AP Essay Questions

AP Biology Essay Questions
The following is a comprehensive list of essay questions that have been asked on past AP exams. The questions are organized according to units.

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Unit 1 (Basic Chemistry and Water)

1.  The unique properties (characteristics) of water make life possible on Earth. Select three properties of water and:

      1. for each property, identify and define the property and explain it in terms of the physical/chemical nature of water.
      2. for each property, describe one example of how the property affects the functioning of living organisms.

Unit 2 (Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Metabolism)

2.  Describe the chemical composition and configuration of enzymes and discuss the factors that modify enzyme structure and/or function.

3.  After an enzyme is mixed with its substrate, the amount of product formed is determined at 10-second intervals for 1 minute. Data from this experiment are shown below:

Time (sec)0102030405060
Product formed (mg)0.000.250.500.700.800.850.85

Draw a graph of these data and answer the following questions.

    1. What is the initial rate of this enzymatic reaction?
    2. What is the rate after 50 seconds? Why is it different from the initial rate?
    3. What would be the effect on product formation if the enzyme where heated to a temperature of 100° C for 10 minutes before repeating the experiment? Why?
    4. How might altering the substrate concentration affect the rate of the reaction? Why?
    5. How might altering the pH affect the rate of the reaction? Why?

4.  Enzymes are biological catalysts.

  1. Relate the chemical structure of an enzyme to its specificity and catalytic activity.
  2. Design a quantitative experiment to investigate the influence of pH or temperature on the activity of an enzyme.
  3. Describe what information concerning the structure of an enzyme could be inferred from your experiments.

Unit 3 (Cell Structure and Function, Cell division)

5.  Describe the fluid-mosaic model of a plasma membrane. Discuss the role of the membrane in the movement of materials through it by each of the following processes:

  1. Active transport
  2. Passive transport

6.  Describe the structure of a eukaryotic plant cell. Indicate the ways in which a nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell would differ in structure from this generalized eukaryotic plant cell.

7.  Discuss the process of cell division in animals. Include a description of mitosis and cytokinesis, and of the other phases of the cell cycle. Do Not include meiosis.

8.  A laboratory assistant prepared solution of 0.8 M, 0.6 M, 0.4 M, and 0.2 M sucrose, but forgot to label them. After realizing the error, the assistant randomly labeled the flasks containing these four unknown solutions as flask A, flask B, flask C, and flask D.

Design an experiment, based on the principles of diffusion and osmosis, that the assistant could use to determine which of the flasks contains each of the four unknown solutions. Include in your answer (a) a description of how you would set up and perform the experiment: (b) the results you would expect from your experiments: and (c) an explanation of those results based on the principles involved. (Be sure to clearly state the principles addressed in your discussion.)

9.  Cells transport substances across their membranes. Choose THREE of the following four types of cellular transport.

    • Osmosis
    • Active Transport
    • Facilitated Diffusion
    • Endocytosis/exocytosis

For each of the three transport types you choose,

    1. Describe the transport process and explain how the organization of cell membranes functions in the movement of specific molecules across membranes; and
    2. Explain the significance of each type of transport to a specific cell (you may use difference cell types as examples.)

Unit 4 (Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration)

10.  Describe the similarities and differences between the biochemical pathways of aerobic respiration and photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells. Include in your discussion the major reactions, the end products, and energy transfers.

11.  The rate of photosynthesis may vary with changes that occur in environmental temperature, wavelength of light, and light intensity. Using a photosynthetic organism of your choice, choose only ONE of the three variables (temperature, wavelength of light, or light intensity) and for this variable

    • design a scientific experiment to determine the effect of the variable on the rate of photosynthesis for the organism;
    • explain how you would measure the rate of photosynthesis in your experiment;
    • describe the results you would expect. Explain why you would expect these results.

12.  Describe the light reactions of photosynthesis and, for both a C3 and a C4 plant, trace the path of a carbon dioxide molecule from the point at which it enters a plant to its incorporation into a glucose molecule. Include leaf anatomy and biochemical pathways in your discussion of each type of plant.

13.  Explain what occurs during the Krebs (citric acid) cycle and electron transport by describing the following:

    1. The location of the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain in mitochondria.
    2. The cyclic nature of the reactions in the Krebs cycle.
    3. The production of ATP and reduced coenzymes during the cycle.
    4. The chemiosmotic production of ATP during electron transport.

14.  Membranes are important structural features of cells.

    1. Describe how membrane structure is related to the transport of materials across the membrane.
    2. Describe the role of membranes in the synthesis of ATP in either cellular respiration or photosynthesis.

15. Energy transfer occurs in all cellular activities. For 3 of the following 5 processes involving energy transfer, explain how each functions in the cell and give an example. Explain how ATP is involved in each example you choose.

        • cellular movement
        • active transport
        • synthesis of molecules
        • chemiosmosis
        • fermentation

16. The results below are measurements of cumulative oxygen consumption by germinating and dry seeds. Gas volume measurements were corrected for changes in temperature and pressure.

Cumulative Oxygen Consumed (mL)

Time (minutes)010203040
22° C Germinating Seeds0.08.816.023.732..0
Dry Seeds0.00.20.10.00.1
10° C Germinating Seeds0.02.96.29.412.5
Dry Seeds0.00.00.20.10.2
      1. Using the graph paper provided, plot the results for the germinating seeds at 22° C and at 10° C.
      2. Calculate function the rate of oxygen consumption for the germinating seeds at 22° C, using the time interval between 10 and 20 minutes.
      3. Account for the differences in oxygen consumption observed between:
        1. germinating seeds at 22° C and at 10° C
        2. germinating seeds and dry seeds
      4. Describe the essential features of an experimental apparatus that could be used to measure oxygen consumption by a small organism. Explain why each of these features is necessary.

Unit 5 (Meiosis, Mendelian Genetics, DNA Replication)

17.  State the conclusions reached by Mendel in his work on the inheritance of characteristics. Explain how each of the following deviates from these conclusions.

    1. Autosomal linkage.
    2. Sex-linked (X-linked) inheritance.
    3. Polygenic (multiple-gene) inheritance.

18.  Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning DNA. Describe each classical experiment and indicate how it provided evidence for the chemical nature of the gene.

    1. Hershey and Chase- bacteriophage replication
    2. Griffith and Avery, MacLeod and McCarty- bacterial transformation
    3. Meselson and Stahl- DNA replication in bacteria

19.  Discuss Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment. Explain how the events of meiosis I account for the observations that led Mendel to formulate these laws.

20.  An organism is heterozygous at two genetic loci on different chromosomes.

      1. Explain how these alleles are transmitted by the process of mitosis to daughter cells.
      2. Explain how these alleles are distributed by the process of meiosis to gametes.
      3. Explain how the behavior of these two pairs of homologous chromosomes during meiosis provides the physical basis for Mendel’s two laws of inheritance.

Labeled diagrams that are explained in your answer may be useful.

Unit 6 (Protein Synthesis, Gene Expression, DNA Technology)

21.  A portion of specific DNA molecule consists of the following sequence of nucleotide triplets.

TAC GAA CTT GGG TCC

This DNA sequence codes for the following short polypeptide.

methionine – leucine – glutamic acid – proline – arginine

Describe the steps in the synthesis of this polypeptide. What would be the effect of a deletion or an addition in one of the DNA nucleotides? What would be the effects of a substitution in one of the nucleotides?

22.  Describe the operon hypothesis and discuss how it explains the control of messenger RNA production and the regulation of protein synthesis in bacterial cells.

23.  Scientists seeking to determine which molecule is responsible for the transmission of characteristics from one generation to the next knew that the molecule must (1) copy itself precisely, (2) be stable but able to be changed, and (3) be complex enough to determine the organism’s phenotype.

  • Explain how DNA meets each of the three criteria stated above.
  • Select one of the criteria stated above and describe experimental evidence used to determine that DNA is the hereditary material.

 

24.  Describe the biochemical composition, structure, and replication of DNA. Discuss how recombinant DNA techniques may be used to correct a point mutation.

25.  Describe the production and processing of a protein that will be exported from a eukaryotic cell. Begin with the separation of the messenger RNA from the DNA template and end with the release of the protein at the plasma membrane.

26.  Describe the steps of protein synthesis, beginning with the attachment of a messenger RNA molecule to the small subunit of a ribosome and ending generalized with the release of the polypeptide from the ribosome. Include in your answer a discussion of how the different types of RNA function in this process.

27.  The diagram below shows a segment of DNA with a total length of 4,900 base pairs. The arrows indicate reaction sites for two restriction enzymes (enzyme X and enzyme Y).

    1. Explain how the principles of gel electrophoresis allow for the separation of DNA fragments.
    2. Describe the results you would expect from the electrophoresis separation of fragments from the following treatments of the DNA segment above. Assume that the digestions occurred under appropriate conditions and went to completion.
      1. DNA digested with only enzyme X
      2. DNA digested with only enzyme Y
      3. DNA digested with enzyme X and enzyme Y combined
      4. Undigested DNA
    3. Explain both of the following.
      1. The mechanism of action of restriction enzymes.
      2. The different results you would expect if a mutation occurred at the recognition site for enzyme Y.

28.  By using the techniques of genetic engineering, scientists are able to modify genetic materials so that a particular gene of interest from one cell can be incorporated into a different cell.

        • Describe a procedure by which this can be done.
        • Explain the purpose of each step of your procedure.
        • Describe how you could determine whether the gene was successfully incorporated.
        • Describe an example of how gene transfer and incorporation have been used in biomedical or commercial applications.

29.  Assume that a particular genetic condition in a mammalian species causes an inability to digest starch. This disorder occurs with equal frequency in males and females. In most cases, neither parent of affected offspring has the condition.

      1. Describe the most probable pattern of inheritance for this condition. Explain your reasoning. Include in your discussion a sample cross(es) sufficient to verify your proposed pattern.
      2. Explain how a mutation could cause this inability to digest starch.
      3. Describe how modern techniques of molecular biology could be used to determine whether the mutant allele is present in a given individual.

Unit 7 (Evolution, Population Genetics, Speciation)

29.  Describe the special relationship between the two terms in each of the following pairs.

    1. Convergent evolution of organisms and Australia.
    2. Blood groups and genetic drift.
    3. Birds of prey and DDT.

30.  Describe the modern theory of evolution and discuss how it is supported by evidence from two of the following areas.

    1. population genetics
    2. molecular biology
    3. comparative anatomy and embryology

31.  Describe the process of speciation. Include in your discussion the factors that may contribute to the maintenance of genetic isolation.

32.  Do the following with reference to the Hardy-Weinberg model.

    1. Indicate the conditions under which allelic frequencies (p and q) remain constant from one generation to the next.
    2. Calculate, showing all work, the frequencies of the alleles and the frequencies of the genotypes in a population of 100,000 rabbits, of which 25,000 are white and 75,000 are agouti. (In rabbits the white color is due to a recessive allele, w, and the agouti is due to a dominant all, W.)
    3. If the homozygous dominant condition were to become lethal, what would happen to the allelic and genotypic frequencies in the rabbit population after two generations?

33.  Evolution is one of the major unifying themes of modern biology.

    1. Explain the mechanisms that lead to evolutionary change.
    2. Describe how scientists use each of the following as evidence for evolution.
      1. Bacterial resistance to antibodies.
      2. Comparative biochemistry.
      3. The fossil record.

34.  Genetic variation is the raw material for evolution.

    1. Explain three cellular and/or molecular mechanisms that introduce variation into the gene pool of a plant or animal population.
    2. Explain the evolutionary mechanisms that can change the composition of the gene pool.

35.  In a laboratory population of diploid, sexually reproducing organisms a certain trait is studied. This trait is determined by a single autosomal gene and is expressed as two phenotypes. A new population was created by crossing 51 pure breeding (homozygous) dominant individuals with 49 pure breeding (homozygous) individuals. After four generations, the following results were obtained.

Number of Individuals

GenerationDominantRecessiveTotal
15149100
22800280
324080320
4300100400
5360120480
    1. Identify an organism that might have been used to perform this experiment, and explain why this organism is a good choice for conducting this experiment.
    2. On the basis of the data, propose a hypothesis that explains the change in phenotypic frequency between generation 1 and generation 3.
    3. Is there evidence indicating whether or not this population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? Explain.

 Unit 8 (Chemical Evolution, Prokaryotes, Eukaryote Evolution, Protista)

36.  Scientists recently have proposed a reorganization of the phylogenetic system of classification to include the domain, a new taxonomic category higher (more inclusive) than the Kingdom category, as shown in the following diagram.

Universal Ancestor

Domain Bacteria             Domain Archaea Domain Eukarya

(Eubacteria)             (Archaebacteria) (Eukaryotes)

 

    • describe how this classification scheme presents different conclusions about the relationships among living organisms than those presented by the previous five-kingdom system of classification
    • describe three kinds of evidence that were used to develop the taxonomic scheme above, and explain how this evidence was used. The evidence may be structural, physiological, molecular, and/or genetic.
    • Describe
    • four of the characteristics of the universal ancestor.

Unit 9 (Introduction to Plants, Fungi, Invertebrates)

37.  In the life cycles of a fern and a flowering plant, compare and contrast each of the following:

    1. The gametophyte generation.
    2. Sperm transport and fertilization.
    3. Embryo protection.

38.  Describe the differences between the terms in each of the following pairs.

      1. Coelomate versus acoelomate body plan.
      2. Protostome versus deuterostome development.
      3. Radial versus bilateral symmetry.
      4. Explain how each of these pairs of features was important in constructing the phylogenetic tree shown below. Use specific examples from the tree in your discussion.

Unit 10 (Vertebrates, Basic Animal Structure and Function)

39.  Select two of the following three pairs and discuss the evolutionary relationships between the two members of each pair you have chosen. In your discussion include structural adaptations and the functional significance.

Pair A: green algae—vascular plants

Pair B: prokaryotes—eukaryotes

Pair C: amphibians—reptiles

Unit 11 (Animal Nutrition, Circulation, Respiration, Immune System)

40.  Describe the structure of a mammalian respiratory system. Include in your discussion the mechanisms of inspiration and expiration.

41.  Describe the processes of fat and protein digestion and product absorption as they occur in the human stomach and small intestine. Include a discussion of the enzymatic reactions involved.

42.  Describe the following mechanisms of response to foreign materials in the human body.

    1. The antigen-antibody response to a skin graft from another person.
    2. The reactions of the body leading to inflammation of a wound infected by bacteria.

43.  Discuss the processes of exchange of O2 and CO2 that occur at the alveoli and muscle cells of mammals. Include in your answer a description of the transport of these gases in the blood.

44.  Many physioligical changes occur during exercise.

    1. Design a controlled experiment to test the hypothesis that an exercise session causes short-term increases in heart rat and breathing rate in humans.
    2. Explain how at least three organ systems are affected by this increased physical activity and discuss interactions among these systems.

45.  The graph below shows the response of the human immune system to exposure to an antigen. Use this graph to answer part a and part b of this question.

      1. Describe the events that occur during period I as the immune system responds to the initial exposure to the antigen.
      2. Describe the events that occur during period II following a second exposure to the same antigen.
      3. Explain how infection by the AIDS virus (HIV) affects the function of both T and B lymphocytes.

Unit 12 (Homeostasis, Reproduction, Development)

47.  Discuss the processes of cleavage, gastrulation, and neurulation in the frog embryo; tell what each process accomplishes. Describe an experiment that illustrates the importance of induction in development.

48.  The evolutionary success of organisms depends on reproduction. Some groups of organisms reproduce asexually, some reproduce sexually, while others reproduce both sexually and asexually.

      1. Using THREE difference organisms, give an example of one organism that reproduces sexually, one that reproduces asexually, and one that reproduces BOTH sexually and asexually. For each organism given as an example, describe two reproductive adaptations. These adaptations may be behavioral, structural, and/or functional.
      2. What environmental conditions would favor sexual reproduction? Explain. What environmental conditions would favor asexual reproduction? Explain.

Unit 13 (Endocrine System, Nervous System, Sensory and Motor Mechanisms)

49.  Discuss the sources and actions of each of the following pairs of hormones in humans and describe the feedback mechanisms that control their release.

    1. Insulin—glucagon
    2. Parathyroid hormone—calcitonin
    3. Thyrotropin (TSH)—thyroxine (T4)

50.  Beginning at the presynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction, describe the physical and biochemical events involved in the contraction of a skeletal muscle fiber. Include the structure of the fiber in your discussion.

52.  Describe the negative and positive feedback loops, and discuss how feedback mechanisms regulate each of the following.

    1. The menstrual cycle in nonpregnant human female.
    2. Blood glucose levels in humans.

53.  Discuss how cellular structures, including the plasma membrane, specialized endoplasmic reticulum, cytoskeletal elements, and mitochondria, function together in the contraction of skeletal muscle cells.

54.  Structure and function are related in the various organ systems of animals. Select two of the following four organ systems in vertebrates:

    • respiratory
    • digestive
    • excretory
    • nervous

For each of the two systems you choose, discuss the structure and function of two adaptations that aid in the transport or exchange of molecules (or ions). Be sure to relate structure to function in each example.

Unit 14 (Plant Structure and Function)

55.  Relate the structure of an angiosperm leaf to each of the following:

    1. Adaptations for photosynthesis and food storage.
    2. Adaptations for food translocation and water transport.
    3. Specialized adaptations to a desert environment.

56.  Define the following plant responses and explain the mechanism of control for each. Cite experimental evidence as part of your discussion.

    1. Phototropism
    2. Photoperiodism

57.  Describe the structure of a bean seed and discuss its germination to the seedling stage. Include in your essay hormonal controls, structural changes, and tissue differentiation.

58.  Describe the effects of plant hormones on plant growth and development. Design an experiment to demonstrate the effect of one of these plant hormones on plant growth and development.

59.  Trace the pathway in a flowering plant as the water moves from the soil through the tissues of the root, stem, and leaves to the atmosphere. Explain the mechanisms involved in conducting water through these tissues.

60.  Discuss the adaptations that have enabled flowering plants to overcome the following problems associated with life on land.

    1. The absence of an aquatic environment for reproduction.
    2. The absence of an aquatic environment to support the plant body.
    3. Dehydration of the plant.

61.  A group of students designed an experiment to measure transpiration rates in a particular species of herbaceous plant. Plants were divided into four groups and were exposed to the following conditions.

Group I-Room conditions (light, low humidity, 20° C, and little air movement.)
Group II-Room conditions with increased humidity.
Group III-Room conditions with increased air movement (fan)
Group IV-Room conditions with additional light

The cumulative water loss due to transpiration of water from each plant was measured at 10-minute intervals for 30 minutes. Water loss was expressed as milliliters of water per square centimeter of leaf surface area. The data for all plants in Group I (room conditions) were averaged. The average cumulative water loss by the plants in Group I is presented in the table below.

Average Cumulative Water Loss by the Plants in Group I
Time (minutes)Average Cumulative Water Loss (milliliter H2O centimeter2)
103.5 x 10-4
207.7 x 10-4
3010.6 x 10-4
    1. Construct and label a graph using the data for Group I. Using the same set of axes, draw and label three additional lines representing the results that you would predict for Groups II, III, and IV.
    2. Explain how biological and physical processes are responsible for the difference between each of your predictions and the data for Group I.
    3. Explain how the concept of water potential is used to account for the movement of water from the plant stem to the atmosphere during transpiration.

62.  Numerous environmental variables influence plant growth. Three students each planted a seedling of the same genetic variety in the same type of container with equal amounts of soil from the same source. Their goal was to maximize their seedling’s growth by manipulating environmental conditions. Their data are shown below.

Plant Seedling Mass (grams)
Day 1Day 30
Student A424
Student B535
Student C464
      1. Identify three different environmental variables that could account for differences in the mass of seedlings at day 30. Then choose one of these variables and design an experiment to test the hypothesis that your variable affects growth of these seedlings.
      2. Discuss the results you would expect if your hypothesis is correct. Then provide a physiological explanation for the effect of your variable on plant growth.

Unit 15 (Ecology)

63.  Define and explain the role of each of the following in social behavior.

    1. Territoriality.
    2. Dominance hierarchies.
    3. Courtship behavior.

64.  Describe the trophic levels in a typical ecosystem. Discuss the flow of energy through the ecosystem, the relationship between the different trophic levels, and the factors that limit the number of trophic levels.

65.  Describe and give an example of each of the following. Include in your discussion the selection advantage of each.

    1. Pheromones.
    2. Mimicry.
    3. Stereotyped behavior (instinct).

66.  Describe the process of ecological succession from a pioneer community to a climax community. Include in your answer a discussion of species diversity and interactions, accumulation of biomass, and energy flow.

67.  Describe releasers, imprinting, and communications, as each of these terms relates to animal behavior. You may include in your answer a discussion of the classical studies of Niko Tinbergen, Konrad Lorenz, and Karl von Frisch.

68.  Describe the biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen. Trace these elements from the point of their release from a decaying animal to their incorporation into a living animal.

69.  Using an example for each, discuss the following ecological concepts.

    1. Succession
    2. Energy flow between trophic levels.
    3. Limiting factors.
    4. Carrying capacity.

70.  Living organisms play an important role in the recycling of many elements within an ecosystem. Discuss how various types of organisms and their biochemical reactions contribute to the recycling of either carbon or nitrogen in an ecosystem. Include in your answer one way in which human activity has an impact in the nutrient cycle you have chosen.

71.  Survival depends on the ability of an organism to respond to changes in its environment. Some plants flower in response to changes in day length. Some mammals may run or fight when frightened. For both of these examples, describe the physiological mechanisms involved in the response.

72.  Interdependence in nature is illustrated by the transfer of energy through trophic levels. The diagram below depicts the transfer of energy in a food web of an Arctic lake located in Alaska (J )

      1. Choosing organisms from four different trophic levels of this food web as examples, explain how energy is obtained at each trophic level.
      2. Describe the efficiency of energy transfer between trophic levels and discuss how the amount of energy available at each trophic level affects the structure of the ecosystem.
      3. If the cells in the dead terrestrial plant material that washed into the lake contained a commercially produced toxin, what would be the likely effects of this toxin on this food web? Explain.
Noon174.0
4 p.m.350.5
8 p.m.60.5
midnight8.0

For the data above, provide information on each of the following.

    • Summarize the pattern.
    • Identify THREE physiological or environmental variables that could cause the slugs to vary their distance from each other.
    • Explain how each variable could bring about the observed pattern of distribution.

Choose ONE of the variables that you identified and design a controlled experiment to test your hypothetical explanation. Describe results that would support or refute your hypothesis.

Cumulative Essays

74.  Describe how the following adaptations have increased the evolutionary success of the organisms that possess them. Include in your discussion the structure and function related to each adaptation.

    1. C4 metabolism
    2. Amniotic egg
    3. Four-chambered heart
    4. Pollen

75.  Describe the anatomical and functional similarities and difference within each of the following pairs of structures.

    1. Artery—vein
    2. Small intestine—colon
    3. Skeletal muscle—cardiac muscle
    4. Anterior pituitary—posterior pituitary

76.  Discuss how each of the following has contributed to the evolutionary success of the organisms in which they are found.

    1. seeds
    2. mammalian placenta
    3. diploidy

77.  Angiosperms (flowering plants) and vertebrates obtain nutrients from their environment in different ways.

    1. Discuss the type of nutrition and the nutritional requirements of angiosperms and vertebrates.
    2. Describe 2 structural adaptations in angiosperms for obtaining nutrients from the environment. Relate structure to function.
    3. Interdependence in nature is evident in symbiosis. Explain tow symbiotic relationships that aid in nutrient uptake, using examples from angiosperms and/or vertebrates. (Both examples may be angiosperms, both may be vertebrates, or one may be from each group.

78.  The problem of survival of animals on land are very different from those of survival of animals in an aquatic environment. Describe four problems associated with animal survival in terrestrial environments but not in aquatic environments. For each problem, explain an evolutionary solution.

79.  The survival of organisms depends on regulatory mechanisms at various levels. Choose THREE from the following examples. Explain how each is regulated.

    • The expression of a gene.
    • The activity of an enzyme.
    • The cell cycle.
    • The internal water balance of a plant.
    • The density of a population.

80.  Photosynthesis and cellular respiration recycle oxygen in ecosystems. Respond to TWO (and only two) of the following:

    1. Explain how the metabolic processes of cellular respiration and photosynthesis recycle oxygen.
    2. Discuss the structural adaptations that function in oxygen exchange between each of the following organisms and its environment: a plant; an insect; a fish.
    3. Trace a molecule of O2 from the environment to a muscle cell in a vertebrate of your choice.

81.  Biological recognition is important in many processes at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organismal levels. Select three of the following, and for each of the three that you have chose, explain how the process of recognition occurs and give an example of each.

    1. Organisms recognize others as members of their own species.
    2. Neurotransmitters are recognized in the synapse.
    3. Antigens trigger antibody response.
    4. Nucleic acids are complementary.
    5. Target cells respond to specific hormones.

82.  Communication occurs among the cells in a multicellular organism. Choose THREE of the following examples of cell-to-cell communication, and for each example, describe the communication that occurs and the types of responses that result from this communication.

  • communication between two plant cells
  • communication between two immune-system cells
  • communication either between a neuron and another neuron, or between a neuron and a muscle cell
  • communication between a specific endocrine-gland cell and its target cell

 

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5 Golden Rules of Successful Biology Research

Successful Biology Research

Doing successful biology research is not as easy as it seems. There are 5 golden rules that you should always follow if you want to get the most out of your project. In this blog post, we will discuss these rules and provide some tips on how to implement them in your own work. So, whether you are just starting out in biology research or you have been doing it for years, be sure to read on!

Rule 1: Know Your Audience

When you’re doing research for a biology project, it’s important to keep your audience in mind. You’ll likely be presenting your findings to a teacher or classmates, so you’ll need to choose a topic that’s appropriate for their level of understanding. 

For example, if you’re researching for a high school biology class, you wouldn’t want to write about something too complex or controversial. However, if you’re doing research for a college biology class, you can feel free to explore more complicated topics. In general, it’s always a great idea to check with your teacher before starting your research to make sure you’re on the right track. By taking the time to understand your audience, you’ll be able to create a more successful biology research project.

Rule 2: Don’t Be Afraid to Ask for Help

Asking for help is a natural part of the research process. No one knows everything, and even the most experienced biologists need assistance from time to time. If you’re thinking, should I pay someone to write my research paper? The answer is, it depends. Research paper writing can be very challenging. Without the right tools, you might end up disappointed with your result. If you’re afraid that might happen, then the best thing to do is buy a research paper online. You could search for ‘write my research paper’ on your favorite engine and set up an appointment with a writing specialist.

You could also consult with a professor or other expert in the field. If you don’t know anyone who specializes in biology, you can try reaching out to a librarian or searching for online resources. Another great way to get help is to ask fellow students who might be working on similar projects. No matter how you choose to get help, don’t be afraid to ask for it when you need it. Doing so will allow you to make the most of your research and produce the best possible results.

Learn the 5 Golden Rules for Successful Biology Research

Rule 3: Pick a Topic That You Are Passionate About

When it comes to research, picking a topic that you’re passionate about can make all the difference. Not only will you be more likely to enjoy the process of research, but you’ll also be more likely to stick with it even when the going gets tough. And trust me, there will be tough times. There will be days when you feel like you’re getting nowhere when all your hard work seems to be for nothing. 

But if you care about your topic, if you’re invested in finding out the answer to your question, then you’ll keep going. You’ll find a way to push through the difficult times and come out on the other side with new knowledge and a sense of accomplishment. So if you’re thinking about starting a research project, ask yourself: what is a topic that I’m passionate about? Once you have your answer, you’ll be one step closer to success.

Rule 4: Do Your Research

When you’re doing biology research, it’s important to do your research. That may sound like a no-brainer, but you’d be surprised how many people skimp on this step. They’ll read a few books or articles, maybe talk to a few experts, and then start writing. The problem is that they haven’t really taken the time to understand the topic inside and out. As a result, their work is often inaccurate or incompetent. 

So if you’re serious about doing great, successful biology research, take the time to immerse yourself in the literature. Read everything you can get your hands on. Talk to as many experts as possible. And only when you have a thorough understanding of the topic should you start writing.

Rule 5: Stay Organized and Keep Track of Your Progress

As a biology researcher, it’s also important to stay organized and keep track of your progress. That way, you can avoid duplication of effort and make sure that you’re making the best use of your time. There are a few different ways to do this. First, make sure to keep records of your experiments. Note down what you did, the results you receive, and any observations you made. 

Second, create a project plan that outlines the steps you need to take to complete your research. This will help you stay on track and identify any potential problems early on. Finally, don’t be afraid to ask for help online, from your supervisor or colleagues. They can offer valuable insights and feedback that can help improve the quality of your work!

10 Biology Jokes That’ll Make You Laugh Your Genes Off

Biology, while super informative and exciting to science junkies, can be a little dry. It can also be pretty intimidating. However, we’re going to look at the light side: biology jokes!

We definitely need to insert humor into biology. However, not literally into our biology. That could be painful. Or gassy.

We’ve scoured the web for the best biology jokes to add some fun to your life science. These biology jokes also will help you better learn and remember biological terms and concepts.

Marine Life Sea GIF by Underdone Comics - Find & Share on GIPHY

Jokes 101

Biology is the study of life. And comedy is the art of laughing at the ups and downs of life. Comedy is a way of inserting humor into the serious. Jokes are often a way to relieve tension and stress.

Learning biology is easy and exciting for some. It’s tough and intimidating for others. Humor unites us all. Some truly funny biology jokes will not just get you laughing but help you learn to enjoy the concepts of life science.

Now, while knowing a couple of biology jokes isn’t going to make you a stand-up comedian, they just might help you remember important key terms and help you ace your next exam.

The Science of Funny

What makes things funny? Writing good biology jokes is not just about inserting biology terms or talking about farts. Good jokes are about playing with expectations.

You capitalize on the fact that words have double meanings. You play with expectations and add that little something extra.

In comedy, you play with the way people read or think about things. You make light of the different levels of meaning words or ideas have to give everyone’s brain a little tickle. Comedy is about relieving tension and sometimes you play with where people’s minds may go in order to get them to let out a deep belly laugh. So, onto the list!

The 10 Best Biology Jokes

  • What did the Femur say to the Patella?
  • Which Biochemicals Wash up on Beaches?
  • What is Blood’s Message to the World?
  • What do You Call a Member of the Financial Staff of the Faculty of Biology?
  • Why are men sexier than women?
  • What do You Call a Microbiologist who has Visited 30 Different Countries and Speaks 6 Languages?
  • Is there a Big Difference Between Male and Female Anatomy?
  • What did One Cell Say to His Sister Cell When She Stepped on His Toe?
  • How does Juliet Maintain a Constant Body Temperature?
  • Why didn’t the Dendrochronologist Ever Get Married?

What did the Femur say to the Patella?

I kneed you.

I Love You GIF by Psyklon - Find & Share on GIPHY

Joke Dissection

This joke is humorous because the femur is the thigh bone and the patella is the knee cap. The femur literally needs the patella to walk. It connects the femur to the rest of the leg. Kneed is a play on the word need. The double context makes it a quick chuckle. Now, one might also say this joke was humerus. But the humerus is an arm bone.

Joke Source

http://www.jokes4us.com/miscellaneousjokes/schooljokes/biologyjokes.html

Which Biochemicals Wash Up on Beaches?

Nucleotides

Scientific Illustration Cell Biology Animation Medical Dna Rna Polymerase Transcription GIF - Find & Share on GIPHY

Joke Dissection

This joke is funny because of the play on words between tides on a beach and the suffix -tides of the biochemical molecule called nucleotides. Nucleotides are the organic molecules that make up DNA. There’s also the added humor that they wouldn’t wash up on beaches.

But, technically, if we put on our lab coats and act like sticklers of science, nucleotides do wash up on beaches in the form of organic life. There are millions of microorganisms that live in the ocean, and there are also nucleotides in the various parts of living things that wash up on the shore.

Joke Source

https://www.buzzfeed.com/kellyoakes/biology-jokes

What Is Blood’s Message to the World?

B Positive.

Evolution Thumbs Up GIF - Find & Share on GIPHY

Joke Dissection

This joke makes our list of funniest biology jokes because it has multiple levels. There’s the fact that B positive is a blood type. and it is a play on the phrase, “Be Positive.”

It’s also funny to imagine your blood being super optimistic and sweet considering how little we see of it. Giving it that personality gives it that extra level of humor.

Also if you’re a fan of dark humor, B positive blood is super rare. The argument could be made that optimists are even rarer.

Joke Source

http://www.jokes4us.com/miscellaneousjokes/schooljokes/biologyjokes.html

What do You Call a Member of the Financial Staff of the Faculty of Biology?

A buy-ologist.

Shopping GIF - Find & Share on GIPHY

Joke Dissection

This joke is funny because it’s a play on the word biologist. Not just any biologist but the person who manages the money for biology, which would make them a buyer. Are dad biology jokes a thing?

Joke Source

http://laffgaff.com/biology-jokes-puns-and-one-liners/

Why are Men Sexier than Women?

You can’t spell sexy without a ‘xy’

Sexy Homer Simpson GIF - Find & Share on GIPHY

Joke Dissection

This joke is funny on multiple levels. Now this joke has a nice build up that gets you thinking it’s talking about sexual reproduction. But it’s talking about sex as in the biological sex of someone.

Cis-gendered men are born male because of their XY chromosomes. Cis-gendered women have XX chromosomes.

This joke also sounds like a cheesy pickup line you would hear from a sketchy character, but instead, it’s biologically informative.

Joke Source

https://www.quickfunnyjokes.com/biology.html

What Do You Call a Microbiologist Who Has Visited 30 Different Countries and Speaks 6 Languages?

A man of many cultures

Petri Dish GIF - Find & Share on GIPHY

Joke Dissection

This is one of our favorite biology jokes because it’s a play on the world of microbiologists. Microbiologists need to get cultures in order to study the colonies of bacteria, protozoans, or other microorganisms.

Joke Source

https://www.quickfunnyjokes.com/biology.html

Is There a Big Difference Between Male and Female Anatomy?

Yes, a vas deferens.

Good One Lol GIF by Chicks on the Right - Find & Share on GIPHY

Joke Dissection

This is one of our favorite biology jokes! It’s so hilarious because of the solid wordplay. Vas deferens is a play on vast difference. But literally, one of the biggest differences between male and female anatomy is the vas deferens. The vas deferens are the ducts that lead sperm cells from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts.

Joke Source

https://www.buzzfeed.com/kellyoakes/biology-jokes

What Did One Cell Say to His Sister Cell When She Stepped on His Toe?

Mitosis.

Redux GIF - Find & Share on GIPHY

Joke Dissection

This is a great biology joke because it covers the basics. Mitosis is how cells replicate. One cell forms two sister cells. But it also brings in the element of two sisters fighting.

So if one sister steps on another sister’s toes she might say “My toesies.” Which sounds like mitosis. It’s also funny to picture two cells bickering like sisters.

Joke Source

http://laffgaff.com/biology-jokes-puns-and-one-liners/

How Does Juliet Maintain a Constant Body Temperature?

Romeostasis.

No Way Lol GIF by Rosanna Pansino - Find & Share on GIPHY

Joke Dissection

This isn’t just one of the funniest biology jokes, but it brings in some Shakespeare and literature. Literary references can be funny, too. Homeostasis is how animals maintain their internal temperature and the equilibrium of their body. “Romeo & Juliet” is one of the most popular love stories of all time.

Joke Source

http://laffgaff.com/biology-jokes-puns-and-one-liners/

Why Didn’t the Dendrochronologist Ever Get Married?

Because he only dated trees

Tree Hugger GIF - Find & Share on GIPHY

Joke Dissection

A dendrochronologist is a person who studies the lifespan of trees. They literally date trees. But it would be sad to imagine a single, lonely scientist only dating trees. This joke is not just a super deep reference, it also is a play on words.

You also imagine the sad picture of a lonely dendrologist studying their trees but, surprise, it’s about what they literally do.

Joke Source

https://www.buzzfeed.com/kellyoakes/biology-jokes

Now it may be a while before you are touring with Kevin Hart. But you will definitely make your professor laugh with these great biology jokes. Not only can they help you ace your exam, but you’ll also put breathing more life into life science.

What Is Osmosis in Biology? Understanding How Solvents Break the Barrier

Are you getting ready for your first biology class? Or are you trying to shake off the cobwebs and remember your biology from years ago? Either way, you may be asking, what is osmosis in biology?

We want to answer this question in a way that is thorough and understandable at the same time. Dust off your old textbook and put on your reading glasses as you find answers to the question, “What is osmosis in biology?”

What Is Osmosis In Biology?

Osmosis is a type of diffusion. In biology, it is related to cells. Osmosis happens when a solvent flows through a cell membrane, to balance the concentration of a solute — such as salt. If water is a solvent, it will be affected by the amount of salt (solute) that it contains.

Understanding Diffusion

Diffusion happens when molecules move from a highly concentrated area to a less concentrated region. Solids, liquids, and gasses can all diffuse.

When a liquid such as water diffuses in cellular biology, it crosses a semipermeable membrane to balance the concentrations of substances within the cells. As water flows in or out of a cell, the concentration of solutes affects its travel.

Semipermeable Membranes

To answer the question, what is osmosis in biology, we have to understand semipermeable membranes.

Semipermeable membranes are membranes that allow specific molecules or solvents to pass through by diffusion. Every cell in the human body has a cellular membrane, and they are semipermeable.

That word breaks down: “semi” in this biology word means “partly”, and “permeable” means “able to be passed through, or permeated.” So, semipermeable membrane means a membrane partially able to be crossed.

Some things can pass through, and others cannot.

Osmosis happens as solvents pass into and out of the cell, crossing that semipermeable membrane.

Osmosis in Plants and Animals

Plant cells need more water than animal cells. Plants have thicker cell walls that can contain more solution before bursting. For that reason, plants can thrive with the diffusion of hypotonic solutions.

Hypotonic solutions have a much higher ratio of solvent to solute. Hypotonic solutions can make animal cells burst; animal cells have thinner cell walls than plant cells.

Isotonic solutions are much better for diffusion in animal cells. Isotonic solutions contain equal amounts of solvent and solute. Conversely, isotonic solutions will leave plants drooping and unhealthy.

Did you ever hear of someone pouring salt on a slug when they were a child? Hopefully not; but if you did you know the slug shriveled up and essentially disappeared. That is because the water left the slug’s cells in an attempt to balance the concentration of salt outside the cells.

That is osmosis in action.

Examples of Osmosis

Try it at home! If you are looking for an example of osmosis you can easily try at home, and you have some lettuce in your fridge (or any leafy green like kale or spinach) that has become wilted try this experiment:

Types of Solutions

test tube

image source: pixabay.com

Every solution has a solvent and a solute. When you buy contact lens solution, you are essentially buying saltwater; water is the solvent and salt is the solution. The same is basically true of your tears.

Solutions

To answer the question, what is osmosis in biology, we have to understand the types of solutions in biology. Solutions include isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic.

Iso means “equal.”

Isotonic solutions have equal amounts of solutes inside and outside the cell. Therefore, isotonic solutions have no net movement because the concentration is already equal.

“Hypo” means “below” or “lower.”

Hypotonic solutions have lower concentrations of solutes outside of the cell than inside. This causes osmosis as solvents enter the cell to even the concentration.

Hyper means “high” or “above.”

Hypertonic solutions have higher concentrations of solutes outside the cell causing osmosis as solvents exit the cell to balance the concentration.

Osmosis Applications and Uses

We asked, what is osmosis in biology, and a logical follow-up question is, what are the applications of osmosis?

Another easy osmosis experiment to try at home:

You need two glass or ceramic cereal-sized bowls, one large carrot or two “baby” carrots, salt, and water.

  1. Pour water into both bowls, sufficient to cover the carrot(s).
  2. Stir salt into one of the bowls until it stops dissolving (hot water will dissolve the salt faster, but let it cool to room temp before adding the carrot).
  3. Place a baby carrot, or half of your large carrot, in both bowls.
  4. Wait: set a timer for one hour, and check your carrots at intervals throughout the day.

We can see something interesting when we drop a carrot into a bowl of saltwater. Within hours the carrot will have become a limp, orange piece of ribbon.

Why? Because the water left the carrot to balance the high concentration of salt surrounding the carrot.

Have you ever watched a suspense movie where the stranded travelers on a desert island are longing for something to drink and one wise traveler warns the others, “Do not drink the ocean water!” A diet of ocean water would leave your cells void of water as it traveled to counteract the salt.

Medicine

Noting the effect of osmosis on our cells, consider the role of osmosis in medicine. Our red blood cells are the giver of life to many who have undergone blood transfusions. In the meantime, red blood cells are stored in an isotonic solution. Remember the solution types?

An isotonic solution is measured to balance the concentration of solutes inside and outside the cells. If the blood cells were stored in a hypotonic or hypertonic solution, the cells would either lose their water or be overtaken by water. Either way, lives could be lost.

A similar phenomenon happens when medicine is received intravenously. If the medicine within the IV solution took on too much solution or lost too much solution, it would not achieve its intended purpose.

Fruits

Have you ever eaten a dehydrated peach chip? Or strawberry chip? Fruits are dehydrated and preserved through osmosis.

Fruits are made primarily of water, so as osmosis causes the water to leave the fruit, it becomes much less likely to spoil

Meat

The opposite is true of meats. Think of the days before refrigerators and ice boxes. How did people preserve their meat? They covered it with salt.

Why did they do that? Unlike fruits that are dehydrated, meats are preserved through drawing solvent into the meat. As the solvent enters, it brings the solute (salt) with it to prevent easy access for bacteria. Salt creates a hypertonic environment that is lethal to bacteria cells.

The Other Side of the Coin

Remember the folks on the desert island? While osmosis could lead to their death through the consumption of saltwater, osmosis could also be their best friend. Since osmosis is a two-way street, it flows into and out of cells depending on concentration levels, it can actually be used to turn saltwater into something salt-free and drinkable.

While the stranded folks wouldn’t have the proper tools to reverse osmosis on the desert island, it is not impossible for someone with an understanding of science and osmosis.

Basically, the pressure is created to push water from highly concentrated areas into an area away from the salt. Today, small units can actually be purchased to reverse osmosis and create safe drinking water.

Here’s an example of a large unit, used in Australia, to clean saltwater for drinking:

Conclusion

water
image source: pexels.com

What is osmosis in biology? Hopefully, you can now answer that question with some thoroughness.

Osmosis is a type of diffusion that happens when a solvent moves through a semipermeable membrane. In biology, water moves through our cells based on the concentration or ratio of solvent (water) to solute (salt).

Semipermeable membranes allow some solutions to pass through, meaning cells can take on too much water or lose too much water. If a cell is in a solution more concentrated than itself (hypertonic), water will enter the cell to balance the high concentration of salt without the cell.

Osmosis also plays a key role in carrying nutrients across the cell membrane. Likewise, waste is escorted out of the cell. Osmosis allows the roots of trees and plants to get the water and nutrients they need to grow strong and healthy.

In return, the plants feed us, either directly or by sustaining the herd animals we eventually eat. Plants rely on osmosis to live, and people rely on plants to live.

Aside from plants, osmosis also is crucial to man’s survival because it expels toxins and waste from our systems.

Hopefully, you have an understanding of osmosis as you move ahead in your biology class or as you reflect on your biology class from many years ago. Osmosis in biology is more than a scientific principle in an old textbook; it is a lifeline for both plants and animals.

You can look around you each day and see it at work, from tall trees in your backyard to patients recovering in the hospital with an IV feeding their veins. Practical examples of osmosis range from accident victims receiving emergency blood transfusions to little kids pouring salt on slugs.

Take note of the osmosis that happens in front of you each day and be amazed by the science all around you.

Featured image: pixabay.com

From Water to Land: 10 Amazing Types Of Amphibians

There are nearly 8,000 types of amphibians, including some of the most unusual and exciting creatures found on land and water.

About two million species of animals inhabit Planet Earth. More than that, scientists discover and categorize about 10,000 other new species every year. Animals are broken down into classes which include vertebrates and invertebrates, or animals with or without spines.

Amphibians belong to the vertebrate class along with birds, fish, mammals, and reptiles. All amphibians are cold-blooded, meaning they cannot generate body heat on their own. For that reason, they must rely on their environment to keep them cold or warm enough for survival.

Going further, most amphibians undergo a metamorphosis from a juvenile to an adult form. For example, frogs begin as tadpoles with gills and a tail. As they mature, they develop lungs. Over time, four legs replace most types of amphibians tails.

The Types of Amphibians

Amphibian species include three subgroups or orders. Firstly, there is the Order Anura which includes about 6,500 species of frogs and toads.

Secondly, the Order Caudata or Urodela includes about 680 species of newts and salamanders. Thirdly, Order Apoda or Gymnophiona, includes about 200 species of caecilians.

Frogs and Toads

Types of amphibians: European Common Frog (Rana temporaria) & European Toad (Bufo bufo) on a grassy patch of soil
European Common Frog (Rana temporaria) & European Toad (Bufo bufo): Image CC by 2.0 Generic, by Thomas Brown, via Wikipedia Commons

Frogs and toads typically have short bodies, webbed fingers and toes, and no tails. And, they usually have bulging eyes.

Newts and salamanders

yellow-spotted salamander, an amphibian, on a white background
Spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum): Image CC by 2.0, by Brian Gratwicke, via Wikipedia Commons

Newts and salamanders look similar to lizards and have short legs, skinny bodies, and long tails. Surprisingly, salamanders and newts have the remarkable ability to re-grow lost limbs and tails.

Caecilians

Caecilian: one of the types of amphibian with eggs in wet soil
Presumed Microcaecilia dermatophaga mother with eggs: Image CC by A 2.5 Generic, by Wilkinson M, Sherratt E, Starace F, Gower DJ (2013), via Wikipedia Commons

Caecilians don’t have any legs and resemble worms or snakes. That is because they mostly live underground, or in the substrate under streams. As a result, they have strong skulls and pointed noses to help them burrow through mud and dirt.

Fun Facts About Types of Amphibians

Amphibians are an evolutionary link between water-dwelling animals such as fish and land-dwelling animals such as mammals. Let’s be honest, they are some of the most fascinating animals on Planet Earth.

For example, amphibians have extremely primitive lungs. However, they have thin, moist skin that absorbs limited amounts of oxygen. So, you could say some types of amphibians breathe through their skin.

Another exciting fact about them, amphibians are carnivores and predators. But, they cannot chew their food. So, they swallow their prey whole.

Amphibians are also one of the planet’s most endangered animal species. It is believed that nearly half of the world’s amphibians are threatened species. That’s due to a combination of factors, including habitat loss, pollution, and climate change.

10 Amazing Types of Amphibians

Amphibians include some of the most amazing and unusual vertebrates found on earth. Much like their ancestors, most of them stick close to water.

We gathered a collection of photos of 10 of the most exciting types of amphibians currently roaming the earth, below. Then, we included a brief introduction to each one.

1. Axolotl

The axolotl is a type of salamander that is native to central Mexico. Unlike many other types of amphibians, axolotl larvae do not undergo metamorphosis when they reach maturity. As a result, they retain their gills, and tails, and are entirely aquatic throughout their life cycle.

photograph of an axolotl under wooden structure in a tank - one of the types of amphibian
Types of amphibians: Axolotl. Image via Instagram.

2. Fire Salamander

Fire salamanders are native to the forests of central and southern Europe. These types of amphibians stay near to ponds and streams, which they rely on for breeding. Another cool fact, they are active both night and day.

photograph of a fire salamander - a type of amphibian
Fire Salamander. Image via Instagram.

3. Golden Toad

The golden toad was native to the tropical mountain regions of Costa Rica, known as montane cloud forests. Sadly, golden toads are one of many types of amphibians thought to be extinct since they have not been seen since 1989.

photograph of a golden toad - a type of amphibian
Golden Toad. Image via Instagram.

4. Green Tree Frog

Green tree frogs are native to New Guinea and Australia. Their colors range from brown to green, depending on the surrounding air temperature. These are one of the most abundant types of amphibians dwelling in trees.

photograph of a green tree frog - a type of amphibian
Green Tree Frog. Image via Instagram.

5. Hellbender

Hellbenders are native to wetlands of Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. However, they are sometimes located in smaller numbers in the surrounding states. Sadly, hellbenders join other types of amphibians on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

photograph of a hellbender - a type of amphibian
Hellbender. Image via Instagram.

6. Luristan Newt

These black and white spotted newts are native to the Luristan Province of Iran. While they look like cows, they are clearly amphibians. The Luristan newt is listed as “critically endangered” on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. However, they are currently protected under Iranian law.

photograph of a black and white spotted luristan newt - a type of amphibian
Luristan Newt. Image via Instagram.

7. Poison Dart Frog

The poison dart frog is native to the subtropical and tropical regions of South America. They can also be found in Central America. Bright colored dart frogs are extremely poisonous. However, dart frogs with cryptic or dull coloring have nominal toxicity. In fact, some are not toxic at all.

photograph of a poison dart frog - a type of amphibian
Poison Dart Frog. Image via Instagram.

8. Red-Eyed Tree Frog

The red-eyed tree frog is native to the Neotropical rainforests of Mexico and Central America. In addition to their bulging red eyes, these tree frogs have webbed orange feet and blue and yellow flanks. Luckily, due to their large number, they are listed as “least concerned” by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

photograph of a red-eyed tree frog - a type of amphibian
Red-Eyed Tree Frog. Image via Instagram.

9. Endemic Tailed Caecilian

The endemic tailed caecilian is native to the tropical regions of Sri Lanka. Resembling a giant earthworm, endemic tailed caecilians range in size from 9 inches to nearly 16 inches. Additionally, the endemic tailed caecilian is listed as vulnerable by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

photograph of a sri lankan endemic tailed caecilian - a type of amphibian
Sri Lankan Endemic Tailed Caecilian. Image via Instagram.

10. Tiger Salamander

The tiger salamander is native to the mountainous and lowland regions of the United States and Mexico. Unlike other types of amphibians, they tend to avoid water. Additionally, they can grow to lengths of 12 inches and larger.

photograph of a tiger salamander - a type of amphibian
Tiger Salamander. Image via Instagram.

What We Learned About the Types of Amphibians

We hope you enjoyed our article and accompanying photos of amazing and unique types of amphibians.

You have seen our favorite types of amphibians. Now we want to know about your faves. Using the comments section, let us know any unusual types of amphibians you would like to see included in future articles.

Featured image: A collage of various amphibians CC by ASA 3.0 Unported, by Various Artists: File:Litoria phyllochroa.JPG, File:Seymouria1.jpg, File:Notophthalmus viridescensPCCA20040816-3983A.jpg, File:Dermophis mexicanus.jpg, via Wikimedia Commons