Bacteria Virus Worksheet Bl


Bacteria Worksheet   




Bacterial Cell Evolution

1. Bacteria are microscopic _____________.

2. Fossils evidence shows bacteria are about __________ years old, while eukaryotes are about __________ years old.

3. Discuss where bacteria can be found.


4. Ribosomal differences have put bacteria into what two kingdoms? Which is the older group?


5. What is absent in the cell wall of Archaebacteria? Describe this substance.



6. Describe the environments in which you would find Archaebacteria.



7. Compare & contrast these tree groups of Archaebacteria — methanogens, extreme halophiles, and thermoacidophiles.





8. Most bacteria are found in what kingdom?

9. Name & describe the three shapes of Eubacteria.



10. Are Eubacteria aerobic or anaerobic? Explain.


11. Eubacteria may be heterotrophic or photosynthetic. Explain what this means & give an example of each type.



12. What type of staining is used to group Eubacteria?

13. Describe the appearance of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria under a microscope.


14. Explain why Eubacteria do not all stain the same color during Gram staining.


15. Describe, in detail, cyanobacteria.



16. Cyanobacteria, also known as ______________ bacteria lack a membrane bound __________ & _____________.

17. How are heterocysts helpful to cyanobacteria?


18. What is eutrophication?


19. Explain the role of cyanobacteria in eutrophication.



20. What bacterium causes syphilis? Describe this bacteria.


21. Streptococci bacteria causing strep throat are in what group?

22. Why are actinomycete bacteria important?


23. Compare & contrast these three groups of Proteobacteria — enteric bacteria, chemoautotrophs, and nitrogen-fixing bacteria.





24.Name a genus of nitrogen-fixing bacteria found on the roots of soybeans in our area.


Characteristics of Bacteria

25. Name the three main parts of all bacteria.


26. Describe the cell wall of bacteria. How does this differ from a plant cell wall?



27. Compare & contrast the cell membrane of Eubacteria with that of other eukaryotes.



28.Are Gram positive or negative bacteria more protected against antibiotics & why?


29. Where does cell respiration take place in eukaryotes? in bacteria?

30. Describe how the cell membrane of photosynthetic bacteria are adapted for this process. Where does this process take place in plants?



31. Compare & contrast the cytoplasm of bacteria with that of eukaryotes.



32. Describe the DNA (hereditary material) found in bacteria. Make a sketch of what you think this would look like.




33. Where is the capsule of a bacteria, what is it made of, and give two ways it helps a bacterium?



34. Where is the glycoclayx of a bacteria, what is it made of, and how does it help a bacterium?


35. How do pili help the bacteria that have them?


36. How do Gram positive bacteria protect themselves against harsh environments?


37. Describe two methods of locomotion in bacteria.



38. Compare & contrast saprophytic and photoautotrophic bacterial nutrition.



39. Distinguish among these three bacteria & give an example of each — obligate anaerobes, facultative anaerobes, & obligate aerobes.





40. Compare & contrast these three methods of bacterial reproduction — transformation, conjugation, and transduction.




Bacteria and Humans

41. What does a pathologist do for a living?


42. Compare & contrast the two types of toxins bacteria produce.



43. Besides injuring the body by releasing toxins, how else do bacteria hurt the body?


44. Describe four antibiotics against bacteria.




45. Explain how antibiotic resistance occurs.



46. Name two  bacterial diseases carried by ticks.

47. name two bacterial diseases caused by eating contaminated food.

48. Name a sexually transmitted bacterial disease.

49. Name a bacterium that can cause disease whenever it gets into deep wounds.

50. Name a bacterium that is transmitted by coughing & infects the lungs.

51. Describe, in detail, how bacteria can be useful to humans.



1st Semester Test Review 2004-05


First Semester Review  2004-05      


What are the smallest units that can carry on life functions called?
Living things are composed of ______________.
Give an example of a scientific observation.
What is a hypothesis?
What 3 things compose an atom?
Matter is made of ________________.
When atoms gain energy, what happens to electrons?
Do  cells contain a few or thousands of different kinds of enzymes?
__________________ reactions are important in organisms because they allow the passage of energy from one molecule to another.
What is a polar molecule?
Water molecules break up other polar substances. Give an example of such a polar molecule.
What happens to ionic compounds in water?
Which is not a carbohydrate —– glycogen, steroids, cellulose, or sugars?
Amino acids are the monomers for making ________________.
Is ice an example of an organic molecule?
The type & order of the amino acids determines the ___________ of a protein.
Very active cells need more of which organelle?
What organelle is the packaging & distribution center of the cell?
What membrane surrounds the nucleus?
What is the function of mitochondria. Sketch their shape.
Where is chlorophyll found in plants?
Diffusion takes place from ________________ concentration to ___________.
If a cell has a high water content, will it lose or gain water?
Ink dispersing in a beaker is an example of ________________.
Very large molecules enter cells by a process called ________________.
Endocytosis and exocytosis occur in ______________ directions across a cell membrane.
What is photosynthesis?
Where do the dark reactions of photosynthesis take place?
When chlorophyll absorbs light energy ATP is made and what other energy carrying molecule?
When chlorophyll absorbs light energy, what happens to its electrons?
_______________ molecules are responsible for the photosystems.
Electrons that have absorbed energy & moved to a higher energy level enter what chain?
When cells break down food molecules, energy is temporarily stored in what molecule?
When muscles do not get enough oxygen, what acid forms during exercise?
If you are growing bacteria in a culture and lactic acids starts to form, the bacteria are not getting enough of what gas?
The 2 stages of cellular respiration are _____________ & oxidative respiration.
Citric acid forms in which cycle during cellular respiration?
ATP molecules are formed inside what cellular organelle?
What is the study of life called?


2006 1st Semester Test Guide

First Semester Test 2006 Study Guide


1. What is the study of life called?

2. Instructions for traits passed from parent to offspring?

3. Keeping things stable or the same in cells?

4. Smallest units that can carry on life?

5. All living things require _________ for metabolism.

6. All living things are made of __________.

7. Salamanders with curved tails in polluted water are an example of which part of the scientific method?

8. The smallest part of carbon with all the same properties is called?

9. Where are electrons found in an atom & what is their charge?


10. When electrons gain energy they move to _____________________.

11. How many covalent bonds can carbon form?

12. Compounds may form from the transfer or __________ of electrons.

13. What happens to ionic compounds when placed in water?


14. Ionic bonds form from the ____________ of electrons.

15. Covalent bonds form from the ___________ of electrons.

16. What element do all organic compounds contain?

17. Give several examples of carbohydrates.



18. In what from do animals store glucose?

19. What are the monomers for proteins?

20. Is the following model a carbohydrate, lipid, or protein?

21. Sketch a fatty acid chain found in lipids.

22. What type of fatty acids contains double bonds?

23. Name the 2 nucleic acids.

24. When the volume of a cell increases, what happens to the surface area?



25. How does a prokaryotic cell differ from a eukaryotic cell?



26. What’s the job of the plasma membrane?


27. Parts of cells performing specific functions are called?

28. The ER sends proteins & lipids it makes to the __________ to be modified.

29. The Golgi ships & receives cell products in transport ___________.

30. In what organelle is ATP produced?

31. Ribosomes make ____________.

32. All eukaryotic cells have a ___________ containing the genetic material.

33. Diffusion occurs in what direction?

34. What is osmosis?

35. Ink dissolving in water is an example of _____________.

36. Riding of cell wastes in sacs is called _____________.

37. What is the effect of placing a plant into a hypertonic solution?


38. What is the ultimate energy for life on Earth?

39. Grana are suspended in the _________ of chloroplasts.

40. ____________ absorbs light energy for plants.

41. What happens to chlorophyll’s electrons when they absorb sunlight?

42. What is the source of oxygen in photosynthesis?

43. What gas is a byproduct of photosynthesis?

44. What type of skeleton do insects have?

45. The Calvin cycle occurs in what process?

46. The breaking down of food to release energy is called?

47. __________ builds up in heavily exercised muscles.

48. Name the 3 parts of cellular respiration.


49. How many chromosomes are in a human egg or sperm cell?

50. DNA compacts itself by wrapping around ____________.

51. How do insects help crops?


Writing Lab Notebook Reports



General Instructions:

  1. All labs must be written in pencil and be submitted to the teacher in a spiral notebook.
  2. Always use third person (NO personal pronouns — me, I, you, we, etc.) when writing all parts of a lab report. (USE HE, SHE, THEY, THEIR, THEM, ETC.
  3. The following things should be written clearly in marker on the front cover — “Subject” Lab Notebook, teacher name, student name, period.
  4. Number each page of the spiral notebook in the lower right hand corner.
  5. On Page 1, write the subject, year, student name, class period, and teacher name.
  6. Page 2 should have “Table of Contents” written at the top and two columns, one for “Page” and the other for “Lab Title”.
  7. Begin writing the first lab on page 3 of you notebook. DO NOT WRITE ON THE BACK OF YOUR PAPER!
  9. TITLE and UNDERLINE each section & then begin writing on the NEXT LINE!

Your lab report should be written using the following format: (Be sure to left align & underline headings)

Title (center on top line; on the right of line 2, put date & lab #)
The title should indicate clearly & concisely the subject and scope of the report.

Introduction – 20 points (PARAGRAPH FORM)

  • The introduction should give background information about the experiment.
  • It should also state the purpose of the investigation.
  • This section will be two or more paragraphs in length.

Hypothesis – 20 points (SINGLE SENTENCE)

  • The hypothesis should be a single statement telling the exact thing you are trying to prove in your experiment.
  • NEVER write this statement using “first person”. Write the hypothesis in past tense (third person.)

Materials – 5 points (SINGLE SENTENCE)

  • This section should be written in sentence form and name all of the materials and equipment used.
  • Be sure to include specific amounts and concentrations of chemicals used.
  • Start the statement, “The materials used include _____, _____, etc.”

Methods (Procedure)- 5 points (STEPS; NUMBER)

  • This section includes the step-by-step procedures used.
  • The procedure should be so thorough that someone else could use your listed materials and procedures to conduct the same experiment and get the same results.

Results (Data & Questions) – 20 points

  • All data should be collected and organized in a logical order. Results should be illustrated as charts, tables, graphs, &/or diagrams. All graphs should include a title, the independent variable labeled on the horizontal axis, and the dependent variable labeled on the vertical axis.
  • All lab questions and answers should be included also with this section. ( NUMBER & UNDERLINE the questions & then write, but DON’T UNDERLINE the answers)

Error Analysis

  • Include any important factors that you think may have actually affected your results.

Discussion and Conclusion – 30 points

Discussion is the most important part of your report, because here, you show that you understand the experiment beyond the simple level of completing it.!!

  • This is where you give a detailed account of what happened in the experiment.
  • Explain all observations and results in your experiment.
  • Analyze and interpret why these results were obtained.
  • Be sure to tell the significance or meaning of the results.
  • Restate the original hypothesis and explain whether the experiment succeeded. If the hypothesis was not correct, you should analyze why the results were not as predicted.
  • Explain experimental errors that appear in the results.


Additional help with Conclusions


Click here for Notebook paper Layout of Lab