DNA Technology

 

DNA Technology

 

Section 13-1

1. What is genetic engineering?

2. Give 2 ways it can be used.

3. What is the technology used in genetic engineering called?

4. What are some ways we are using DNA technology?

5. What are restriction enzymes?

6. When restriction enzymes cut DNA _____________________ ends are created.

7. What is a cloning vector?

8. Define plasmid & tell how they’re used in genetic engineering.

9. The gene for the protein ________________________ is made using bacterial plasmids.

10. What is the first step in genetically engineering insulin from bacterial cells?

11. What is a genomic library?

12. What is recombinant DNA?

13. A plasmid containing recombinant DNA is inserted into a host ____________called a _________________ organism.

14. Transgenic bacterium are placed in a _________________ where they reproduce and make large amounts of _____________.

 

Section 13-2 DNA Technology Techniques

 

15. What is a DNA fingerprint & how can they be used?

16. What is the method called that is used to make a DNA fingerprint?

17. Briefly describe the RFLP analysis method.

18. What is gel electrophoresis?

19. What causes DNA segments to separate during gel electrophoresis?

20. How accurate are DNA fingerprints & why?

21. If only a tiny amount of DNA is available for analysis, what process must be used & why?

22. With the PCR method, the amount of DNA _________________ every 5 minutes.

23. Give 3 situations in which PCR is useful.

24. What is the Human Genome Project?

25. Define gene therapy and name several diseases it may be used to treat.

 

Section 13-3 Uses of DNA Technology

 

26. Name 3 medicines produced by DNA technology.

27. Genetically engineered _________________________ are being produced to treat viral diseases.

28. Name several crops or plants that have had their yields increased due to genetic engineering.

29. _______________________ are applied to crops so plants will get enough nitrogen.

30. How are genetic engineers working to solve the problem of expensive fertilizers for crops?

31. What are some concerns about genetically engineered foods?

DNA History

 

History of DNA WebQuest

 

1.     Friedrich (Fritz) Miescher

http://www.dnai.org/timeline/index.html

Find Miescher on the timeline and click on the bucket with the Red Cross to watch the animation.  In 1869, he extracted a substance from white blood cells that he called nuclein.  What do you think he was actually extracting?

 

 

2.     Frederick Griffith

  http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/Bio104/dna.htm

 

Frederick Griffith’s famous experiment was conducted in 1928.  In his experiment, ______________ smooth virulent bacteria plus live rough ______________ bacteria killed mice.  His experiment demonstrated that DNA was the _______________ material.

 

Griffith’s Famous Experiment: Transformation

 

 

 

3.     Oswald Avery

http://library.thinkquest.org/20465/avery.html

In 1944, what did he discover that DNA is responsible for?

 

 

 

 

 

4.     Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase

http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/H/Hershey_Chase.html

 

a.      In 1952, their experiments showed that ______ is the genetic material instead of ____________.

 

 

5.     Erwin Chargaff

http://www.dnai.org/timeline/index.html

Watch “Chargaff’s Ratios.”  Chargaff used relative proportions of bases in DNA to come up with his rules for base pairing.  What are four sources of DNA that he used?

 

http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/gene/chargaff.htm

Adenine (A) pairs with _____________

Guanine (G) pairs with _____________

The bases that are purines include ___________ & ____________.

The bases that are pyrimidines include ___________ & ______________.

 

 

6.     Rosalind Franklin.

http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/BC/Rosalind_Franklin.php

 

http://www.dnai.org/timeline/index.html – Watch Franklin’s X-ray diffraction pattern

 

What is X-ray crystallography (a.k.a. X-ray diffraction)?

 

 

What did she discover about the shape of DNA?

 

7.     Linus Pauling

http://www.dnai.org/timeline/index.html – Watch the animation.

Linus Pauling proposed a structure for DNA that was incorrect.  Describe or draw it below:

 

 

 

 

8.     Maurice Wilkins

http://www.nzedge.com/heroes/wilkins.html

His research, with the help from ________________, led to the discovery of the DNA molecule structure.  This discovery was made by American biologist, ________________, and British physicist, ________________.

 

9.     James Watson and Francis Crick.

http://www.dnai.org/timeline/index.html

 

a.      What did they receive the Nobel Prize for in 1962?

 

b.     What is the difference between Pauling’s structure and the actual structure of DNA?

 

 

10. DNA Game

    http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/dna_double_helix/

    Play the game and record what three organisms you had:

1.

2.

3.

 

Ecology

Ecology

All Materials © Cmassengale 

Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms (biotic part) and their nonliving environment (abiotic factors)

Biotic factors includes plants, animals, fungi, & microorganisms. They may be producers, consumers, or decomposers.

Abiotic factors include climate, soil, temperature, water, air, sunlight, humidity, pH, and atmospheric gases.

Habitat is the place a plant or animal lives, while its niche is its total way of life.

Life is organized into levels:

Organism (any single living thing)

¯

            Population (members of the same species living in one place)

 ¯

                    Community (all the populations living in an area)

 ¯

        Ecosystem (community living in a similar habitat such as a forest)

 ¯

Biomes (ecosystems covering wide areas & with similar climates & organisms)

¯

Biosphere ( all the living & nonliving things on earth)

Producers:

Make their own food through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
Includes plants, algal protists, & some bacteria

Consumers:

Can’t make their own food
May be herbivores (feed only on plants), carnivores (feed only on animals), or omnivores (feed on plants & animals)

Decomposers:

Break down dead plants & animals (detritus)
Recycle nutrients
Called detritivores
Include fungi & bacteria

Sunlight is the ultimate energy for all life on earth, but only producers can get their energy directly from the sun.

Energyflowinecosystemimage

Trophic levels are feeding levels of producers & consumers in an ecosystem:

1st Trophic Level is producers that use sunlight directly
2nd Trophic Level includes herbivores that feed directly on plants
Higher Trophic Levels are carnivores feeding on each other

energypyramid

Food chains & food webs:

Chains show who eats whom in an ecosystem.
Webs are made up of several food chains.
Always begin with producers absorbing sunlight.
Producers store energy in the chemical bonds of the food they make.
Stored energy is passed to consumers when they eat producers or other consumers.
Some energy is lost at each trophic level as heat when consumers “burn” food during cellular respiration.
Both energy & nutrients must move through an ecosystem.

Three main elements that must move through an ecosystem:

Water
Carbon
Nitrogen

Water or Hydrologic Cycle:

Cells are 70 – 90% water
Water is needed for metabolic processes
Water is most important for terrestrial organisms because of desiccation (drying out)

Steps in the water Cycle:

Evaporation                                         Transpiration
(water loss from lakes, rivers, oceans…)          (water loss from plant leaves)

     ¯                                ¯

Condensation
(water vapor forms clouds)

¯

Precipitation
(water returns to earth as sleet, rain, snow…)

¯

Surface Runoff
(returns water to bodies of water or to groundwater)

Carbon Cycle:

Consists of photosynthesis, cellular respiration, & decomposition
Begins with producers taking carbon dioxide from the air during photosynthesis
Carbon dioxide used in cellular respiration
Decomposing plants and animals return Carbon to the soil

Carbon Cycle Steps:

Plant leaves take carbon dioxide from air

¯

Plants store carbon in carbohydrates or starches
(photosynthesis)

¯

Plants & animals release carbon dioxide back into the air
(cellular respiration)

¯

Decomposers return carbon to environment
(decomposition)

Nitrogen:

Needed by all organisms
Used to make proteins & nucleic acids (DNA & RNA)
Air made up of 80% nitrogen
Only Cyanobacteria & Rhizobium bacteria can use nitrogen directly from the air (nitrogen fixation)
Bacteria found in the soil & on the roots of legumes (beans, peas …)

Steps in the Nitrogen Cycle:

Cyanobacteria & Rhizobium take nitrogen from air
(nitrogen fixation)

¯

Convert nitrogen gas into ammonia

¯

Nitrifying bacteria in soil change ammonia into nitrates

¯

Plants can absorb & use nitrates to make proteins

¯

Consumers eat plants & get proteins containing nitrogen

¯

Decomposers break down dead organisms & return nitrogen to air
(called ammonification)

¯

Anaerobic bacteria in soil release nitrogen from nitrates into air
(called denitrification)

Three main types of ecosystems:

Terrestrial (land)
Freshwater (rivers, ponds, lakes …)
Marine (oceans & seas)

Terrestrial ecosystems are divided into 7 biomes with similar climates & organisms

Seven Terrestrial Biomes:

Tropical Rain Forest (jungle)
Savanna (tropical grasslands)
Deserts
Grasslands
Deciduous Forest
Taiga (coniferous forest)
Tundra

Tundra:

Cold & dark most of the year
Includes the arctic
Permafrost is the top layer of soil that thaws & in which plants grow
No trees, but sedges & grass, mosses, & lichens
Many migratory animals
Lemmings & ptarmigans are year round residents
Approximately 20 cm annual rainfall

Tundra

Taiga:

  • Coniferous forest
  • Extends across northern Eurasia & North America
  • Contains conifers or evergreens (spruce, cedar, fir, pine …)
  • Needle like leaves withstand weight of snow
  • Bear, deer, moose, wolves, mountain lions …
  • Sequoia or redwood (largest conifer) grows here
  • Bristle cone pine oldest living conifer found here

Coniferous Forest

Temperate Deciduous Forest:

  • South of taiga in North America, eastern Asia, & Europe
  • High annual rainfall (75-150 cm)
  • Moderate temperatures
  • Well-defined seasons of about equal length
  • Trees loose leaves in winter (deciduous)
  • Show stratification (plant layers):
    1. Canopy – broad leaf deciduous trees forming uppermost layer
    2. Under story – shrubs
    3. Forest Floor – herbaceous plants
  • Songbirds, deer, rabbits, foxes, squirrels, frogs 7 toads, lizards …

Temperate Deciduous Forest

Tropical Rain forest:

  • Near equator
  • Warm climate (20 -25 degrees C)
  • Plentiful rainfall (190 cm/year)
  • Contains the greatest diversity of plants & animals
  • Insects, monkeys & apes, snakes, tropical birds, leopards…
  • Animals & plants brightly colored
  • Poor soil for agriculture

Rainforest

Grasslands:

  • Mostly grasses with a few trees due to less rainfall
  • Moderate climates
  • Good for agricultural crops
  • Grazing & burrowing animals dominate
  • Also called prairies

Grassland

Savanna:

  • Tropical grasslands
  • Warm climate & rainy season
  • Antelope, zebra, lions, wildebeests, hyenas, elephants…
  • Suffer from floods & drought

(26KB)

Deserts:

  • Low annual rainfall
  • Subject to strong winds
  • Days usually hot & nights cold
  • Sahara desert is without vegetation
  • Succulents such as cacti & other water storing plants
  • Most animals nocturnal
  • Lizards, snakes, roadrunners, insects, tarantula, hawks, rodents, coyotes…

Desert

Aquatic Biomes:

  • May be freshwater or saltwater
  • Wetlands near oceans have brackish water (mixture of fresh & salt waters)
  • Part of the part water or hydrologic cycle
  • Often polluted by man’s activities

Lakes & Rivers:

  • Freshwater
  • Oligotrophic lakes are nutrient poor (catfish, carp…)
  • Eutrophic lake are nutrient rich (trout, bass…)
  • Deep lakes have layers or strata where different plants & animals live
  • Phototropic organisms in upper layers for light
  • Estuary at mouth of river contains brackish water

Ocean Zones:

  • Intertidal zone
    1. Along shoreline
    2. Wave action
    3. Lots of light so many producers
    4. Starfish, sand dollars…
  • Neritic Zone
    1. Ocean water above continental shelf
    2. Coral reef found here
    3. Surrounds continents & receives light in upper layers
  • Oceanic Zone
    1. Beyond continental shelf
    2. Deepest area (up to 7 miles)
    3. Bottom doesn’t receive light so animals adapted to darkness (many produce their own light, feed on other animals…)
    4. Deepest area called abyss
    5. Upper area gets light & called the photic zone (lots of seaweed here)
    6. Floaters called plankton (microscopic organisms)
    7. Swimmers such as fish called nekton
    8. Bottom dwellers called benthos

Ecology Worksheet Bi

 

Ecology

 

 

Chapter 19 Ecology

 

1. What is ecology?

2.. What is the most significant environmental change that is taking place today?

3. What is the sixth mass extinction?

4. What is the ozone layer, what does it do for earth, & what is happening to this layer & why?

5. Explain the green house effect.

6. List in order the ecological levels of organization.

7. What is the biosphere, tell where it extends, & tell why it is so important?

8. Define ecosystems & give an example.

9. What is a community?

10. What is a population?

11. What is the simplest ecological level of organization?

12. Use figure 19-6 on page 364 & explain how Lyme disease affects organisms in an ecosystem.

13. What are biotic factors & list them?

14. What are abiotic factors & list them?

15. Are abiotic factors constant? Explain by giving an example.

16.Organisms are able to survive within a _____________ range of environmental conditions.

17. Graphing the range of conditions an organism can survive is called a __________________ Curve.

18.When organisms adjust their tolerance to abiotic factors, the process is called ___________.

19. Explain how dormancy & migration help organisms escape unsuitable environmental conditions.

20. Define niche

Chapter 20 Populations

21. What is meant by population size?

22. What is meant by population density?

23. Name the 4 processes that determine whether a population will grow, shrink, or remain the same size.

24. What are immigration & emigration & how do they affect population size?

25. What are limiting factors & give some examples?

26. What affect does inbreeding have on small populations?

Chapter 21 Community Ecology

27. Interactions among species are called ____________.

28. List the 5 types of symbioses.

29. Define predator & prey & give an example.

30. What is mimicry & give an example?

31. Define these terms — parasitism, parasite, host, ectoparasites, & endoparasites.

32. When niches overlap, _________________________ results so more than one species are using the limited resources.

33. What are mutualism & commensalism?

34. Define succession.

35. Name & describe the 2 types of succession.

36. What are pioneer species & why are they important?

37. What is a climax community?

Chapter 22 Ecosystems

38. What are producers & what is another name they may be called?

39. What is biomass, why is it important, how does it accumulate, & what is its rate of accumulation called?

40. What is gross primary productivity?

41. All heterotrophs would be ______________________.

42. Define & give an example of each of these consumers — herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, detritivores, & decomposer.

43. Whenever one organism eats another, ________________ is transferred.

44. What are trophic levels?

45. All _______________ belong to the first trophic level, _______________ belong to the
Second trophic level, and the _______________ of herbivores belong to the third trophic level.

46. How many trophic levels do most ecosystems contain?

47. What is a food chain & what always begins the chain?

48. Write an example of a food chain.

49. What is a food web?

50. Draw a diagram of a food web that has at least 4 food chains.

51. Approximately __________ percent of the total energy consumed at one trophic level is incorporated into the organisms in the next level.

52. In terms of energy passage, why will there be many more producers than herbivores and fewer large carnivores than small carnivores?

53. What are biogeochemical cycles, why are they important, & name three?

54. Draw & explain the water cycle. Be sure to color your diagram!

55. List & define the 3 important processes in the water cycle.

56. What is groundwater?

57. What 2 processes form the basis for the carbon cycle?

58. Draw & explain the carbon cycle. Be sure to color your diagram!

59. What purpose do decomposers have in the carbon cycle?

60. Why do organisms need nitrogen?

61. Draw & explain the nitrogen cycle. Be sure to color your diagram!

62. Organisms such as ________________ convert _________________ gas into compounds
Called __________________ during the process known as________________________.

63. Bodies of dead organisms contain mainly in _________________ & _________________.

64. Wastes such as __________________ & _______________ also contain nitrogen that must be recycled.

65. ________________ recycle nitrogen from dead organisms & wastes by changing it into
______________________. The process is called ________________________.

66. Explain nitrification & denitrification.

67. Plants can absorb ____________________ from the soil, but animals obtain nitrogen from
their ___________________.

68. Define biome.

69. List the 7 major biomes.

70. Why don’t mountains belong to any one biome?

71. What is a tundra, where are they found, & tell organisms that would be found tree?

72. What is permafrost & how does it control plant life in the tundra?

73. What are taigas, where would they be found, & what type of vegetation dominates this area?

74. Plants & animals in the taiga must be adapted for long __________________, short
_________________, & ________________________ soil.

75. List some typical animals of the taiga.

76. What characterizes a temperate deciduous forest?

77. Deciduous forests have 4 pronounced ____________________ with _________________
summers, _______________________ winters, and__________________________ than the
taiga.

78. Grasses dominate what biome?

79. Why aren’t there more trees on grassland?

80. What are grasslands called in each of these areas —– North America, Asia, South America, & southern Africa?

81. Describe the soil of grasslands. Because of the soil condition, how is much of the grassland used?

82.What type of animals would be found on grassland?

83. What periodically occurs across grasslands & why doesn’t it kill the grasses?

84. Approximately how much rainfall do deserts receive each year?

85. Are deserts always hot? Explain.

86. What adaptation must desert vegetation make to survive?

87. What types of adaptations must desert animals make to conserve water?

88. What are savannas & where are the best known savannas found?

89. Describe temperature & rainfall on savannas?

90. Name some herbivores & carnivores found on a savanna.

91. Describe the rainy season on a savanna & tell what special problem this poses for the animals & plants there?

92. What are tropical rain forests & where are they located?

93. Rain forests have stable, year-round ______________________ & abundant ____________.

94. Plants in the rainforest must constantly compete for what?

95. Explain the canopy & epiphytes in a rainforest.

96. Describe the plant & animal life in a rainforest.

97. Tropical rainforests are more commonly called _____________________.

98.Oceans cover what percent of the earth’s surface?

99. Draw, label, & color the zones found in the ocean (see figure 22-16). Define each term labeled on your drawing.

100. What are intertidal organisms exposed to & name some intertidal organisms.

101. Which zone in the ocean is the most productive & why?

102. What small organisms are found in the neritic zone & why are they important?

103. In tropical areas, what forms in the neritic zone & why are they important?

104. Which ocean zone has fewer species & why?

105. Where does most of the earth’s photosynthesis take place?

106. Animals in the aphotic zone feed on what?

107. Organisms living deep in the ocean must cope with what 2 problems? Give some examples of deep ocean animals & explain how they adapt to their environmental problems.

108. What are volcanic vents, when were they discovered, & describe the organisms found there?

109. What are estuaries & what special problem do estuary organisms face?

110. What characterizes freshwater zones & give several examples?

111. Name & describe the 2 categories into which ecologists divide lakes 7 ponds?

112. Define a river & describe organisms found there?

Chapter 23 Environmental Science

113. Where do upwellings occur & how are they helpful?

114. Describe the event known as El Nino & tell its effect.

115. Describe chlorofluorocarbons effect on the ozone layer & tell why we should be concerned?

116. Define biodiversity.

117. Define conservation biology & use migratory birds to explain an example of this new discipline?

118. Sometimes species are reintroduced into areas. Use the Gray wolf & describe its reintroduction in the United States.

119. Where are the Everglades located & what is being done to restore them?