another cross, a wild-type fruit fly (heterozygous for gray body color and red eyes) was mated with a black fruit fly with purple eyes. The offspring were as follows: wild-type, 721; black-purple, 751; gray-purple, 49; black-red, 45. (a) What is the recombination frequency between these genes for body color and eye color? (b) Following up on this problem and problem 4, what fruit flies (genotypes and phenotypes) would you mate to determine the sequence of the body color, wing shape, and eye color genes on the chromosomes?

Solution

6. A space probe discovers a planet inhabited by creatures who reproduce with the same hereditary patterns as those in humans. Three phenotypic characters are height (T = tall, t = dwarf), hearing appendages (A = antennae, a = no antennae), and nose morphology (S = upturned snout, s = downturned snout). Since the creatures were not “intelligent” Earth scientists were able to do some controlled breeding experiments, using various heterozygotes in testcrosses. For a tall heterozygote with antennae, the offspring were tall-antennae, 46; dwarf-antennae 7; dwarf-no antennae 42; tall-no antennae 5. For a heterozygote with antennae and an upturned snout, the offspring were antennae-upturned snout 47; antennae-downturned snout, 2; no antennae-downturned snout, 48: no antennae-upturned snout 3. Calculate the recombination frequencies for both experiments.

Solution

7. Using the information from problem 6, a further testcross was done using a heterozygote for height and nose morphology. The offspring were tall-upturned nose, 40; dwarf-upturned nose, 9; dwarf-downturned nose, 42; tall-downturned nose, 9. Calculate the recombination frequency from these data; then use your answer from problem 6 to determine the correct sequence of the three linked genes.

Solution

8. Imagine that a geneticist has identified two disorders that appear to be caused by the same chromosomal defect and are affected by genomic imprinting: blindness and numbness of the limbs. A blind woman (whose mother suffered from numbness) has four children, two of whom, a son and daughter, have inherited the chromosomal defect. If this defect works like Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, what disorders do this son and daughter display? What disorders would be seen in their sons and daughters?

Solution

9. What pattern of inheritance would lead a geneticist to suspect that an inherited disorder of cell metabolism is due to a defective mitochondrial gene?

Solution

10. An aneuploid person is obviously female, but her cells have two Barr bodies. what is the probable complement of sex chromosomes in this individual?

Solution

11. Determine the sequence of genes along a chromosome based on the following recombination frequencies: A-B, 8 map units; A-C, 28 map units; A-D, 25 map units; B-C , 20 map units; B-D, 33 map units.

Solution

12. About 5% of individuals with Downs syndrome are the result of chromosomal translocation. In most of these cases, one copy of chromosome 21 becomes attached to chromosome 14. How does this translocation lead to children with Down syndrome?

Solution

13. Assume genes A and B are linked and are 50 map units apart. An individual heterozygous at both loci is crossed with an individual who is homozygous recessive at both loci. (a) What percentage of the offspring will show phenotypes resulting from crossovers? (b) If you did not know genes A and B were linked, how would you interpret the results of this cross?

Solution

14. In Drosophila, the gene for white eyes and the gene that produces “hairy” wings have both been mapped to the same chromosome and have a crossover frequency of 1.5%. A geneticist doing some crosses involving these two mutant characteristics noticed that in a particular stock of flies, these two genes assorted independently; that is they behaved as though they were on different chromosomes. What explanation can you offer for this observation?

Solution

 

BACK

Campbell Chapter 14 Gen Prob 1

Molecular Genetics: Problem 1
A man with hemophilia (a recessive , sex-linked condition has a daughter of normal phenotype. She marries a man who is normal for the trait. What is the probability that a daughter of this mating will be a hemophiliac? A son? If the couple has four sons, what is the probability that all four will be born with hemophilia?

Genotypes:

A man with hemophilia is XhY where h = hemophilia gene and H = the normal gene.
Any daughter with normal phenotype whose father has hemophilia will be a carrier.

Her genotype must be:

XhXH and NOT XHXH
We can use a Punnett square to show the probability of a daughter or son having hemophilia.

daughter x normal man
XhXH x XHY

A. If the daughter marries a normal male the probability of a daughter having hemophilia is zero.

B. About 50% of male children would have hemophilia (Boxes 2 and 4 above)

C. The probability that all 4 sons have inherited hemophilia would be: 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 or 1/16.

BACK

Genetic Disorder Project Presentation

 

Genetic Disorders to PresentInternet resources to help in researchRubric for project
You have been challenged to incorporate your knowledge about cells, cell division, genetics, and DNA to research and present on a specific genetic disorder. You have already completed your basic study about the ideas of genetics and mutations. Now with the information that you have you are being asked to research a specific genetic disorder and give an oral presentation along with creating either a PowerPoint or poster to explain the genetic disorder.

Your multimedia presentation (powerpoint / poster) along with your oral presentation
should include the following points.

  • What is the name of the disorder and what is the history behind the disorder? Who discovered it or/and who have done research on the disease?
  • How is the disorder diagnosed? How does a person receive the disorder? Is it sex-linked? Is it a mutation? Is it due to heredity?
  • You will need to find out all of the signs and symptoms of the given disorder and share these with the class.
  • What types of treatment there are for the disorder?
  • Include a suggested list of readings and/or Internet sources that may be of interest to the class.
  • You are encouraged to share any other information that you feel is relevant that you feel is important for others to know about the genetic disorder.
List of possible Genetic Disorders to Present:
  • Achondroplasia (Dwarfism)
  • Albinism
  • Adrenal hyperplasia
  • Autism/ Asperger syndrome
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)
  • Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
  • Familial Dysautonomia
  • Gardner syndrome (intestinal polyposis)
  • Gaucher’s Disease
  • Hemophilia
  • Huntington’s Disease
  • Jacobsen Syndrome
  • Klinefelters Syndrome
  • Klippel-Feil Syndrome
  • Leukodystrophy
  • Lou Gehrig’s Disease (ALS)
  • Marfan Syndrome
  • Moebius Syndrome
  • Polycystic Kidney Disease
  • Progeria
  • Proteus Syndrome
  • Retinoblastoma
  • Rett’s Syndrome
  • Spinocerebellar Ataxia
  • Tay-Sachs Disease
  • Tourette Syndrome
  • Turner Syndrome
List of internet resources that may be helpful to you in creating your presentation:

Yahoo – Genetic Disorders http://dir.yahoo.com/Health/Diseases_and_Conditions/Genetic_Disorders/.
Site explains several different disorders and contains links to all of the different types of genetic disorders.

Genetic & Rare Conditions Sitehttp://www.kumc.edu/gec/support/.
links to different types of disorders in alphabetical order.

What can our chromosomes tell us? http://biology.about.com/science/biology/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/.
A site that talks about karyotyping of genotypes.

Genetic Disorder Library
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/disorders/whataregd
To learn more about different genetic disorders, browse through the Genetic Disorder Library.

A Genetics Glossary http://biology.about.com/science/biology/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://helios.bto.ed.ac.uk/bto/glossary/index.html
A basic genetic glossary.

Genetics Education Center http://www.kumc.edu/gec/.
Seeks to help educate people about genetics.

The National Human Genome Research Institute http://www.nhgri.nih.gov/.
Explains about the human genome project.

Department of Energy – Human Genome Project Information http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis/.
Provides a lot of information about the human genome project.

A Gene Map of the Human Genome http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/science96/.
You can see the mapping of several different chromosomes found within the body.

Learning about the Human Genome Project and Genetics through the World Wide Web http://www.kumc.edu/gec/hgpwww.html.
Looks at the ethical issues of genetic research.

Understanding Gene Testinghttp://www.accessexcellence.org/ae/AE/AEPC/NIH/index.html.
This site talks of how genes are linked to disease and how a gene creates a genetic disorder.

Basics of DNA Fingerprintinghttp://www.biology.washington.edu/fingerprint/dnaintro.html.
Explains the basic understanding of DNA fingerprinting.

What is Genetic Testing? http://www.lbl.gov/Education/ELSI/Frames/genetic-testing-f.html.
Shows the basics of genetic testing and talks about the ethical issues of that happen due to genetic testing.

 

Rubric for Evaluation of Genetic Disorder Presentation.
Beginning
5 points
Developing
10 Points
Accomplished
15 Points
Exemplary
20 Points
Total
Score
Oral Presentation Quality of Information
Bare minimums have been accomplished. Little understanding about the genetic disorder delivered in oral presentation. Could only read slides with no further understanding.Minimums plus slight extras added. Answered questions from the intro and at least one question posed to them in the process section.All information present and complete. Some problems with flow and delivery. Shows more or less some understanding of knowledge – has minor flaws.Information is well thought out, flows well, all information is completed, Appears to have been practiced, knowledge shown.
Bibliography

Amount of additional Information for reading and websites found and presented

no additional reading lists or websites provided or presented in bibliography.At least 2 web sites or books accessed and verified in presentation and presented in bibliography.At least 4 web sites or books accessed and verified in presentation and presented in bibliography.At least 6 web sites or books accessed and verified in presentation and presented in bibliography.
Organization of presentation
Random information is presentedDisorganized at times.OrganizedOrganized effectively with easy understanding.
Use of class time working on project
Majority of class time was wasted.Half of class time was wasted.Little class time was wasted.No class time was wasted.
Overall Multimedia
Presentation
Disorganized
Not Completed
Missing Key Component Questions
no graphics.
Spelling errors present
presentation has some flow to it but is choppy.
Easily understood by all. Includes graphics and data tables of information retrieved.Neatly done, organized, proper spelling, allparts included,above and beyond effort.
Information that is presented is aesthetically pleasing to the eye.
Link to printable rubric in word document format

Link to Bibliography Citation Machine

TOTAL SCORE
 

 

 

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