DNA & Protein Synthesis Chapter 10 Worksheet


    DNA & Protein Synthesis


Section 10-1 DNA

1. What does DNA stand for?

2. What is DNA’s primary function?

3. What is the function of proteins?

4. What are the repeating subunits called that make up DNA?

5. Name the 3 parts of a DNA nucleotide.

6. Sketch and label a DNA nucleotide.

7. Name the 4 nitrogen bases on DNA.

8. What is the difference between a purine & a pyrimidine?

9. Name 2 purines.

10. Name 2 pyrimidines.

11.Who is responsible for determining the structure of the DNA molecule & in what year was this done?

12. The model of DNA is known as a ____________________________ because it is composed of two ___________________ chains wrapped around each other.

13. What makes up the sides of a DNA molecule?

14. What makes up the “steps” of a DNA molecule?

15. How did Rosalind Franklin contribute to determining the structure of DNA?

16. What type of bonds holds the DNA bases together? Are they strong or weak bonds?

17. What makes up the “backbone” of the DNA molecule?

18. On DNA, a ____________________ base will always pair with a __________________ base.

19. What is the most common form of DNA found in organisms?

20. How many base pairs are in a full turn or twist of a DNA molecule?

21. Name the complementary base pairs on DNA.

22. How many hydrogen bonds link cytosine & guanine? adenine & thymine?

23. How does the nucleotide sequence in one chain of DNA compare with the other chain of DNA?

24. Why must DNA be able to make copies of itself?

25. Define DNA replication.

26. What is the first step that must occur in DNA replication?

27. What acts as the template in DNA replication?

28. What is a replication fork?

29. What enzymes help separate the 2 strands of nucleotides on DNA? What bonds do they break?

30. What is the function of DNA polymerases?

31. ____________________ are joined to replicating strands of DNA by ________________ bonds.

32. If the sequence of nucleotides on the original DNA strand was A – G – G – C – T – A, what would be the nucleotide sequence on the complementary strand of DNA?

33. Does replication of DNA begin at one end and proceed to the other? Explain.

34. Why does DNA replication take place at many places on the molecule simultaneously?

35. When replication is complete, how do the 2 new DNA molecules compare to each other & the original DNA molecule?

36. Is DNA replicated (copied) before or after cell division?

37. Sketch & label DNA replication. (Figure 10-5, page 188)

38. What is the error rate in DNA replication? What helps lower this error rate to 1 in 1 billion nucleotides?

39. What is a mutation?

40. Name several things that can cause DNA mutations.


Section 10-2 RNA


41. What sugar is found on DNA?

42. What base is missing on RNA, & what other base replaces it?

43. Uracil will pair with what other on DNA?

44. Is RNA double or single stranded?

45. Name the 3 types of RNA and tell the shape of each.

46. Which type of RNA copies DNA’s instructions in the nucleus?

47. Which type of RNA is most abundant?

48. What does tRNA transport?

49. What 2 things make up ribosomes?

50. Define transcription.

51. In what part of a cell are proteins made?

52. What is RNA polymerase & tell its function.

53. What are promoters?

54. Where does RNA polymerase bind to the DNA it is transcribing?

55.What makes the beginning of a new gene on DNA in eukaryotes?

56. What do promoters mark the beginning of on prokaryotic DNA?

57. When a promoter binds to DNA, What happens to the double helix?

58. Are both strands of DNA copied during transcription?

59. As RNA polymerase moves along the DNA template strand, what is being added?

60. What bases pair with each other during transcription?

61. What is the termination signal?

62. What happens when RNA polymerase reaches the termination signal?

63. What are the products of transcription called?

64. Transcripts are actually ____________________________ molecules.

65. In transcription, ________________________’s instructions for making a protein

are copied by _______________________.

66. Which RNA molecules are involved in the synthesis (making) of a protein?

67. What happens to the newly made mRNA molecule following transcription in the nucleus?


Section 10-3 Protein Synthesis


68. What makes up proteins, what are the subunits called, & what bonds them together?

69. How many different kinds of amino acids make up proteins?

70. What determines how protein polypeptides fold into 3-dimensional structures?

71. Why does a protein need a 3-dimensional structure?

72. What is the genetic code & why is it important?

73. What is a codon & what does each codon code for?

74. How many codons exist?

75. Name the amino acid coded for by each of these codons:

a. UUA

b. AUU

c. UGU

d. AAA

e. GAG

f. UAA

76. What codon starts protein synthesis?

77. What codons stop protein synthesis?

78. Proteins are synthesized (made) at what organelle in the cytosol?

79. Sketch and label a tRNA molecule & tell its function.

80. Define translation & tell how it starts.

81. Where are amino acids found in a cell & how are they transported?

82. What is an anticodon & where is it found on tRNA?

83. What codon on mRNA would bind with these anticodons: (use table 10-1, page 194)

a. AAA

b. GGA

c. UAC

d. CGU

84. What are ribosomes made of and in what 2 places can they be found in a cell?

85. What is the difference between proteins made by free ribosomes & those made by attached, membrane proteins on the ER?

86. How many binding sites are found on the ribosomes and what does each site hold?

87. To start making a protein or _________________________________, a ribosome attaches to the ______________________________ codon on the __________________ transcript.

88. The start codon, AUG, pairs with what anticodon on a tRNA molecule?

89. What amino acid does the start codon always carry?

90. What type of bonds are the ones that attach amino acids to each other in a growing polypeptide?

91. __________________________ are linked to make proteins as a ______________________ moves along the mRNA transcript.

92. What ends translation?

93. Can more than one ribosome at a time translate an mRNA transcript? Explain.

94. What determines the primary structure of a protein?

95. What would the translation of these mRNA transcripts produce?



Genetic Problems Solutions Campbell Ch14


Genetics Problems Campbell
1. A man with hemophilia (a recessive , sex-linked condition has a daughter of normal phenotype. She marries a man who is normal for the trait. What is the probability that a daughter of this mating will be a hemophiliac? A son? If the couple has four sons, what is the probability that all four will be born with hemophilia?



2. Pseudohypertropic muscular dystrophy is a disorder that causes gradual deterioration of the muscles. It is seen only in boys born to apparently normal parents and usually results in death in the early teens. (a) Is pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy caused by a dominant or recessive allele? (b) Is its inheritance sex-linked or autosomal? (c) How do you know? Explain why this disorder is always seen in boys and never girls.


3. Red-green color blindness is caused by a sex-linked recessive allele. A color-blind man marries a woman with normal vision whose father was color-blind. (a) What is the probability that they will have a color-blind daughter? (b) What is the probability that their first son will be color-blind? (Note: the two questions are worded a bit differently.)


4. A wild-type fruit fly (heterozygous for gray body color and normal wings was mated with a black fly with vestigial wings. The offspring had the following phenotypic distribution: wild type, 778; black-vestigial, 785; black-normal, 158; gray-vestigial, 162. What is the recombination frequency between these genes for body color and wing type.


5. In another cross, a wild-type fruit fly (heterozygous for gray body color and red eyes) was mated with a black fruit fly with purple eyes. The offspring were as follows: wild-type, 721; black-purple, 751; gray-purple, 49; black-red, 45. (a) What is the recombination frequency between these genes for body color and eye color? (b) Following up on this problem and problem 4, what fruit flies (genotypes and phenotypes) would you mate to determine the sequence of the body color, wing shape, and eye color genes on the chromosomes?


6. A space probe discovers a planet inhabited by creatures who reproduce with the same hereditary patterns as those in humans. Three phenotypic characters are height (T = tall, t = dwarf), hearing appendages (A = antennae, a = no antennae), and nose morphology (S = upturned snout, s = downturned snout). Since the creatures were not “intelligent” Earth scientists were able to do some controlled breeding experiments, using various heterozygotes in testcrosses. For a tall heterozygote with antennae, the offspring were tall-antennae, 46; dwarf-antennae 7; dwarf-no antennae 42; tall-no antennae 5. For a heterozygote with antennae and an upturned snout, the offspring were antennae-upturned snout 47; antennae-downturned snout, 2; no antennae-downturned snout, 48: no antennae-upturned snout 3. Calculate the recombination frequencies for both experiments.


7. Using the information from problem 6, a further testcross was done using a heterozygote for height and nose morphology. The offspring were tall-upturned nose, 40; dwarf-upturned nose, 9; dwarf-downturned nose, 42; tall-downturned nose, 9. Calculate the recombination frequency from these data; then use your answer from problem 6 to determine the correct sequence of the three linked genes.


8. Imagine that a geneticist has identified two disorders that appear to be caused by the same chromosomal defect and are affected by genomic imprinting: blindness and numbness of the limbs. A blind woman (whose mother suffered from numbness) has four children, two of whom, a son and daughter, have inherited the chromosomal defect. If this defect works like Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, what disorders do this son and daughter display? What disorders would be seen in their sons and daughters?


9. What pattern of inheritance would lead a geneticist to suspect that an inherited disorder of cell metabolism is due to a defective mitochondrial gene?


10. An aneuploid person is obviously female, but her cells have two Barr bodies. what is the probable complement of sex chromosomes in this individual?


11. Determine the sequence of genes along a chromosome based on the following recombination frequencies: A-B, 8 map units; A-C, 28 map units; A-D, 25 map units; B-C , 20 map units; B-D, 33 map units.


12. About 5% of individuals with Downs syndrome are the result of chromosomal translocation. In most of these cases, one copy of chromosome 21 becomes attached to chromosome 14. How does this translocation lead to children with Down syndrome?


13. Assume genes A and B are linked and are 50 map units apart. An individual heterozygous at both loci is crossed with an individual who is homozygous recessive at both loci. (a) What percentage of the offspring will show phenotypes resulting from crossovers? (b) If you did not know genes A and B were linked, how would you interpret the results of this cross?


14. In Drosophila, the gene for white eyes and the gene that produces “hairy” wings have both been mapped to the same chromosome and have a crossover frequency of 1.5%. A geneticist doing some crosses involving these two mutant characteristics noticed that in a particular stock of flies, these two genes assorted independently; that is they behaved as though they were on different chromosomes. What explanation can you offer for this observation?




Campbell Chapter 14 Gen Prob 1

Molecular Genetics: Problem 1
A man with hemophilia (a recessive , sex-linked condition has a daughter of normal phenotype. She marries a man who is normal for the trait. What is the probability that a daughter of this mating will be a hemophiliac? A son? If the couple has four sons, what is the probability that all four will be born with hemophilia?


A man with hemophilia is XhY where h = hemophilia gene and H = the normal gene.
Any daughter with normal phenotype whose father has hemophilia will be a carrier.

Her genotype must be:

We can use a Punnett square to show the probability of a daughter or son having hemophilia.

daughter x normal man

A. If the daughter marries a normal male the probability of a daughter having hemophilia is zero.

B. About 50% of male children would have hemophilia (Boxes 2 and 4 above)

C. The probability that all 4 sons have inherited hemophilia would be: 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 or 1/16.


Genetic Disorder Project Presentation


Genetic Disorders to PresentInternet resources to help in researchRubric for project
You have been challenged to incorporate your knowledge about cells, cell division, genetics, and DNA to research and present on a specific genetic disorder. You have already completed your basic study about the ideas of genetics and mutations. Now with the information that you have you are being asked to research a specific genetic disorder and give an oral presentation along with creating either a PowerPoint or poster to explain the genetic disorder.

Your multimedia presentation (powerpoint / poster) along with your oral presentation
should include the following points.

  • What is the name of the disorder and what is the history behind the disorder? Who discovered it or/and who have done research on the disease?
  • How is the disorder diagnosed? How does a person receive the disorder? Is it sex-linked? Is it a mutation? Is it due to heredity?
  • You will need to find out all of the signs and symptoms of the given disorder and share these with the class.
  • What types of treatment there are for the disorder?
  • Include a suggested list of readings and/or Internet sources that may be of interest to the class.
  • You are encouraged to share any other information that you feel is relevant that you feel is important for others to know about the genetic disorder.
List of possible Genetic Disorders to Present:
  • Achondroplasia (Dwarfism)
  • Albinism
  • Adrenal hyperplasia
  • Autism/ Asperger syndrome
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)
  • Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
  • Familial Dysautonomia
  • Gardner syndrome (intestinal polyposis)
  • Gaucher’s Disease
  • Hemophilia
  • Huntington’s Disease
  • Jacobsen Syndrome
  • Klinefelters Syndrome
  • Klippel-Feil Syndrome
  • Leukodystrophy
  • Lou Gehrig’s Disease (ALS)
  • Marfan Syndrome
  • Moebius Syndrome
  • Polycystic Kidney Disease
  • Progeria
  • Proteus Syndrome
  • Retinoblastoma
  • Rett’s Syndrome
  • Spinocerebellar Ataxia
  • Tay-Sachs Disease
  • Tourette Syndrome
  • Turner Syndrome
List of internet resources that may be helpful to you in creating your presentation:

Yahoo – Genetic Disorders http://dir.yahoo.com/Health/Diseases_and_Conditions/Genetic_Disorders/.
Site explains several different disorders and contains links to all of the different types of genetic disorders.

Genetic & Rare Conditions Sitehttp://www.kumc.edu/gec/support/.
links to different types of disorders in alphabetical order.

What can our chromosomes tell us? http://biology.about.com/science/biology/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/.
A site that talks about karyotyping of genotypes.

Genetic Disorder Library
To learn more about different genetic disorders, browse through the Genetic Disorder Library.

A Genetics Glossary http://biology.about.com/science/biology/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://helios.bto.ed.ac.uk/bto/glossary/index.html
A basic genetic glossary.

Genetics Education Center http://www.kumc.edu/gec/.
Seeks to help educate people about genetics.

The National Human Genome Research Institute http://www.nhgri.nih.gov/.
Explains about the human genome project.

Department of Energy – Human Genome Project Information http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis/.
Provides a lot of information about the human genome project.

A Gene Map of the Human Genome http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/science96/.
You can see the mapping of several different chromosomes found within the body.

Learning about the Human Genome Project and Genetics through the World Wide Web http://www.kumc.edu/gec/hgpwww.html.
Looks at the ethical issues of genetic research.

Understanding Gene Testinghttp://www.accessexcellence.org/ae/AE/AEPC/NIH/index.html.
This site talks of how genes are linked to disease and how a gene creates a genetic disorder.

Basics of DNA Fingerprintinghttp://www.biology.washington.edu/fingerprint/dnaintro.html.
Explains the basic understanding of DNA fingerprinting.

What is Genetic Testing? http://www.lbl.gov/Education/ELSI/Frames/genetic-testing-f.html.
Shows the basics of genetic testing and talks about the ethical issues of that happen due to genetic testing.


Rubric for Evaluation of Genetic Disorder Presentation.
5 points
10 Points
15 Points
20 Points
Oral Presentation Quality of Information
Bare minimums have been accomplished. Little understanding about the genetic disorder delivered in oral presentation. Could only read slides with no further understanding.Minimums plus slight extras added. Answered questions from the intro and at least one question posed to them in the process section.All information present and complete. Some problems with flow and delivery. Shows more or less some understanding of knowledge – has minor flaws.Information is well thought out, flows well, all information is completed, Appears to have been practiced, knowledge shown.

Amount of additional Information for reading and websites found and presented

no additional reading lists or websites provided or presented in bibliography.At least 2 web sites or books accessed and verified in presentation and presented in bibliography.At least 4 web sites or books accessed and verified in presentation and presented in bibliography.At least 6 web sites or books accessed and verified in presentation and presented in bibliography.
Organization of presentation
Random information is presentedDisorganized at times.OrganizedOrganized effectively with easy understanding.
Use of class time working on project
Majority of class time was wasted.Half of class time was wasted.Little class time was wasted.No class time was wasted.
Overall Multimedia
Not Completed
Missing Key Component Questions
no graphics.
Spelling errors present
presentation has some flow to it but is choppy.
Easily understood by all. Includes graphics and data tables of information retrieved.Neatly done, organized, proper spelling, allparts included,above and beyond effort.
Information that is presented is aesthetically pleasing to the eye.
Link to printable rubric in word document format

Link to Bibliography Citation Machine




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Writing Lab Notebook Reports



General Instructions:

  1. All labs must be written in pencil and be submitted to the teacher in a spiral notebook.
  2. Always use third person (NO personal pronouns — me, I, you, we, etc.) when writing all parts of a lab report. (USE HE, SHE, THEY, THEIR, THEM, ETC.
  3. The following things should be written clearly in marker on the front cover — “Subject” Lab Notebook, teacher name, student name, period.
  4. Number each page of the spiral notebook in the lower right hand corner.
  5. On Page 1, write the subject, year, student name, class period, and teacher name.
  6. Page 2 should have “Table of Contents” written at the top and two columns, one for “Page” and the other for “Lab Title”.
  7. Begin writing the first lab on page 3 of you notebook. DO NOT WRITE ON THE BACK OF YOUR PAPER!
  9. TITLE and UNDERLINE each section & then begin writing on the NEXT LINE!

Your lab report should be written using the following format: (Be sure to left align & underline headings)

Title (center on top line; on the right of line 2, put date & lab #)
The title should indicate clearly & concisely the subject and scope of the report.

Introduction – 20 points (PARAGRAPH FORM)

  • The introduction should give background information about the experiment.
  • It should also state the purpose of the investigation.
  • This section will be two or more paragraphs in length.

Hypothesis – 20 points (SINGLE SENTENCE)

  • The hypothesis should be a single statement telling the exact thing you are trying to prove in your experiment.
  • NEVER write this statement using “first person”. Write the hypothesis in past tense (third person.)

Materials – 5 points (SINGLE SENTENCE)

  • This section should be written in sentence form and name all of the materials and equipment used.
  • Be sure to include specific amounts and concentrations of chemicals used.
  • Start the statement, “The materials used include _____, _____, etc.”

Methods (Procedure)- 5 points (STEPS; NUMBER)

  • This section includes the step-by-step procedures used.
  • The procedure should be so thorough that someone else could use your listed materials and procedures to conduct the same experiment and get the same results.

Results (Data & Questions) – 20 points

  • All data should be collected and organized in a logical order. Results should be illustrated as charts, tables, graphs, &/or diagrams. All graphs should include a title, the independent variable labeled on the horizontal axis, and the dependent variable labeled on the vertical axis.
  • All lab questions and answers should be included also with this section. ( NUMBER & UNDERLINE the questions & then write, but DON’T UNDERLINE the answers)

Error Analysis

  • Include any important factors that you think may have actually affected your results.

Discussion and Conclusion – 30 points

Discussion is the most important part of your report, because here, you show that you understand the experiment beyond the simple level of completing it.!!

  • This is where you give a detailed account of what happened in the experiment.
  • Explain all observations and results in your experiment.
  • Analyze and interpret why these results were obtained.
  • Be sure to tell the significance or meaning of the results.
  • Restate the original hypothesis and explain whether the experiment succeeded. If the hypothesis was not correct, you should analyze why the results were not as predicted.
  • Explain experimental errors that appear in the results.


Additional help with Conclusions


Click here for Notebook paper Layout of Lab