Introduction Notes

Introduction

All Materials © Cmassengale

Study of Life  

  • First life forms arose on Earth more than 3.5 billion years ago  
  • Single-celled, microscopic organisms (living thing) appeared first & floated alone in seas  
  • Over 40 million species (types of organisms) exist with only about 2 million identified 
  • Many organisms are unidentified & new species are still discovered  
  • Biology is the study of all living things and how they interact with each other & their environment  
  • Over long periods of time, species changed or evolved so that new species arose from earlier organisms & came to inhabit almost every part of the earth (bacteria living in thermal vents, parasites living inside another organism, etc.)  
  • Organisms must adapt to their specific environment to survive & reproduce

 

Unifying Themes of Biology 

 The six unifying themes include:  

  1. Cell Structure & Function
  2. Stability & Homeostasis
  3. Reproduction & Inheritance
  4. Evolution
  5. Interdependence of Organisms
  6. Matter, Energy, & Organization

Cell Structure & Function  

  • Cell is the basic unit of structure & function  
  • All organisms are made of one or more cells; Unicellular (one celled) or Multicellular (Composed of more than one cell)  


UNICELLULAR AMOEBA

  • Cells are small but highly organized; they contain specialized structures that carry out the jobs of a cell called organelles  


CELLULAR ORGANELLES

  • There are many different kinds of cells, but all cells have similarities
  • All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane, contain cytoplasm, and have DNA (the genetic information for making new cells or cell structures)  
  • New cells made by unicellular organisms are identical (clones) to the parent cell that produced them – asexual reproduction  
  • Multicellular organisms begin life as one fertilized cell (sexual reproduction), but the cells multiplied and underwent differentiation (changed structure & function) to become many different kinds of cells  

Stability & Homeostasis  

  • All organisms maintain stable internal conditions such as body temperature & water content
  • Stable level of internal conditions called homeostasis  

Reproduction & Inheritance  

  • All organisms reproduce new organisms like themselves by transmitting hereditary material to their offspring  
  • DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is a large molecule containing the hereditary material of the cell


DNA MODEL

  • In unicellular organisms like bacteria, DNA exists as a single loop or chromosome in the cytoplasm  


BACTERIA

  • In multicellular organisms, DNA is enclosed in a membrane known as the nucleus 
  • Genes are short segments of DNA the carry the instructions for a single trait of an organism  
  • DNA of a cell contains all of the genes (instructions) it will ever need  
  •  All body cells have a complete set of DNA (genome), but different types of cells use certain genes from the set; example: Muscle cells have the genes to make thyroxine, but they don’t use these genes  
  • In sexual reproduction, an egg (ovum) is fertilized by a sperm to form a zygote so the new organism is made of cells with hereditary information from both parents  
  • In asexual reproduction, cells copy their DNA & split so all new cells are identical  

Evolution  

  • Populations of organisms change over time or evolve (Theory of Evolution)  


DARWIN – THEORY OF EVOLUTION

  • Natural selection or “survival of the fittest” is the process that drives evolution  
  • Organisms with favorable traits are better able to survive & reproduce  
  • The survival of organisms with favorable traits causes a gradual change in populations of organisms over many generations  
  • Evolution by natural selection is driven by competition for resources such as food, habitat, mates  

Interdependence of Organisms  

  • Ecology is the study of the interaction of organisms with each other and their environment  
  • Sunlight is the ultimate energy for all organisms  
  • Energy from the sun is passed from one organism to another; producers (plants) to herbivore (plant eater) to carnivore (meat eater) to decomposers (break down dead organisms)  


ENERGY FLOW IN A FOOD CHAIN

  • Abiotic (nonliving factors) such as air, water, energy, soil, temperature, & minerals are also needed for survival  
  • Biotic factors include all living things on earth (plants, animals, fungi, microorganisms)  
  • Biosphere supports life & includes the biotic (all organisms) & the abiotic (all nonliving factors) on earth  
  • Organisms respond to their environment by:
    * Fleeing
    * Adapting
    * Dying
  • Most organisms can survive a temporary change, but permanent change can lead to extinction (dinosaurs)  
  • Thousands of species are listed endangered (population so small could become extinct)  
  • Human interference is the main cause for endangerment & extinction
    * Pollution of land, air, and water
    *Hunting for sport, food, and commercial products also threatens the survival of many organisms
    * Clear-cutting rain forests
    * Diverting rivers & lakes
    * Draining wetlands (everglades)
    *Global Warming  
  •   Endangered organisms can be protected & returned to larger population size (American Bison almost wiped out –60 million to 250 in 90 years- now several thousand herds)  


AMERICAN BISON

  • Species is a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can interbreed & produce fertile offspring  
  •  Extinction of any species upsets the balance of nature (Almost extinct Pacific Yew tree found to contain chemical used to treat cancer)  


PACIFIC YEW TREE

Matter, Energy, & Organization  

  • Organisms are highly organized, maintain internal order, & require a constant energy supply
  • Plants & unicellular organisms with chlorophyll capture sunlight through photosynthesis & store it in food to be used by other organisms  
  • Autotrophs or producers use sunlight, water, & carbon dioxide to make glucose (energy rich sugar) & oxygen – photosynthesis  

  • Heterotrophs (consumers) feed on producers or other consumers to get energy & release carbon dioxide  

   Biology affects life in many ways  

  • Biotechnology uses organisms to make products needed by people (human insulin made by bacteria)
  •   Fossils fuels (coal, oil, & natural gas) provide energy & materials such as nylon & polyester  


OIL DRILLING

  • Animal products such as wool, silk, and leather make clothing  
  •  Wood provides energy & shelter for us, but endangers other animals (spotted owl) when forests are cut  
  • New medicines, better water treatment & garbage disposal improves our health
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Chapter 1 AP Objectives

 

 

CHAPTER 1          INTRODUCTION: THEMES IN THE STUDY OF LIFE
OBJECTIVES
Exploring Life on Its Many Levels

1.  Briefly describe the unifying themes that characterize the biological sciences.

2.  Diagram the hierarchy of structural levels in biological organization.

3.  Explain how the properties of life emerge from complex organization.

4.  Describe the two major dynamic processes of any ecosystem.

5.  Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

6.  Describe the basic structure and function of DNA.

7.  Describe the dilemma of reductionism.

8.  Discuss the goals and activities of systems biology. List three research developments that have advanced systems biology.

9.  Explain the importance of regulatory mechanisms in living things. Distinguish between positive and negative feedback.

Evolution, Unity, and Diversity

10. Distinguish among the three domains of life. List and distinguish among the three kingdoms of multicellular, eukaryotic life.

11. Explain the phrase “life’s dual nature of unity and diversity.”

12. Describe the observations and inferences that led Charles Darwin to his theory of evolution by natural selection.

13. Explain why diagrams of evolutionary relationships have a treelike form.

The Process of Science

14. Distinguish between discovery science and hypothesis-based science. Explain why both types of exploration contribute to our understanding of nature.

15. Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative data.

16. Distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning.

17. Explain why hypotheses must be testable and falsifiable but are not provable.

18. Describe what is meant by a controlled experiment.

19. Distinguish between the everyday meaning of the term theory and its meaning to scientists.

20. Explain how science is influenced by social and cultural factors.

21. Distinguish between science and technology. Explain how science and technology are interdependent.

 

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Chapter 1 Questions PPT

 

Introduction to Biology  

Science of Life

1. Approximately how long ago did life arise on earth?

2. Describe the first organisms.

3. Organisms change or __________ over long periods of time.

4. Today, millions of _________ of organisms exist on earth.

5. The ________ is the basis unit of life and makes up all _____________.

6. _____________ organisms are made of a single cell and are genetically ___________ to their parent cell.

7. Many-celled organisms are known are called _______________ and they may be made of ___________ types of cells.

8. What is true about the size of most cells?

9. Are cells organized?

10. Specialized structures in cells are called _____________.

11. What surrounds all cells?

12. All cells must contain a set of ______________ instructions or DNA.

13. Organisms maintain stable internal conditions called ______________.

14. Name 4 things that organisms must keep stable or balanced.

 

15. For a species to continue, some of its members must be able to _____________ and pass on their traits to their ______________.

16. What does DNA stand for?

17. DNA’s instructions are called __________ and code for the complex ____________ necessary for life.

18. ___________ cells or body cells each have a full set of _________ or hereditary material.

19. ____________ reproductions combines hereditary information from _____ parents.

20. When an sperm and egg join, a fertilized egg or __________ forms and contains DNA from ________ parents.

21. In ___________ reproduction, only a single parent cell reproduces and the new cells are genetically _____________ to each other and the original cell.

22. _____________, not individual organisms, change or evolve over many generations.

23. ____________ ___________ is the driving force for evolution.

24. According to natural selection, which individuals in a population are more likely to survive and be able to reproduce?

 

25. A change in population due to the survival & reproduction of organisms with favorable traits is known as what?

26. Define ecology.

 

27. Name 3 things that organisms need from their environment.

Matter, Energy, & Organization

28. Organisms require a constant supply of ____________.

29. The _________ directly or indirectly supplies the energy for living things.

30. ______________ is the process of capturing sunlight and changing it into stored ____________ energy for organisms.

31. __________ are organisms that can make their own food.

32. _____________ use _________ for photosynthesis converting _________ and _______ into sugar and __________.

33. ______________ use chemicals to get energy.

34. Organisms that can’t make their own food are known as _____________ and may be __________ eating autotrophs, ______________ eating other heterotrophs, or ______________eating both autotrophs and heterotrophs to get energy.

World of Biology

35. the size of an organisms depends on the ___________ of cells that make it up and not the _______ of the cells.

36. Organelles are cell structures that carry out different ___________ for the cell.

37. The sum of all the chemical processes in an organisms is called _____________.

38. _________ is needed for all metabolic processes including growth and reproduction.

39. Homeostasis is when a n organism maintains  ____________ internal conditions such as body temperature.

40. Name 2 processes that result in the growth of an organism.

41. All new cells develop from ______________ cells.

42. new cells ___________ as they mature.

43. The process of an organism become an adult is called ______________ and involves numerous cell ____________ and cell _______________.

44. Do all members of a species have to be able to reproduce for the species to continue?

45. Organisms respond to ____________ from their environment such as light, __________, heat, and touch.

Scientific Method

46. The scientific method begins with _____________ that involves using your senses to perceive objects or events in the natural world.

47. Based on their observations and questioning, scientists make a ________________ that can tested through experimentation.

48. Hypothesis may have to be ___________ after an experiment is done if it is NOT supported by the data.

49. Testing a hypothesis must be done in a ______________ experiment that includes a control group that can be compared to an ______________ group.

50. How many factors may be different between the control group & experimental group?

51. What is this one factor called?

52. The ___________ variable is measured in both groups.

53. Information collected in an experiment is called ___________.

54. When numerical data is collected, it is called _____________ data.

55. _____________ may be used when the population size is too large for the experiment.

56. Collected data must be organized into ___________, ____________, or graphs.

57. A ___________ may be formed from many related hypotheses that have been tested & support the evidence.

58. When scientists complete their experiments they must _________ their work with other scientists.

59. Scientific work may be printed in scientific ____________ or presented as papers as scientific ______________.

Microscopes

60. Microscopes produce an enlarged ____________ of an object due to ____________ of the microscope lenses.

61. The clearness of a microscope image is known as ____________.

62. Arrange these things in order from smallest to largest – fly, animal cell, atom, virus, organelle, bacterial cell.

 

63. Label the parts of this microscope.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

64. Where is the specimen placed in order to view it through a microscope?

65. What lens do you look through at the top of a microscope and what is its magnification?

66. What are the lenses called on the revolving nosepiece?

67. How do you determine the total magnification for a microscope?

68. Which knob should be turned to focus on low power?

69. Which knob should be turned to focus on high power?

70. How should a microscope be carried?

 

71. What should be done when you are finished using a microscope?

 

72. The best light microscopes can magnify images up to how many times?

73. What type of microscope can used to view inside of cells that have been thinly sliced?

74. What is total magnification for the TEM?

75. What type of microscope produces a 3-D image of the surface of an object?

76. Can electron microscopes be used to view living specimens?

Measurements

77. Scientists use the _____________ system or _______.

78. The SI system is based on units of _______.

79.The basic metric unit of measure is __________ for mass, _________ for volume, __________ for temperature,  _____________ for length, and __________ for time.

80. What are the most common prefixes used for biology and what do they stand for?

 

 

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BIOLOGY SAFETY CONTRACT

BIOLOGY SAFETY CONTRACT

I, ____________________________ have read the safety rules for the biology classroom and lab and agree to follow all of the safety rules set forth in this contract.  I realize that I must obey these rules to ensure my own safety, and that of my fellow students and instructors.  I will cooperate to the fullest extent with my instructor and fellow students to maintain a safe lab environment.  I will also closely follow the oral and written instructions provided by the instructor.  I am aware that any violation of this safety contract that results in unsafe conduct in the laboratory or misbehavior on my part, may result in being removed from the laboratory, detention, receiving a failing grade, and/or dismissal from the course.

 *Failure to have goggles at the beginning of any lab involving heat, chemicals or glassware (except microscopy) will result in removal from the room and a grade of “0” for the lab.  The removal is required by the State of Arkansas.

I do/do not wear contact lenses.

I do/do not have a medical condition that could result in the need for emergency medical attention (explain here if you do).

Signed (student) _________________________________________Date ___________

_______________________________________________________________________________

Dear Parent or Guardian:

We feel that you should be informed regarding the school’s effort to create and maintain a safe science classroom/laboratory environment.  With the cooperation of the instructors, parents, and students, a safety instruction program can eliminate, prevent, and correct possible hazards.

You should be aware of the safety instructions your son/daughter will receive before engaging in any laboratory work.  Please read the list of safety rules above.  No student will be permitted to perform laboratory activities unless this contract is signed by both the student and parent/guardian and is on file with the teacher, a safety test is passed with a 70% or greater, and a classroom map is constructed by the student.

Your signature on this contract indicates that you have read the Student Safety contract, are aware of the measures taken to ensure the safety of your son/daughter in the science laboratory, and will instruct your son/daughter to uphold his/her agreement to follow these rules and procedures in the the laboratory.

Signed (parent) ________________________________Date ___________

Day phone __________________ Convenient hours ___________________

Evening phone _________________Convenient hours __________________

Click here for Notebook Copy

BIOLOGY SAFETY CONTRACT

 

 

BIOLOGY SAFETY CONTRACT

I, ____________________________ have read the safety rules for the biology classroom and lab and agree to follow all of the safety rules set forth in this contract.  I realize that I must obey these rules to ensure my own safety, and that of my fellow students and instructors.  I will cooperate to the fullest extent with my instructor and fellow students to maintain a safe lab environment.  I will also closely follow the oral and written instructions provided by the instructor.  I am aware that any violation of this safety contract that results in unsafe conduct in the laboratory or misbehavior on my part, may result in being removed from the laboratory, detention, receiving a failing grade, and/or dismissal from the course. 

I do/do not wear contact lenses.

I do/do not have a medical condition that could result in the need for emergency medical attention (explain here if you do).

 

Signed (student) ________________________________Date ___________

 

Dear Parent or Guardian:

We feel that you should be informed regarding the school’s effort to create and maintain a safe science classroom/laboratory environment.  With the cooperation of the instructors, parents, and students, a safety instruction program can eliminate, prevent, and correct possible hazards.

You should be aware of the safety instructions your son/daughter will receive before engaging in any laboratory work.  No student will be permitted to perform laboratory activities unless this contract is signed by both the student and parent/guardian and is on file with the teacher.

Your signature on this contract indicates that you have read the Student Safety contract, are aware of the measures taken to ensure the safety of your son/daughter in the science laboratory, and will instruct your son/daughter to uphold his/her agreement to follow these rules and procedures in the the laboratory.

Signed (parent) ________________________________Date ___________

Day phone ________________________ Convenient hours _______________________

Evening phone _______________________ Convenient hours _____________________

 

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